Zunyao Wang

Nanjing University, Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China

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Publications (61)154.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As a result of the ban on some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), the use of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) increases, and they are detected in multi-environment media at higher frequency and concentrations. However, the toxicity data of OPFRs, especially those on developmental toxicology are quite limited, which prevents an accurate evaluation of their environmental and health risk. Because a previous study reported that two aryl-OPFRs induced cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis, we designed experiments to compare the heart developmental toxicity of a series of aryl-OPFRs with alkyl-OPFRs and explored possible internal mechanism. First, acute toxicity of 9 frequently used OPFRs were studied with zebrafish embryos (2–96 hpf). By comparing the LC50 and EC50 (pericardium edema) data, two aryl-OPFRs, triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP) showed greater heart developmental toxicity than the others. It was also found that the acute toxicity of OPFRs varied mainly depending on their hydrophobicity. Further study on the cardiotoxicty of TPhP and CDP showed that the cardiac looping progress can be impeded by 0.10 mg/L TPhP or CDP exposure. Bradycardia and reduction of myocardium were also observed in 0.50 and 1.0 mg/L TPhP groups and 0.10, 0.50, and 1.0 mg/L CDP groups. 0–48 hpf is the vulnerable window of zebrafish cardiogenesis that can be easily affected by TPhP and CDP. RT-qPCR measurement on the expressions of key transcriptional regulators in cardiogenesis showed that BMP4, NKX2–5, and TBX5 were significantly inhibited at the exposure points of 12 hpf and 24 hpf which may be the internal factors related to the heart developmental toxicity. As zebrafish is a good model organism for human health study, the present results call for a greater attention to the health risk of fetus in pregnant women exposed to such OPFRs.
    Aquatic Toxicology 04/2015; 161. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.01.027 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and copper have been recently regarded as ubiquitous environmental contaminants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. However, data on their possible combined toxic effects on aquatic organisms are still lacking. In this study, a systematic experimental approach was used to assess the impacts of these chemicals and their mixtures on hepatic antioxidant status of Carassius auratus after 4 days. Oxidative stress was apparently observed for joint exposure by determining biochemical parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response index was calculated to rank the toxicity order, from which the synergistic effect was tentatively proposed for joint-toxicity action. In addition, these treatments significantly altered trace element homeostasis in different fish tissues, and the concentration distribution of these test chemicals was also measured. Taken together, these results provided some valuable toxicological data on the joint effects of perfluorinated compounds and heavy metals on aquatic species, which can facilitate further understanding on the potential risks of other coexisting pollutants in the natural aquatic environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Aquatic Toxicology 04/2015; 161. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.01.025 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, twenty-six types of polymethoxylated diphenyl ethers (PMeODEs), twenty types of polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers (PHODEs), seven types of methoxylated-polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PCDEs) and seven types of hydroxylated-polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (HO-PCDEs) were synthesized. The logKow and logKoc values of all of the synthesized compounds were then determined using HPLC. The soil sorption properties of five types of selected substituted diphenyl ethers (DEs) were investigated. Sorption behavior studies suggested that rapid sorption played a primary role in the sorption process of the selected DEs and their sorption isotherms were fitted the Freundlich logarithmic model. For PMeODEs and PHODEs, with the increase in the number of substituents, both logKow and logKoc values exhibited linearly decreasing trends. Unlike PMeODEs and PHODEs, both logKow and logKoc values of MeO/HO-PCDEs were decreased linearly with the increasing number of chlorine atoms. The reason maybe that both methoxy and hydroxyl are hydrophilic groups, whereas the chlorine atom is hydrophobic group. Linear relationships were observed for the logKow and logKoc of all studied DEs. Moreover, the logKow of PMeODEs, PHODEs, MeO- and HO-PCDEs and their corresponding PCDEs showed good linearity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 04/2015; 134:84-90. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.011 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study found that decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) could be oxidized effectively by potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in sulfuric acid medium. A total of fifteen intermediate oxidative products were detected. The reaction pathways were proposed, which primarily included cleavage of the ether bond to form pentabromophenol. Direct oxidation on the benzene ring also played an important role because hydroxylated PBDEs were produced during the oxidation process. The degradation occurred dramatically in the first few minutes and fitted pseudo-first order kinetics. Increasing the water content decelerated the reaction rate, whereas increasing the temperature facilitated the reaction. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) was employed to determine the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) and frontier electron density (FED) of BDE 209 and the oxidative products. The theoretical calculation results confirmed the proposed reaction pathways.
