Devin J. Rose

University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States

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Publications (45)117.36 Total impact

  • Jennifer A. Arcila · Steven A. Weier · Devin J. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: The dietary fiber in wheat bran, principally non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), is mostly water-unextractable and is poorly utilized by human gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine the change in water-extractability of NSP in wheat bran upon extrusion and then to determine if extrusion impacts the availability of NSP for fermentation by the fecal microbiota during in vitro fecal fermentation. A secondary objective was to incorporate extruded bran into a product formulation to determine if changes in WE-NSP and NSP fermentation were maintained in a finished product. Bran was extruded using combinations of high or low moisture (15% and 30% wb) and high or low screw speed (120 and 250 rpm). All extrusion conditions resulted in increases in WE-NSP and fecal microbiota short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production upon fermentation compared with unextruded bran. Low screw speed and low moisture resulted in the greatest increase in WE-NSP (3-fold) as well as the highest production of SCFA during fermentation (1.4-fold) compared with unextruded bran. Whole wheat breads containing extruded bran did not show increases in either WE-NSP or SCFA production compared with the control. In conclusion, extrusion of wheat bran increased WE-NSP, which enabled greater fermentability by human fecal microbiota. However, once extruded bran was used in a whole wheat bread formulation the changes in fermentation outcomes were no longer evident.
    Food Research International 05/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.05.005 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Jennifer A. Arcila · Devin J. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: Resistant starch (RS) has shown benefits to gastrointestinal health, but it is present in only small amounts in most grain-based foods. The purpose of this study was to increase RS in whole wheat flour to improve its potential health benefits. Zero to 7 cycles of cooking (20 min, boiling water) and freezing (−18 °C, 23 h) of whole wheat flour in water (1:15 %w/v) were performed. Increasing cooking–freezing cycles increased RS from 1.03 to 8.07% during in vitro starch digestion. During in vitro fecal fermentation, increasing cooking–freezing cycles increased short chain fatty acids, mainly propionate. Increases in butyrate were also noted during the first 8 h of fermentation. All flours resulted in significant increases in Bifidobacterium of >0.5 log during fermentation compared to baseline. Thus, even modest increases in the RS content of whole wheat flour modulated the metabolic activity of gut microbiota to increase production of beneficial metabolites.
    Journal of Functional Foods 01/2015; 12. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.11.023 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two sorghum genotypes (red, tannin; white, non-tannin), were evaluated for their potential use in breakfast cereals. Two levels of whole grain sorghum flour (550 g/kg dry mix or 700 g/kg dry mix) were processed per genotype using a pilot-scale, twin screw extruder. A whole grain oat-based cereal was used as a reference. White sorghum cereals (WSC) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher starch, brightness (L*), and yellowness (b*) than red sorghum cereals (RSC). RSC had higher protein and bulk density than the WSC. Cereals made with 700 g sorghum flour/kg were smaller and denser with lower water solubility and absorption indices than those made with 550 g/kg. In vitro protein digestibility of the RSC (43-58%) was significantly reduced compared with the WSC (69-73%) and the reference sample (72%). WSC with 700 g sorghum flour/kg contained significantly more resistant starch than the RSC cereals and the oat reference (208 g/kg starch versus 81-147 g/kg starch, respectively). Overall acceptability and texture of sorghum cereals did not differ significantly from the oat reference, although appearance and aroma liking were significantly reduced. Therefore, non-tannin sorghum has potential to be used in the breakfast cereal industry with minimal impact on nutritional profile and sensory properties.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 12/2014; 62(1). DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2014.12.051 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Devin J Rose
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    ABSTRACT: The gut microbiota plays important roles in proper gut function and can contribute to or help prevent disease. Whole grains, including oats, constitute important sources of nutrients for the gut microbiota and contribute to a healthy gut microbiome. In particular, whole grains provide NSP and resistant starch, unsaturated TAG and complex lipids, and phenolics. The composition of these constituents is unique in oats compared with other whole grains. Therefore, oats may contribute distinctive effects on gut health relative to other grains. Studies designed to determine these effects may uncover new human-health benefits of oat consumption.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 10/2014; 112 Suppl 2(S2):S44-9. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514002244 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Eric A Decker · Devin J Rose · Derek Stewart
