Hans-Joachim G. Jung

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (31)93.42 Total impact

  • JoAnn F.S. Lamb, Hans-Joachim G. Jung, Heathcliffe Riday
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    ABSTRACT: An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profitability of this biomass production system. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of growth environment (locations, years and plant density) and harvest maturity stage (early bud (4 annual cuts) and late flower (3 annual cuts)) on leaf crude protein and potential ethanol yields for four alfalfa germplasms, two with high forage quality, and two non-lodging biomass types. Potential ethanol yield was greater at late flower compared to early bud, while leaf crude protein concentration was similar at the two harvest maturity stages at both locations. Leaf crude protein yield was greater at the Minnesota (MN) site compared to Wisconsin (WI) site. The two non-lodging biomass germplasms had greater potential ethanol yield compared to the high forage quality cultivars in WI, but no differences among the alfalfa germplasms were found for ethanol yield at MN. In WI, no differences were found among the germplasms for leaf crude protein yield, but the high quality cultivars had greater leaf crude protein yield than the non-lodging germplasms in MN. While germplasm differences were found for leaf crude protein and potential ethanol yields, the environmental influences of harvest date and locations had the greatest impact on these two alfalfa biomass energy products.
    Biomass and Bioenergy 04/2014; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    Hans-Joachim G Jung, Deborah A Samac, Gautam Sarath
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    ABSTRACT: Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter.
    Plant Science 04/2012; 185-186:65-77. · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • Hans-Joachim G. Jung, Rex Bernardo
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of biomass crops for breeding or pricing purposes requires an assay that predicts performance in the bioenergy conversion process. Cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis was compared for a dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment at 121°C followed with cellulase hydrolysis for 72h conversion assay (CONV) with in vitro rumen microflora incubation for 72h (RUMEN) for a set of maize (Zea mays L.) stover samples with a wide range in cell wall composition. Residual polysaccharides from the assays were analyzed for sugar components and extent of hydrolysis calculated. Cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis was different for all sugar components between the CONV and RUMEN assays. The CONV assay hydrolyzed xylose-, arabinose-, galactose-, and uronic acid-containing polysaccharides to a greater degree than did the RUMEN assay, whereas the RUMEN assay was more effective at hydrolyzing glucose- and mannose-containing polysaccharides. Greater hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and pectins by CONV can be attributed to the acid hydrolysis mechanism of the CONV assay for noncellulosic polysaccharides, whereas the RUMEN assay was dependent on enzymatic hydrolysis. While CONV and RUMEN hydrolysis were correlated for most polysaccharide components, the greatest correlation was only r = 0.70 for glucose-containing polysaccharides. Linear correlations and multiple regressions indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis by the RUMEN assay was negatively associated with lignin concentration and ferulate ether cross linking as expected. Corresponding correlations and regressions for CONV were less consistent and occasionally positive. Use of rumen microbial hydrolysis to characterize biomass performance in a conversion process may have some limited usefulness for genetic evaluations, but such assays would be unreliable for biomass pricing. KeywordsMaize stover–Cell wall polysaccharide–Hydrolysis–Conversion–Rumen
    BioEnergy Research 01/2011; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alfalfa, [Medicago sativa (L.) sativa], a widely-grown perennial forage has potential for development as a cellulosic ethanol feedstock. However, the genomics of alfalfa, a non-model species, is still in its infancy. The recent advent of RNA-Seq, a massively parallel sequencing method for transcriptome analysis, provides an opportunity to expand the identification of alfalfa genes and polymorphisms, and conduct in-depth transcript profiling. Cell walls in stems of alfalfa genotype 708 have higher cellulose and lower lignin concentrations compared to cell walls in stems of genotype 773. Using the Illumina GA-II platform, a total of 198,861,304 expression sequence tags (ESTs, 76 bp in length) were generated from cDNA libraries derived from elongating stem (ES) and post-elongation stem (PES) internodes of 708 and 773. In addition, 341,984 ESTs were generated from ES and PES internodes of genotype 773 using the GS FLX Titanium platform. The first alfalfa (Medicago sativa) gene index (MSGI 1.0) was assembled using the Sanger ESTs available from GenBank, the GS FLX Titanium EST sequences, and the de novo assembled Illumina sequences. MSGI 1.0 contains 124,025 unique sequences including 22,729 tentative consensus sequences (TCs), 22,315 singletons and 78,981 pseudo-singletons. We identified a total of 1,294 simple sequence repeats (SSR) among the sequences in MSGI 1.0. In addition, a total of 10,826 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted between the two genotypes. Out of 55 SNPs randomly selected for experimental validation, 47 (85%) were polymorphic between the two genotypes. We also identified numerous allelic variations within each genotype. Digital gene expression analysis identified numerous candidate genes that may play a role in stem development as well as candidate genes that may contribute to the differences in cell wall composition in stems of the two genotypes. Our results demonstrate that RNA-Seq can be successfully used for gene identification, polymorphism detection and transcript profiling in alfalfa, a non-model, allogamous, autotetraploid species. The alfalfa gene index assembled in this study, and the SNPs, SSRs and candidate genes identified can be used to improve alfalfa as a forage crop and cellulosic feedstock.