    Environmental Science and Technology 03/2015; 49(7). DOI:10.1021/es505111r · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Water Research 03/2015; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2014.12.045 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The toxicities of 24 bromide-based ionic liquids (Br-ILs) towards Vibrio fischeri (V. fischeri) and Daphnia magna (D. magna) were determined. These Br-ILs are composed of a bromide ion and a generic cation (i.e., pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, pyridinium or imidazolium) with different alkyl side chains. QSAR models with relatively high correlation coefficients, R(2), of 0.954 and 0.895 were developed for V. fischeri and D. magna. The model for V. fischeri indicated that the Br-IL toxicity towards V. fischeri was negatively correlated with the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (ELUMO) which reflects the electron affinities (EAs) and positively correlated with the volumes of Br-IL cations. For the D. magna model, the Br-IL toxicity was positively correlated with the dipole moment (μ) and negatively correlated with the total energy (TE) that is highly correlated with the molecular volume (V). For Br-ILs with the same cation ring, the toxicity increased as the length of the alkyl chains increased. For the same alkyl chain length, the toxicity order for V. fischeri was pyridinium>imidazolium>piperidinium>pyrrolidinium, except for those containing octyl side chains, while the toxicity ranking for D. magna was imidazolium~pyridinium>piperidinium>pyrrolidinium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2015; 115C:112-118. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.02.012 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three different carbon nanotubes [single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs), and carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs)] on antioxidant parameters and metals accumulation in the liver of Carassius auratus. A semi-static test system was used to expose C. auratus to either a freshwater control, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/L CNTs at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25 and 9.0) for 3 and 12 days. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver on the 3th and 12th day. The results showed that there was a significant increase in MDA concentration and SOD activity in fish exposed to CNTs, indicating that CNTs exposure induces an oxidative stress response in fish. According to integrated biomarker response (IBR) index, the effect of these three CNTs on liver can be ordered as SWCNTs > OH-MWCNTs > COOH-MWCNTs and they are more toxic to fish in an alkaline environment. Moreover, the concentrations of catalyst metals (Co, Ni, and Mo) and bioelements (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se) in liver were changed, depending on the CNTs concentration, the pH level, and the exposure duration. Generally, all CNTs groups showed that catalyst metals could be concentrated significantly into the liver of fish, and changes in hepatic Cu, Zn, Fe and Se contents are consistent with the activity of antioxidant enzymes.
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a group of halogenated aromatic compounds and serious environmental pollutants. In the present study, sediment and water samples from eight sites in Nanjing section of the Yangtze River were characterized with 15 congeners of PCDEs. Concentrations and distributions of these PCDEs in water phase and sediments were analyzed by GC/MS. Results demonstrated that ∑PCDE concentrations were higher in the low water period (1.15-1.80 μg/L) than those in the high water period (0.73-1.30 μg/L) in water phase. Moreover, ∑PCDE concentrations were higher in the low water period (1.58-3.98 μg/kg) than those in the high water period (1.24-3.48 μg/kg) in sediments. A significant linear relationship existed between the ∑PCDE concentrations and TOC contents in sediments, but a poor linearity was found between ∑PCDE concentrations and DOC contents in water phase. Furthermore, the comparison of the percentage compositions in sediments and in water phase showed that CDE-30 (2,4,6-tri-CDE) was the predominant congener in the studied sites, and higher chlorinated congeners accounted for a larger proportion in sediments than those in water phase. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the prevalent contamination by PCDEs in sediments and water from the Nanjing section of the Yangtze River.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-4056-4 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As a promising disinfection technique to replace chlorination, ozonation has been demonstrated to be efficient in water treatment. This paper describes an effective way to enhance the zonation of indigo by using carbon nanotubes functionalized with carboxyl groups (CNTs-COOH) as catalysts. The result of kinetic studies showed that the presence of CNTs-COOH dramatically increased the decolorization rate of indigo. Different types of catalysts were compared to further elucidate the internal mechanism of the catalytic reaction and the special nanostructure and the functional -COOH groups are considered to play an important role in the catalytic zonation process. Four aromatic intermediate products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer and further rationalized by the frontier electron density calculations. Ion chromatography analysis revealed that the nitrogen atom of indigo was released predominantly as ammonium and to a lesser extent as nitrate. The presence of the catalyst CNTs-COOH leads to a higher mineralization degree than single ozonation, as suggested by the total organic carbon (TOC) measurement. Three major carboxylic acids (i.e., oxalic, formic and acetic acids) were also identified as oxidation by-products, and they contributed significantly to the residual TOC after 2 h of ozonation. In addition, the toxicity evolution during the degradation was investigated through two aquatic model species to evaluate the potential ecological risks of the intermediate products.