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    ABSTRACT: Oats are a uniquely nutritious food as they contain an excellent lipid profile and high amounts of soluble fibre. However, an oat kernel is largely non-digestible and thus must be utilised in milled form to reap its nutritional benefits. Milling is made up of numerous steps, the most important being dehulling to expose the digestible groat, heat processing to inactivate enzymes that cause rancidity, and cutting, rolling or grinding to convert the groat into a product that can be used directly in oatmeal or can be used as a food ingredient in products such as bread, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and snack bars. Oats can also be processed into oat bran and fibre to obtain high-fibre-containing fractions that can be used in a variety of food products.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 10/2014; 112 Suppl 2(S2):S58-64. DOI:10.1017/S000711451400227X · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Junyi Yang · Devin J. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: Diet influences gut microbiota composition. Therefore, we hypothesized that diet would impact the extent of dietary fiber utilization and the types of metabolic end products produced by the microbiota during in vitro fecal fermentation. By obtaining long-term dietary records from fecal donors, we aimed to determine the correlations between dietary intake variables and dietary fiber degradation and short/branch chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation. Eighteen subjects completed 1-year diet history questionnaires and provided fecal samples that were used for in vitro fermentation of a whole wheat substrate. The percent of dietary fiber fermented was not correlated with nutrient intakes; however, butyrate production was correlated with fecal donor intake of many nutrients of which principal components analysis revealed were mostly contributed by grain-, nut-, and vegetable-based foods. Negative correlations were found for propionate with intake of total carbohydrate, added sugar, and sucrose, and for ammonia and BCFA production with intake of unsaturated fats. Thus, our analysis did not support our first hypothesis: the percent of dietary fiber fermented during in vitro fermentation was not correlated with dietary records. However, production of butyrate, BCFA, ammonia, and to a lesser extent propionate, were correlated with the diet records of fecal donors; thus supporting our second hypothesis. These results suggest that diets high in plant-based foods and are high in unsaturated fats are associated with microbial metabolism that is consistent with host health.
    Nutrition Research 08/2014; 34(9). DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.08.006 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine to role of flake shape on the packing characteristics of popped popcorn. Unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral popcorn flakes, named for the direction of expansion of the popcorn flake, were digitized and packed into a virtual conical frustum-shaped container using a digital packing algorithm to simulate particle packing. Corresponding laboratory experiments were also conducted. Number of flakes required to fill the container agreed between simulated and laboratory experiments (r = 0.996; p < 0.0001) and ranged from about 340 for 50% bilateral +50% multilateral to >600 for 100% unilateral. Statistical modeling revealed 36.9% bilateral +63.1% multilateral would minimize the number of flakes required to fill the container. Packing fraction varied from ρ = 0.14 for 10% unilateral +75% bilateral +15% multilateral to ρ = 0.28 for 100% unilateral shape. These results offer insights into the packing characteristics of irregularly-shaped materials.
    Journal of Food Engineering 04/2014; 127:75–79. DOI:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.11.028 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-pressure hydrothermal treatment of cereal bran results in fragmentation of the cell wall, releasing soluble, non-digestible, feruloylated oligo- and polysaccharides (FOPS), which may be beneficial to gut health. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine treatment temperatures for production of FOPS from maize bran and wheat bran and (2) determine the fermentation properties of partially purified FOPS from maize bran and wheat bran. FOPS were produced by heating bran and water (10%, w/v) in a high-pressure stirred reactor until the slurry reached 160-200 °C (in 10 °C increments). Final temperatures of 190 °C for maize bran and 200 °C for wheat bran resulted in the highest release of FOPS (49 and 50% of starting non-starch polysaccharide, respectively). Partial purification with ion exchange and dialysis resulted in a final product containing 63 and 57% total carbohydrate and 49 and 30% FOPS, respectively (other carbohydrate was starch). Following in vitro digestion (to remove starch), in vitro fermentation revealed that wheat FOPS were more bifidogenic than maize FOPS. However, maize FOPS led to continual production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), resulting in the highest SCFA and butyrate production at the end of the fermentation. In addition, maize FOPS showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than wheat FOPS. This study identified a process to produce FOPS from maize bran and wheat bran and showed that, considering the overall beneficial effects, FOPS from maize bran may exhibit enhanced benefits on gut health compared to those of wheat bran.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2013; 62(1). DOI:10.1021/jf404305y · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to produce wholegrain wheat flour on a laboratory-scale with particle size distributions similar to commercially-milled samples without re-milling the bran. The moisture contents of four hard winter wheat cultivars were adjusted to 7.29–7.98% (by drying), 9.00–10.6% (“as is”), and 15.6% (by tempering) prior to milling into wholegrain flour. The moisture treatments appeared to affect the partitioning of wholegrain flour particles into each of three categories: fine (<600 μm), medium (600–849 μm) and coarse (≥850 μm). When the distributions of particles were grouped into these categories, wholegrain flours made from dried and “as is” wheat fell within the values for commercial wholegrain flours, while that from tempered wheat contained more coarse particles than even the coarsest commercial wholegrain flour. Loaf volumes and crumb firmness were not significantly different between bread made from wholegrain flour that had been produced from dried or “as is” wheat, but loaf volume was significantly lower and bread crumb firmness was significantly higher when wholegrain flour from tempered wheat was used. These results show that wheat may be milled without tempering to produce wholegrain flour with particle size similar to some commercially-milled flours without needing to re-grind the bran.
