C. C. Holbrook

University of Georgia, Атина, Georgia, United States

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Publications (70)72.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The information on genotypic variation for inulin content, inulin yield and water use efficiency of inulin yield (WUEi) in response to drought is limited. This study was to investigate the genetic variability in inulin content, inulin yield and WUEi of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) under different water regimes. A field experiment was conducted for two years during September to January 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. A strip plot design with four replications was used in both years. Horizontal factors were three irrigation levels (W1 = 100% evapotranspiration (ET), W2 = 75% ET and W3 = 45% ET) and vertical factors were 12 Jerusalem artichoke genotypes. Data were recorded for inulin content, inulin yield and WUEi at harvest. Significant differences among Jerusalem artichoke genotypes were observed for inulin content, inulin yield and WUEi under W1, W2 and W3 in both years. There were five genotypes (HEL 253, HEL 53, HEL 256, HEL 65 and CN 52867) that exhibited consistently high inulin content and inulin yield across water regimes in both years. Inulin content was increased under W2 conditions but not inulin yield, while WUEi was increased under both W2 and W3 conditions. CN 52867 and HEL 65 were the genotypes with the highest inulin content and inulin yield under limited water conditions in both years. Furthermore, these genotypes showed high WUEi and drought tolerance indices under drought conditions in both years. Improvement of inulin content combined with high WUEi could have contributed to higher inulin yield under limited water conditions. The information on genotypic variation in inulin content and WUEi under drought conditions may have application in genetic improvement of drought resistance in Jerusalem artichoke.
    Agricultural Water Management 04/2015; 152:142-150. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.01.005 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: cs-50-1-159
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    ABSTRACT: A reliable peanut root transformation system would be useful to study the functions of genes involved in root biology and disease resistance. The objective of this study was to establish an effective protocol to produce composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. In total, 75% of transformed peanut seedlings produced an average of 2.83 transgenic roots per plant. Peanut seed had the highest germination rate after treatment in a chlorine gas chamber for 8 h compared with 16 h in chlorine gas or Clorox and mercuric chloride immersion treatments. High transformation efficiency was achieved when the wound site for A. rhizogenes inoculation was covered with vermiculite instead of enclosing the whole plant in a high humidity chamber. On average, 2.5 galls from Meloidogyne arenaria infection were formed per transgenic root from susceptible genotype TifGP-2. These data indicate that A. rhizogenes-transformed roots can be used to phenotype the host response to nematode challenge. Transformation of RLP-2, a candidate resistance gene for M. arenaria integrated into a silencing construct, did not alter the resistance response of Tifguard, even though downregulation of endogenous RLP-2 expression was detected in transformed roots. It is likely that RLP-2 is not the gene conditioning M. arenaria resistance in peanut.
    Plant Disease 04/2014; 98(10):140429070847007. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-13-1241-RE · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tomato spotted wilt, caused by thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) production in the southeastern U.S. Establishment of within row plant densities of 13 or more plants/m of row of moderately resistant cultivars is recommended as part of an integrated management system for minimizing losses to spotted wilt. To achieve that plant density, growers often plant 19 or more seed/m of row. Seed costs represent a major expense for peanut producers. Reducing costs by using lower seeding rates would be desirable if it could be done without increasing risk of losses to tomato spotted wilt. Field experiments were conducted in Tifton, Georgia in 2008 and 2009 to determine whether new cultivars with improved field resistance to TSWV can allow use of lower seeding rates without increasing risk of losses to tomato spotted wilt. In each year, peanut cultivars, Georgia Green, Georgia-06G, Florida-07, and Tifguard were combined factorially with four seeding rates, 9.8, 13.1, 16.4, and 19.7 seed/m of row. Across the two years, final incidence of tomato spotted wilt and standardized area under the disease progress curve for tomato spotted wilt epidemics decreased linearly with increasing seeding rate for all cultivars. Across the two years, final incidence of tomato spotted wilt at 9.8 seed/m of row seeding rate was 55% for Georgia Green and 17% for the mean of the other three cultivars. For Georgia Green, incidence of tomato spotted wilt decreased 1.9% with each seed/m increase in seeding rate, whereas the incremental decrease was 0.8% for the mean of the other three cultivars. These results indicate that levels of field resistance to TSWV in several new cultivars are adequate to allow use of lower seeding rates than with the moderately resistant cultivar Georgia Green without increasing the risk of losses to spotted wilt.
