[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of severe malaria, and rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria is an uncommon cause. We report an unusual case of severe falciparum malaria with dengue coinfection complicated by AKI due to myoglobinemia and myoglobinuria while maintaining a normal creatine kinase (CK). CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year old Indonesian man presented with fever, chills, and rigors with generalized myalgia and was diagnosed with falciparum malaria based on a positive blood smear. This was complicated by rhabdomyolysis with raised serum and urine myoglobin but normal CK. Despite rapid clearance of the parasitemia with intravenous artesunate and aggressive hydration maintaining good urine output, his myoglobinuria and acidosis worsened, progressing to uremia requiring renal replacement therapy. High-flux hemodiafiltration effectively cleared his serum and urine myoglobin with recovery of renal function. Further evaluation revealed evidence of dengue coinfection and past infection with murine typhus. CONCLUSION: In patients with severe falciparum malaria, the absence of raised CK alone does not exclude a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Raised serum and urine myoglobin levels could lead to AKI and should be monitored. In the event of myoglobin-induced AKI requiring dialysis, clinicians may consider using high-flux hemodiafiltration instead of conventional hemodialysis for more effective myoglobin removal. In Southeast Asia, potential endemic coinfections that can also cause or worsen rhabdomyolysis, such as dengue, rickettsiosis and leptospirosis, should be considered.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection as an aetiology of acute viral myocarditis is rare, with only few cases reported in the literature to date. Here we report a case of fulminant HPIV-2 myocarditis in a 47 year-old man with viraemia who was successfully treated with intravenous ribavirin and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). There are currently no recommendations on the treatment of HPIV myocarditis. We are, to our knowledge, the first to report a patient with a documented HPIV-2 viraemia that subsequently cleared after the initiation of antiviral therapy. Although it is difficult to definitively attribute the patient's clinical improvement to ribavirin or IVIG alone, our case does suggest that clinicians may wish to consider initiating ribavirin and IVIG in patients with HPIV myocarditis and persistent viraemia not responding to supportive measures alone.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 11/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This was a multicenter, blinded, Phase II study (NCT00880893) conducted in Singapore. The primary objectives were to evaluate the safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) comprising four recombinant, live, attenuated viruses (CYD-TDV) and the dengue virus serotype-specific antibody responses before and 28 d after each vaccination. Participants were randomized 3:1 to receive three doses of CYD-TDV or a control vaccine at 0, 6, and 12 mo. Control vaccine was placebo for the first dose (all ages) and for subsequent doses, licensed hepatitis-A for children (aged 2-11 y) or influenza vaccine for adolescents (12-17 y) and adults (18-45 y). Between April and October 2009, 317 children, 187 adolescents and 696 adults were enrolled. In all age groups, reactogenicity was higher after the first injection of CYD-TDV than after placebo control. Reactogenicity after subsequent CYD-TDV doses was no higher than after the first dose, and tended to be lower or similar to that seen after active control vaccination. Seropositivity rates and geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers (GMTs; 1/dil) against all four dengue virus serotypes increased in all age groups after each of the three CYD-TDV doses. Post-dose 3, 66.5% of all participants were seropositive to all four serotypes, and 87.2% were seropositive to ≥ 3 serotypes; GMTs for all participants ranged from 43.0 against dengue virus serotype 1 to 100 against dengue virus serotype 4. GMTs were higher in children than in adolescents. These results support the continued development of CYD-TDV for the prevention of dengue disease.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 09/2012; 8(9).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza can produce significant complications in immunocompromised persons.
We studied the effects of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1) infection on solid organ transplant recipients in our hospital, with emphasis on clinical information, duration of viral culture positivity, polymerase chain reaction positivity, effects of oseltamivir therapy, and graft status at 6 months of follow-up.
Twenty-two cases of pH1N1 infection involving 18 renal, two lung, one heart, and one liver transplant recipients were seen from July 14 to September 8, 2009. Their median age was 50.5 years (range 20-70 years); 64% were women, and median time posttransplant was 40 months (range 6-204 months). Common symptoms were fever (86%), cough (77%), sore throat (55%), phlegm (32%), and myalgia (27%). The median duration of symptoms (n=21) and duration of polymerase chain reaction positivity (n=15) were 7 (range 4-13 days) and 8 days (range 4-16 days), respectively. Mean (± SD) duration of symptom resolution (7.4 ± 3.0 vs. 7.8 ± 3.0 days, P=0.76) and viral culture positivity (5.3 ± 2.8 vs. 4.3 ± 3.2 days, P=0.65) did not differ between those who received a 5-day (n=9) or 10-day (n=12) course of oseltamivir. Five patients (22.7%) developed pneumonia with three needing intensive care. Mortality rate was 4.5% (1/22). At 6 months, three graft rejections involving two renal and one lung developed.
Our findings indicate that the pH1N1 infection in solid organ transplant recipients is associated with some degree of morbidity and may affect the function of the transplanted organ. In this nonrandomized comparison, patients treated with 5 days of oseltamivir did not fare worse compared with those who received 10 days.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influenza pandemic has generated much interest in the press and the medical world. We report our experience with 15 cases of severe novel influenza A H1N1 (2009) infections requiring intensive care. The aim of this review is to improve our preparedness for epidemics and pandemics by studying the most severely affected patients.
During the epidemic, hospitals were required to provide data on all confirmed H1N1 cases admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) to the Ministry of Health. We abstracted information from this dataset for this report. To highlight learning points, we reviewed the case notes of, and report, the fi ve most instructive cases.
There were 15 cases admitted to an ICU from July 4, 2009 to August 30, 2009. Two patients died.
The lessons we wish to share include the following: preparedness should include having intermediate-care facilities that also provide single room isolation and skilled nursing abilities, stringent visitor screening should be implemented and influenza may trigger an acute myocardial infarction in persons with risk factors.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 04/2010; 39(4):328-5. · 1.36 Impact Factor