    Water Research 01/2015; 68. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2014.10.017 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hexabromobenzene (HBB) is a novel brominated flame retardant (BFR) with ample evidence of its ubiquitous existence in the aquatic ecosystems. However, to date, the toxicological effects of this BFR on fish have been inadequately researched. The present study was conducted, based on an in vivo model, to investigate HBB-induced biochemical changes in liver and gill tissues of Carassius auratus after medium-term exposure to different concentrations (10, 150, and 300 mg/kg) for 7, 14, and 25 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, demonstrated by significant inhibition in antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, and a decrease in reduced glutathione level, as well as simultaneous elevation in malondialdehyde content. Moreover, Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity, and protein level were remarkably reduced in fish tissues. Based on the integrated biomarker response, the toxic potency in each treatment was distinguished, and the more severe stress was mainly noted with the increasing concentrations and the extending durations. It was also observed that liver exhibited more pronounced alterations in biochemical parameters than gill, probably indicating the vulnerability of liver to HBB-triggered oxidative stress. Taken together, the results of this study clearly showed that HBB was capable of inducing oxidative stress and inhibiting Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity in different tissues of C. auratus after medium-term exposure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
    Environmental Toxicology 12/2014; 29(12). DOI:10.1002/tox.21876 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nafion 117 membrane (N117), an important polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), has been widely applied in numerous chemical technologies. Its increasing production and utilization will inevitably lead to the problem of waste disposal, with incineration as an important method. However, toxicity data of its combustion products on aquatic organisms have been seldom reported. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the antioxidant response and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in liver of Carassius auratus exposed to different combustion products of N117 for 5, 15, and 30 days. The concentrations of fluorine ion (F(-)) in the aquaria among the exposure durations were analyzed using the ion chromatography system. The results showed that these treatments have the capability to induce oxidative stress and suppress Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, as indicated by some significant alterations on these measured toxicity end-points in fish liver. According to the integrated biomarker response (IBR) index, the toxicity intensity of these experimental treatments was tentatively ranked. Taken together, these observations provided some preliminary data on the potential toxicity of the combustion products of N117 on aquatic organisms and could fill the information gaps in the toxicity database of the current-use PEM.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2014; 22(5). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3826-3 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    Hui Liu, Hongxia Liu, Ping Sun, Zunyao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 58 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were modeled by quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) using density functional theory (DFT), the position of Cl substitution (PCS) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) methods. All the models were robust and predictive, and especially, the best CoMFA model was significant with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.926, a cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q2) of 0.821 and a root mean square error estimated (RMSE) of 0.235. The results indicate that the electrostatic descriptors play a more significant role in BCFs of PCBs. Additionally, a test set was used to compare the predictive ability of our models to others, and results show that our CoMFA model present the lowest RMSE. Thus, the models obtain in this work can be used to predict the BCFs of remaining 152 PCBs without available experimental values.