    Crop Protection 11/2013; 53:118-124. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2013.07.001 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drought at pod filling can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. However, the relationship of root characters with yield under terminal drought is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of peanut genotypes with different yield responses to terminal drought stress for root dry weight and the percent root length density (% RLD) in deeper soil layers and their relationships with biological and economic yield. A field experiment was conducted at Khon Kaen University's Agronomy Farm in 2010/2011. and 2011/2012. A split plot design with four replications was used in this study. Five peanut genotypes: ICGV 98308, ICGV 98324, ICGV 98348, Tainan 9 and Tifton 8 were assigned as subplots and two soil moisture levels [field capacity (FC) and 1/3 available water (1/3 AW) at R7 growth stage through harvest] were assigned as main plots. Data for root dry weight, % root length density (% RLD), stomatal conductance, water use efficiency (WUE), pod yield, biomass, harvest index (HI), were recorded at harvest. Drought significantly reduced pod yield, biomass and HI. Overall genotypes, yield responses to terminal drought were not correlated with root dry weight and % RLD. However for some genotypes, yield under terminal drought did seem to be related to root dry weight and % RLD. The genotypes with large root system and high stomata! conductance, WUE and biomass and maintained higher pod yield under terminal drought. For example, Tifton 8 had high root dry weight and high stomatal conductance, WUE and biomass, maintained higher pod yield under drought conditions. Peanut genotypes that have high % RLD at deeper layers and high stomatal conductance, WUE and HI might also maintain pod yield under terminal drought. ICGV 98324 and ICGV 98348 increased % RLD at deeper layers and also had high stomatal conductance, WUE and HI and maintained higher pod yield under terminal drought. Percent RLD could be useful as a selection criterion for improving resistance to drought. However, selection of RLD alone can be confounded because some genotypes with high RLD under terminal drought had low pod yield, and selection of RLD as a supplement for pod yield under drought would be more effective.
    Field Crops Research 08/2013; 149:366-378. DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2013.05.024 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Peanut Science 07/2013; 40(2):89-94. DOI:10.3146/PS13-5.1
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    P. Timper, D. M. Wilson, C. C. Holbrook
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    ABSTRACT: Peanut kernels are susceptible to colonization by some species of Aspergillus which, under conditions of drought and high temperatures, can produce aflatoxins prior to harvest. The objective of this research was to determine the mechanism by which the peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) increases aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Research determined 1) the role of nematode infection of roots vs. pods in increased aflatoxin contamination and 2) whether increased aflatoxin production in nematode-infected peanut is due to a greater percentage of small or immature kernels. An additional objective was to determine whether a peanut cultivar with resistance to M. arenaria would reduce the risk of preharvest aflatoxin contamination. In the greenhouse, researchers physically separated root growth from pod set and inoculated each location with M. arenaria or a water control in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 12–15 replications. Of the six trials conducted, data indicated that pod and root infection by M. arenaria was associated with elevated aflatoxin concentrations in one and three trials, respectively. This suggests that root infection by the nematode can increase aflatoxin concentrations in the peanut kernel. Another 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with two peanut genotypes (Tifguard and TifGP-2) and two nematode treatments (with and without M. arenaria) with six replications. The cultivar Tifguard is resistant to M. arenaria and TifGP-2 is susceptible. The experiment was carried out in 24 field microplots equipped with a rainout shelter. The experiment was conducted five times from 2006 to 2010. Infection of TifGP-2 by M. arenaria did not lead to greater percentages of small kernels. In only one year (2007), nematodes appeared to increase the percentage of damaged kernels, though aflatoxin concentrations were not affected by nematodes in that year. In the rainout shelter experiment, 2006 was the only year where nematode infection of peanut increased aflatoxin concentrations. In that year, there were lower aflatoxin concentrations in the nematode-resistant cultivar Tifguard than the susceptible germplasm TifGP-2 (12 vs. 136 ng/g).
    Peanut Science 01/2013; 40(1):31-39. DOI:10.3146/ps12-14.1
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    ABSTRACT: Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect oil quality by changes in fatty acid compositions of peanut, and to investigate the changes in oil characters in peanut genotypes with their potential drought resistance under different water regimes. Field experiments were conducted in split-plot designs with four replications during dry season for two years (2003/04 and 2004/05). Three water regimes [field capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (2/3 AW) and 1/3 available soil water (1/3 AW)] were assigned as main-plots, and six peanut genotypes were assigned as sub-plots. The data were recorded at maturity for fatty acid compositions and % oil. Seed samples were analyzed for % oil by Soxtec System HT, and fatty acid compositions were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. Differences among water regimes and peanut genotypes were significant for oleic and linoleic acids content and their ratio (O/L ratio), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (U/S ratio) and iodine value (IV). Genotype × water regime interactions were also significant for all characters. Drought improved the oil quality by significant increase in oleic acid and O/L ratio, and reduced the linoleic acid, IV and U/S ratio. Peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance displayed similar tendency in fatty acid characters under drought conditions.