    Journal of Cereal Science 11/2013; 58(3):420–423. DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2013.08.006 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The freezing rate used in industrial applications may vary for a number of reasons, such as changes in food mass, food composition, and freezing equipment operation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of freezing rates on the microstructure, stability and physicochemical properties of model emulsion-based sauces. Slow freezing (−0.015 °C/min) resulted in a larger mean particle size than fast freezing (−0.11 °C/min), which was attributed to increased fat droplet flocculation and coalescence. The influence of various additives (salt, sugar, gums) on the properties of the sauces was also investigated. The addition of 200 mmol/L NaCl promoted droplet flocculation and phase separation whereas 150 mmol/L sucrose inhibited droplet flocculation and phase separation, and inhibited ice crystal growth. The addition of 0.2% xanthan gum promoted flocculation, but inhibited phase separation and ice crystal growth. Our results are interpreted in terms of the influence of the additives on the phase behavior of water, and the colloidal interactions between the fat droplets. This study provides valuable information about the major factors, i.e., salt and sugar, and influence on the stability of emulsion-based products to freeze–thaw abuses, which has important implications for the development of high quality frozen meals.
    Journal of Food Engineering 11/2013; 119(2):244–253. DOI:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.05.034 · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • Junyi Yang · Ali Keshavarzian · Devin J Rose
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Gut bacteria may influence obesity through the metabolites produced by dietary fiber fermentation (mainly, short-chain fatty acids [SCFA]). Five cereal grain samples (wheat, rye, maize [corn], rice, and oats) were subjected to in vitro digestion and fermentation using fecal samples from 10 obese and nine normal weight people. No significant differences in total SCFA production between the normal weight and obese groups were observed [279 (12) vs. 280 (12), mean (standard error), respectively; P=.935]. However, the obese microbiota resulted in elevated propionate production compared with that of normal weight [24.8(2.2) vs. 17.8(1.9), respectively; P=.008]. Rye appeared to be particularly beneficial among grain samples due to the lowest propionate production and highest butyrate production during fermentation. These data suggest that the dietary fibers from cereal grains affect bacterial metabolism differently in obese and normal weight classes and that certain grains may be particularly beneficial for promoting gut health in obese states.
    Journal of medicinal food 09/2013; 16(9):862-7. DOI:10.1089/jmf.2012.0292 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipolytic activity in whole wheat flour (WWF) is largely responsible for the loss in baking quality during storage. Metal ions affect the activity of seed lipases; however, no previous studies have applied this information to WWF in a way that reduces lipase activity, is practical for commercial manufacture, and uses common food ingredients. NaCl, KCl, Ca-propionate, or FeNa-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeNa-EDTA) were applied to hard red winter (HRW) and hard white spring (HWS) wheats during conditioning as aqueous solutions at concentrations that would be acceptable in baked goods. Salts affected lipase activity to different degrees depending on the type of wheat used. Inhibition was greater in HRW compared with HWS WWF, probably due to higher lipase activity in HRW wheat. In HRW WWF, 1% NaCl (flour weight) reduced hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity and resulted in higher loaf volume and lower firmness than untreated WWF after 24weeks of storage.