    Chemosphere 11/2014; 114:101–105. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.03.113 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the toxic effects of the oral exposure of 2-hydroxylated dioxin (2-HODD) in ICR male mice were examined. The mice were administered different doses (0.2, 2.0 and 20.0 mg/kg) of 2-HODD. After 14 days of exposure, the oxidative stress (OS) indicator levels and the essential metal concentrations in the mouse livers were determined. The results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were increased in the 0.2 mg/kg group, whereas they were significantly decreased in the 2.0 and 20.0 mg/kg groups. Decreases in the catalase (CAT) activity and the glutathione (GSH) levels, accompanied by increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, were recorded in all of the 2-HODD-treated groups. The hepatic iron, copper and zinc levels increased in all of the 2-HODD-treated groups. The histological examination of the livers demonstrated swollen cells and inflammation. Dose-dependent changes in both the OS indicators and the hepatic metal levels were observed. In conclusion, a single low dose of 2-HODD significantly perturbed the hepatic OS status and metals homeostasis in the mice.
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2014.09.001 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are dioxin-like compounds that could induce various adverse effects to organisms. However, little is known about the occurrence of PCDPSs in the riverine environment. In the present study, the concentrations of twenty-one types of PCDPSs in the surface sediments and in surface water from the Nanjing section of the Yangtze River were examined. A total of nineteen types of PCDPSs were detected and ∑PCDPSs concentrations in surface sediment and surface water ranged from 0.10 to 6.89 ng/g and 0.17 to 2.03 ng/L, respectively. The 2,2',4,4',5-penta-CDPS was the dominant congener in sediment (19.9%) and 2,2',3,3'-tetra-CDPS was the most abundant congener in water (12.2%). The tetra-CDPSs were the dominant congeners both in sediment and in water. Compared with sediment, the percentage of lower chlorinated PCDPSs in water increased distinctly. Source analysis revealed that the PCDPSs in the sediment and in the water mainly came from chemical wastewater rather than domestic sewage. There was a significant linear correlation between ∑PCDPS concentrations and sediment TOC contents, while no linear correlation existed between ∑PCDPS concentrations and water DOC contents. This study demonstrated the prevalent contamination by PCDPSs in sediments and in water from the Nanjing section of the Yangtze River.
    Environmental Science and Technology 08/2014; 48(19). DOI:10.1021/es502197b · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diphenyl ether and its derivatives are widely used in the industry of spices, dyes, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Following the previous study, we selected 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, 4,4'-difluorodiphenyl ether, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether as research objects. The LC50 (96 h) values for these compounds in adult zebrafish were determined with the acute test. Also, developmental toxicities of the four substances to zebrafish embryos were observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf. All the LC50 (96 h) values of these compounds were between 1 and 10 mg/L, suggesting that they all had moderate toxicity to adult zebrafish. The embryonic test demonstrated that with increasing doses, 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether decreased the hatching rate, while 4,4'-difluorodiphenyl ether, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether delayed the hatching time but had little effect on final hatchability at 96 hpf. All of these compounds inhibited larval growth, especially 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether. Exposure to these chemicals induced embryo yolk sac and pericardial edema. Spine deformation was visible in hatched larvae after 96 hpf 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether exposure, while tail curvature was observed for the halogenated compounds. The overall results indicated that 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, 4,4'-difluorodiphenyl ether, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether all had significant toxicity on adult and embryonic zebrafish.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2014; 21(24). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3322-9 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The acute toxicity of lead was examined for Daphnia magna in waters with different pH values (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0) and different concentrations (0.01, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00mg/L) of hydroxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs). The results indicated that pH values could affect the toxicity of lead. With pH values increasing from 5.0 to 9.0, the 24h-LC50 of Pb(II) increased from 0.784 to 9.473mg/L, suggesting that the toxicity of Pb(II) was dramatically decreased. Although OH-MWCNTs almost caused no lethal effect to D. magna at the studied four concentrations, the combination of OH-MWCNTs and Pb(II) could cause more serious toxic effects to D. magna than Pb(II) alone. This study indicated that the synergistic effect caused by CNTs and lead could not be neglected.