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    ABSTRACT: Breeding for terminal drought resistance in peanut can increase their productivity in drought-prone environments and reduce aflatoxin contamination. To improve selection efficiency for superior drought-resistant genotypes, a study of inheritance of traits is worthy, and provides useful information for planning suitable breeding approaches. The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability of terminal drought resistance traits, the genotypic and phenotypic correlations between drought resistance traits and agronomic traits, and among physiological traits in peanut. The 140 peanut lines in the F 4:6 and F 4:7 generations were generated from four crosses (ICGV 98348 × Tainan 9, ICGV 98348 × KK60-3, ICGV 98353 × Tainan 9, and ICGV 98353 × KK60-3), and tested under well-watered and terminal drought conditions. Field experiments were conducted under the dry seasons 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 in the Northeast of Thailand. Data were recorded for agronomic traits [biomass, pod yield, number of mature pods per plant, seeds per pod, and seed size] and physiological traits [harvest index (HI), SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), and specific leaf area (SLA)]. The heritability estimates for physiological traits were higher than for agronomic traits, and varied among crosses. The heritability for HI, SCMR, and SLA ranged from 0.55 to 0.85, 0.72 to 0.91, and 0.61 to 0.90, respectively. Positive correlation between HI and SCMR were significant, and SLA was also found to be inversely associated with SCMR and HI. Significant and positive correlations between HI and SCMR with most of agronomic traits were found. SLA was also negatively correlated with agronomic traits. These results indicated that HI, SLA, and SCMR are potentially useful as indirect selection traits for terminal drought resistance because of high heritability and good correlation with pod yield. Plant breeding approaches using these traits might be effective and valuable for improving terminal drought tolerance in peanut.
    SABRAO journal of breeding and genetics 01/2012; 44(2):240-262. · 0.23 Impact Factor
  • Plant Health Progress 01/2012; DOI:10.1094/PHP-2012-0227-03-RS
  • Peanut Science 07/2011; 38(2):115-121. DOI:10.3146/PS11-5.1
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamic challenges of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars, a process that can be aided by the application of molecular markers. With the goal to pyramid nematode resistance and the trait for high oleic: linoleic acid (high O:L) ratio in seeds, nematode-resistant cultivar Tifguard was used as the recurrent female parent and high O: L cultivars Georgia-02C and Florida-07 were used as donor parents for the high O:L trait. 'Tifguard High O/L' was generated through three rounds of accelerated backcrossing using BCnF1 progenies selected with molecular markers for these two traits as the pollen donors. Selfed BC3F2 plants yielded marker-homozygous individuals identified as Tifguard High O/L, compressing the hybridization and selection phases of the cultivar development process to less than 3 yr. The accuracy of marker-assisted selection (MAS) was confirmed by phenotyping a subset of F-2:3 populations from both parental combinations. Once additional molecular markers linked with traits of interest are designed to be compatible with high-throughput screening platforms, MAS will be more widely integrated into peanut breeding programs.
    The Plant Genome 07/2011; 4(2):110. DOI:10.3835/plantgenome2011.01.0001 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With 1 figure and 4 tablesAbstractTerminal drought induces preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) in peanut. Drought resistance traits are promising as indirect selection tools for improving resistance to PAC. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of terminal drought on PAC and to investigate the associations between surrogate traits for drought tolerance and PAC. Field tests under rainout shelters were conducted in the dry seasons 2004/2005 and 2005/2006. Eleven peanut genotypes were evaluated under irrigated and terminal drought conditions. Data were recorded for physiological traits, total biomass, pod yield, Aspergillus flavus colonization and PAC. ICGV 98305, ICGV 98330, ICGV 98348, ICGV 98353 and Tifton-8 had low aflatoxin contamination in both years. Traits related to drought resistance were associated well with those related to PAC under drought conditions. Specific leaf area, relative water content, chlorophyll density and drought stress ratings are the best traits for use as indirect selection tools for lower PAC. Breeding for drought tolerance using these traits as selection criteria may help to accelerate progress in developing resistance to PAC.