    Food Chemistry 09/2013; 140(1-2):204-9. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.071 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of six dietary fibers [pectin, guar gum, inulin, arabinoxylan, β-glucan, and resistant starch] on the human fecal microbiota during in vitro fermentation were determined. Bifidobacterium increased almost 25% on pectin compared with the control; a significant increase in Bifidobacterium adolescentis type-2 was observed on resistant starch. Bacteroides exhibited a positive correlation with propionate/short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (r=0.59, p<0.01), while Ruminococcaceae and Faecalibacterium displayed positive correlations with butyrate/SCFA production (r=0.39, 0.54, p<0.01). A negative correlation was detected between inulin utilization and Subdoligranulum (r=-0.73, p≤0.01), while strong positive relationships were found between β-glucan utilization and Firmicutes (r=0.73, p≤0.01) and resistant starch utilization and Blautia wexlerae (r=0.82, p<0.01). Dietary fibers have specific and unique impacts on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism. These findings provide a rationale for the development of functional ingredients targeted towards a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota.
    Anaerobe 07/2013; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.06.012 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many carbohydrate polymers that have been used as carriers for colon-targeted drugs have shown benefits against colonic diseases. The objectives of this project were to (1) synthesize a derivative of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a drug used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, containing inulin, a carbohydrate polymer that has shown benefits against inflammatory bowel disease; (2) quantify the release of 5-ASA from the conjugate during in vitro digestion and fermentation; and (3) determine the in vitro fermentation properties of the conjugated inulin. Inulin was esterified with 5-formyl-aminosalicylic acid (5-fASA), a derivative of 5-ASA, with a degree of substitution of 0.185±0.014. During in vitro digestion and fermentation, 56.2±6.5% of 5-fASA was released in 24 h. Gut bacteria did not deformylate 5-fASA to 5-ASA as anticipated. Though conjugation of inulin with 5-fASA reduced bifidogenicity at 24 h compared with native inulin (8.26±0.03 log cfu/g versus 8.59±0.09 log cfu/g, respectively, p<0.01), conjugated 5-fASA-inulin showed protracted fermentation with higher short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and equivalent butyrate concentration at 24 h (9.02±0.68 μmol SCFA/mg carbohydrate versus 7.54±0.53 μmol SCFA/mg carbohydrate, p<0.01; 2.16±0.22 μmol butyrate/mg carbohydrate versus 2.34±0.17 μmol butyrate/mg carbohydrate, respectively, p=0.09). These data suggest that conjugation of inulin with 5-fASA may support SCFA and especially butyrate-producing bacteria through inulin fermentation in the distal colon, an important site of inflammation, together with delivery of 5-fASA. However, gut bacteria were unable to hydrolyze the formyl group from 5-fASA; thus alternative strategies to conjugate 5-ASA to inulin or remove the formyl group from 5-fASA are needed.
    07/2013; 2(1):8–14. DOI:10.1016/j.bcdf.2013.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum-perhaps tannins themselves-may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour.
    Food Science and Technology International 06/2013; 20(5). DOI:10.1177/1082013213488380 · 0.98 Impact Factor
  • Devin J. Rose · Dipak K. Santra
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to determine the conversion efficiency of proso millet to ethanol compared to corn in a bench-scale dry-grind procedure. Seven proso millet cultivars and six advanced breeding lines containing waxy starch were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production was compared with normal corn and “highly fermentable” corn. The highly fermentable corn exhibited the highest fermentation efficiency (97.0 ± 1.4%). Among proso millet lines, those with the highest fermentation efficiencies were: Huntsman (85.9 ± 0.6%), 172-2-9 (90.8 ± 0.2%), 172-2-13 (85.1 ± 2.5%), and 182-4-24 (84.7 ± 2.1). Waxy proso millet lines resulted in higher fermentation efficiencies than the non-waxy proso millet varieties containing normal starch (82.4 ± 5.5% vs. 75.5 ± 7.4%, respectively, p = 0.01). Proso millet distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) contained more protein (26.6–33.4%) than the DDGS from corn (17.2–23.4%). These data indicate that proso millet exhibits promise as a feedstock for ethanol production, especially if breeding programs focus on selecting “highly fermentable” lines for advancement.