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 06/2014; 38(1):199-204. DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2014.05.016 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1mg/L Cd, 0.5mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1mg/L Cd+0.5mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill>liver>muscle at 3 days and liver>gill>muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd+OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 04/2014; 275C:89-98. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.04.051 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mercury (Hg) compounds are widely distributed toxic environmental and industrial pollutants and they may bring danger to growth and development of aquatic organisms. The distribution of Hg species in the 3 percent NaCl solution was calculated using the chemical equilibrium model Visual MINTEQ, which demonstrated that Hg was mainly complexed by chlorides in the pH range 5.0-9.0 and the proportions of HgCl4(2-), HgCl3(-) and HgCl2(aq) reached to 95 percent of total Hg. Then the effects of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) and H(+)), anions (HCO3(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-) and HPO4(2-)) and complexing agents (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and dissolved organic matter (DOM)) on Hg toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum were evaluated in standardized 15min acute toxicity tests. The significant increase of 6.3-fold in EC50 data with increasing pH was observed over the tested pH range of 5.0-8.0, which suggested the possible competition between hydroxyl and the negatively charged chloro-complex. By contrast, it was found that major cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+)) have little effect on Hg toxicity to P. phosphoreum. An interesting finding was that the addition of HPO4(2-) significantly increased Hg toxicity, which may imply that the addition of phosphate increased the soluble Hg-chloro complex species. Additions of complexing agents (EDTA and DOM) into the exposure water increased Hg bioavailability via complexation of Hg. Finally, a model which incorporated the effect of pH, HPO4(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and DOM on Hg toxicity was developed to predict acute Hg toxicity for P. phosphoreum, which may be a useful tool in setting realistic water quality criteria for different types of water.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 04/2014; 104C:231-238. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.03.029 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imidazolium bromide ionic liquids such as 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides ([AMIm]Br) and 1-alkyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromides ([AMMIm]Br) are common-use organic salts. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these ILs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was applied to compare and analyze the effects of these ILs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus treated with different concentrations (2 and 20 mg/L) for 3 and 16 d. Changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the levels of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde were detected, indicating that these ILs exhibit potential biotoxicity. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index suggested that 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([HMIm]Br), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([OMIm]Br), 1-hexyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([HMMIm]Br), and 1-octyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([OMMIm]Br) showed the highest biotoxicity under different concentrations or exposure time, while 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([EMIm]Br) always showed the least stressful power towards the test organism. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were also conducted to interpret the experimental results. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order. In addition, theoretical calculations provided some valuable information on metabolic pathways of these ILs, which may help to get better understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. In general, the toxicological determination and analysis of these ILs were performed with a combined experimental and theoretical method, which may contribute to the future ecotoxicological studies.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 04/2014; 102:187–195. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.01.027 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the antioxidant responses to nine phthalates (PAEs) in the liver of the goldfish Carassius auratus. The fish were injected with 10 mg/kg body weight of each PAE for 1 day and 4, 8, and 15 days. The potential biotoxicity of the PAEs were examined using the antioxidase and lipid peroxide indices. We determined that the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels displayed different trends following prolonged treatment, suggesting that metabolism generated either less toxic or more active substances. Based on the intensity of enzymes inhibition, MDA content, and the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR), the toxicity order was determined as follows: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) > diphenyl phthalate (DPP) > butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > diallyl phthalate (DAP) > dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) > dimethyl phthalate (DMP) > di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). In particular, DBP, which exhibited significant inhibition of enzyme activity and the greatest decrease in MDA content, may be a highly toxic contaminant. Furthermore, our results suggest that the IBR may be a general marker of pollution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
    Environmental Toxicology 03/2014; DOI:10.1002/tox.21985 · 2.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

200 Citations
154.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • Nanjing University
      • School of Environment
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2005–2009
    • Jiaxing University
      Kashing, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Guilin Institute of Technology
      Ling-ch’uan, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, China
    • Yancheng Institute of Technology
      Yen-ch’eng-chen, Jiangsu Sheng, China