    Plant Breeding 11/2010; 129(6):693 - 699. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0523.2009.01738.x · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twelve peanut genotypes were tested under three water regimes in two greenhouses to investigate the effects of drought on biomass production and N<SUB>2</SUB> fixation. Drought reduced biomass production from 36.5 to 56.0% and reduced nitrogen fixation from 26.8 to 68.8%. Most genotypes with high biomass production under Field Capacity (FC) had high reduction in biomass production under drought conditions, but fewer genotypes with high N<SUB>2</SUB> fixed under FC showed high reduction in N<SUB>2</SUB> fixed. Biomass production under FC in general gave more contribution to biomass production under drought conditions than did the reduction. N<SUB>2</SUB> fixed under FC and the reduction in N<SUB>2</SUB> fixed contributed similarly to N<SUB>2</SUB> fixed under drought conditions. Positive and significant correlations between N<SUB>2 </SUB>fixed and biomass production were found at FC and 2/3 available soil water (AW), but the correlation was not significant at 1/3 AW. Tifton-8 was the best genotype for high N<SUB>2</SUB> fixed under FC and KK 60-3 was the best genotype for low reduction. Correlations between N<SUB>2</SUB> fixed and nodule dry weight and shoot dry weight were high and consistent across water regimes. This information is important for breeders to develop peanut cultivars with reasonably high nitrogen fixation under drought conditions.
    Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 07/2010; DOI:10.3923/ajps.2010.402.413
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    ABSTRACT: In 2001, entries from the peanut core collection, a subset of the USDA peanut germplasm collection, were planted in non-replicated plots in a field with a history of Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor. Variability existed among entries for reaction to Sclerotinia blight. Of the 744 entries evaluated, 11% had no disease, nearly 30% had <10% disease incidence, and only 21% had 50% disease incidence or more. Most of the resistant entries had an upright growth habit and were in early and mid-maturity groups. Many of the early maturing entries were susceptible to the foliar disease pepper spot which occurred throughout the study. Entries were selected for further evaluation in replicated plots based on a nil to low (<10%) incidence of Sclerotinia blight, adaptation and/or vigor, and other desirable characteristics such as an intermediate to prostrate growth habit and pepper spot resistance. Selected entries were retested in both 2002 and 2003 (n = 62) and compared to resistant (Tamspan 90), moderately resistant (Tamrun 96), and susceptible (Okrun) reference cultivars. Most entries (55 in 2001 and 46 in 2003) had disease incidence less than Tamrun 96 and similar to Tamspan 90. In 2003 when disease incidence was highest, all 46 entries with resistant reactions similar to that of Tamspan 90 had erect plant growth habits except for entries 208 and 582 which were prostrate, and entries 273, 128, and 804 which were intermediate. Resistance to Sclerotinia blight and yield similar to Tamspan 90, plant habit, and/or reactions to pepper spot and web blotch were used to select the best entries. Entries 208, 128, 804, 582, and 273 combined resistance to Sclerotinia blight, pepper spot, and web blotch with less than erect growth habits. Entry 103 had good Sclerotinia blight resistance and yield, but an upright growth habit. Entry 92 had an upright growth habit and low yield, but good Sclerotinia blight resistance. Entries 92 and 103 had upright growth habits but were among the best entries for resistant to pepper spot and web blotch. Entries 426, 184, and 562 were upright and susceptible to pepper spot, but had resistance to web blotch and the best resistance to Sclerotinia blight. These entries appear to be useful sources of resistance to Sclerotinia blight for breeding programs and for increasing the probability of finding additional sources of resistance in clusters of germplasm identified within the entire USDA collection.
    Peanut Science 01/2010; 37(1):1-11. DOI:10.3146/PS09-001.1
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    ABSTRACT: A large root system can be an important character for drought tolerance. Measuring root characteristics in soil medium is tedious, time consuming, and labor intensive. The objective of this study was to determine the association between root characteristics of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in hydroponics and in pot experiments. Twelve peanut genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a hydroponics study, a small pot, and a large pot experiment. The studies were conducted in two years during 2004–2005. Shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root-to-shoot ratio, root length, root surface, average diameter of roots, and root volume were measured. Tifton-8 and ‘KK 60-3’ had consistently higher values for all root characteristics compared to the other genotypes. Root characteristics of peanut genotypes grown in hydroponics were positively correlated with those of peanut genotypes grown in pot conditions. The results suggested that assessment of root characteristics of peanut in hydroponics for possible drought tolerance could replace the assessment in soil medium conditions.