    Industrial Crops and Products 05/2013; 43:602–605. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.08.010 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Jens Walter · Inés Martínez · Devin J Rose
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    ABSTRACT: Intake of whole grains and other food products high in dietary fiber have long been linked to the prevention of chronic diseases associated with inflammation. A contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiota to these effects has been suggested, but little is known on how whole grains interact with gut bacteria. We have recently published the first human trial that made use of next-generation sequencing to determine the effect of whole grains (whole grain barley, brown rice or a mixture of the two) on fecal microbiota structure and tested for associations between the gut microbiota and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. Our study revealed that whole grains impacted gut microbial ecology by increasing microbial diversity and inducing compositional alterations, some of which are considered to have beneficial effects on the host. Interestingly, whole grains, and in particular the combination of whole grain barley and brown rice, caused a reduction in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was linked to compositional features of the gut microbiota. Therefore, the study provided evidence that a short-term increased intake of whole grains led to compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in systemic inflammation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of the study and provide a perspective on the importance of regarding humans as holobionts when considering the health effects of dietary strategies.
    Gut Microbes 04/2013; 4(4). DOI:10.4161/gmic.24707
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins on starch digestion in tannin-containing sorghum extracts and wholegrain flours from 12 sorghum varieties. Extracts reduced amylase activity in a tannin concentration-dependent manner when the extract was mixed with the enzyme before substrate (amylopectin) addition, with higher molecular weight tannins showing greater reduction. Conversely, when the extract and substrate were combined before enzyme addition an enhancement in amylase activity was experienced. In uncooked, cooked, and cooked and stored wholegrain sorghum flours, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches were not correlated with tannin content or molecular weight distribution. Resistant starch increased from 6.5% to 22-26% when tannins were added to starch up to 50% (starch weight). In conclusion, tannin extracts both reduced and enhanced amylase activity depending on conditions, and, while these trends were clear in extracts, the effects on starch digestion in wholegrain flours was more complex.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2013; 61(18). DOI:10.1021/jf400464j · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Andrés F. Doblado-Maldonado · Devin J. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences among four retail whole wheat flours with respect to particle size distribution and composition of fractions separated by sieving. Interestingly, not only were significant differences discovered among the brands for particle size distribution, but lots within two of the brands were significantly different (P < 0.05), suggesting that flour particle size produced by the same company is not always consistent. Starch damage ranged from 4.67 to 7.69%. As expected, darker colors were associated with the larger particle size fractions, and the colors lightened as particle size decreased. This observation suggested that the differences in particle size resulted from differences in the degree to which the bran fraction of the kernel was milled, an observation substantiated by the distribution of ash in each fraction, which ranged from 0.37 to 38.0% of total ash. Distribution of protein ranged from 0.19 to 61.8% of total protein. These data are relevant because differences in particle size distribution and composition affect functionality, sensory acceptability, nutritional properties, and shelf life of whole wheat flour.
    Cereal Chemistry 03/2013; 90(2):127-131. DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-09-12-0124-R · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this project was to develop a method for the synthesis of acetylated, propionylated, and butyrylated inulins as designer dietary fibers for enhanced gut health. High purity (HP) inulin was acylated with acetic anhydride, propionic anhydride, or butyric anhydride. Degrees of substitution [mol short chain fatty acid (SCFA)/mol fructosyl equivalents] were 0.313±0.013, 0.152±0.005, and 0.371±0.003. Acylation decreased the molecular weight of inulin. No SCFAs were released when the acylated inulin conjugates were subjected to an in vitro model of digestion, suggesting that they would be able to travel through the upper gastrointestinal tract intact. In a 24 h in vitro fermentation experiment acylation reduced the rate of fermentation and resulted in enhanced SCFA production in the latter half of fermentation compared with control inulin. Acylation changed the types of SCFA that were produced during fermentation, although this did not always correspond to the SCFA that had been acylated to inulin. Acylation of the inulin reduced the growth of bifidobacteria compared to the inulin control, but the addition of fructooligosaccharides to the acylated inulin during fermentation partially alleviated this issue. Thus, acylation of inulin may be beneficial for delivering high concentrations of SCFA to more distal regions of the colon, but fructooligosaccharides should be included in the preparation to maintain bifidogenicity.
    01/2013; 1(1):81–88. DOI:10.1016/j.bcdf.2013.01.004

Publication Stats

324 Citations
117.36 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2014
    • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
      • Department of Food Science and Technology
      Lincoln, Nebraska, United States
  • 2011
    • Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
      • Department of Nutrition, Dietetics & Food Science
      Provo, Utah, United States
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • Purdue University
      • Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research
      West Lafayette, Indiana, United States
  • 2006
    • Brigham Young University - Hawaii
      Kahuku, Hawaii, United States