    Crop Science 01/2010; 50(1). DOI:10.2135/cropsci2008.09.0529 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW). Data were recorded for total number of flowers, pegs (reproductive sinks; RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. Drought at mild and severe levels significantly reduced Harvest Index (HI), yield components and reproductive developmental characters and the reductions were most substantial for pod yield with increasing moisture stress. High pod yield under drought conditions in ICGV 98300 was caused by high potential yield and low yield reduction, whereas high pod yield in ICGV 98324 was due to low pod yield reduction. High HI and numbers of mature pods are advantageous and necessary for high yield under drought conditions. High conversion of RSs to total pods and conversion of flowers to mature pods were the most important factors contributing to high pod yield under mild drought (2/3 AW) and severe drought (1/3 AW), respectively. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling under well-watered and droughts conditions.
    Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 07/2009; DOI:10.3923/ajps.2009.465.473
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    ABSTRACT: Drought stress reduces growth and yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and also reduces nitrogen fixation (NF). Peanut production in drought prone areas should be enhanced by the development of cultivars that can fix more nitrogen (N) under drought conditions. The aims of this study were to estimate heritability for NF and to estimate phenotypic and genotypic correlations among traits related to NF with drought-resistance traits and yield under well-watered and drought conditions. A total of 140 lines in the F-4:7 and F-4:8 generations derived from four crosses, parental lines, and a non-nodulating line as a non-N-2-fixing reference plant were evaluated in the dry seasons 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. These lines were evaluated in rhizobium inoculated soil without N fertilizer under field capacity (FC) and 2/3 available soil water (AW). Data were recorded for specific leaf area (SLA), SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), nodule number (NN), nodule dry weight (NDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), pod dry weight (PDW), total dry weight (TDW), harvest index (HI), and NF. Broad-sense heritability (h(b)(2)) and narrow-sense heritability (h(n)(2)) estimates for NF under FC and 2/3 AW were in the same ranges (h(b)(2) = 0.84 to 0.98 and h(n)(2) = 0.29 to 0.39). Positive relationships between NF under FC and 2/3 AW (r = 0.73, P <= 0.01) indicated that selection for the lines that fixed high N under well-watered conditions should produce lines that fixed high N under drought conditions. Selection for NF under drought conditions might be more effective in improving yield because of a higher correlation between NF and PDW (r(G) = 0.43, P <= 0.01) under drought conditions than under FC (r(G) = 0.13). The use of SCMR and SLA as surrogate traits for NF would be less effective than direct selection because of weak correlations between these traits and NF.
    Crop Science 05/2009; 49(3). DOI:10.2135/cropsci2008.06.0331 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drought is the major abiotic constraint affecting peanut productivity and quality worldwide. There is a pressing need to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) of rain-fed peanut production. Breeding varieties with higher water use efficiency is seen as providing part of the solution. The objectives of this work were to (i) evaluate genetic variation in WUE, harvest index, root dry weight, specific leaf area (SLA) and SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) among peanut genotypes in response to different available soil water levels and (ii) assess the relevance of root dry weight, SLA and SCMR to WUE in peanut under receding soil moisture levels. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2002/2003. The 11 peanut genotypes (ICGV 98300, ICGV 98303, ICGV 98305, ICGV 98308, ICGV 98324, ICGV 98330, ICGV 98348, ICGV 98353, Tainan 9, KK 60-3 and Tifton-8) and three soil moisture levels [field capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3 AW] were laid out in a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six replications. At 37, 67, and 97 day after sowing (DAS), data were recorded for SLA and SCMR. Root dry weight, harvest index (HI) and WUE were recorded at harvest. Drought reduced WUE, root dry weight and HI. Across both seasons, Tifton-8 and ICGV 98300 had high WUE and also had large root systems under drought conditions. ICGV 98324 and Tifton-8 had low SLA and high SCMR under stressed and non-stressed condition. Under drought conditions, ICGV 98324 had high HI and Tifton-8 had low HI. Root dry weight had a greater contribution to WUE under well-watered and mild drought (2/3 AW). Under severe drought (1/3 AW), SLA showed a more important contribution to WUE than the other traits. Traits that were associated to high WUE under drought conditions were different among different peanut genotypes. ICGV 98300 maintained high root dry weight under 2/3 AW and ICGV 98324 maintained low SLA and high SCMR under 1/3 AW. Tifton-8 had both large root systems and low SLA associated with high WUE.
    Agricultural Water Management 05/2009; 96(5-96):790-798. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2008.10.009 · 2.33 Impact Factor