    BMC Genomics 01/2011; 12:199. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The GeneChip(R) Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH) has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected) and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip(R) was conducted with elongating stem (ES) and post-elongation stem (PES) internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV) regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs), the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes suggested co-expression of some neighbouring genes on Medicago chromosomes. The problems associated with transcript profiling in alfalfa stems using the Medicago GeneChip as a CSH platform were mitigated by masking probes targeting ISV regions and SFPs. Using this masking protocol resulted in the identification of numerous candidate genes that may contribute to differences in cell wall concentration and composition of stems of two alfalfa genotypes.
    BMC Genomics 05/2010; 11:323. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) were pretreated under ambient temperature and pressure with sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide in separate experiments. Chemical loadings from 0 to 100g (kg DM)(-1) and durations of anaerobic storage from 0 to 180days were investigated by way of a central composite design at two moisture contents (40% or 60% w.b.). Pretreated and untreated samples were fermented to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A in the presence of a commercially available cellulase (Celluclast 1.5L) and beta-glucosidase (Novozyme 188). Xylose levels were also measured following fermentation because xylose is not metabolized by S. cerevisiae. After sulfuric acid pretreatment and anaerobic storage, conversion of cell wall glucose to ethanol for reed canarygrass ranged from 22% to 83% whereas switchgrass conversions ranged from 16% to 46%. Pretreatment duration had a positive effect on conversion but was mitigated with increased chemical loadings. Conversions after calcium hydroxide pretreatment and anaerobic storage ranged from 21% to 55% and 18% to 54% for reed canarygrass and switchgrass, respectively. The efficacy of lime pretreatment was found to be highly dependent on moisture content. Moreover, pretreatment duration was only found to be significant for reed canarygrass. Although significant levels of acetate and lactate were observed in the biomass after storage, S. cerevisiae was not found to be inhibited at a 10% solids loading.
    Bioresource Technology 03/2010; 101(14):5305-14. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In cellulosic ethanol production, the efficiency of converting maize (Zea mays L.) stover into fermentable sugars partly depends on the stover cell wall structure. Breeding for improved stover quality for cellulosic ethanol may benefit from the use of molecular markers. However, limited quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have been published for maize stover cell wall components, and no QTL study has been published for glucose release (GLCRel) from stover by a cellulosic ethanol conversion process. Our objectives were to characterize the relationships among stover cell wall components and GLCRel, and to identify QTL with major effects, if any, influencing stover cell wall composition and GLCRel. Testcrosses of 223 intermated B73 x Mo17 recombinant inbreds and the parent lines were analyzed for cell wall composition and GLCRel after acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. As expected, glucose (GLC), xylose (XYL), and Klason lignin (KL) composed the bulk (72%) of the stover dry matter. Significant genetic variance and moderate heritability were observed for all traits. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among traits were generally in the favorable direction but also reflected the complexity of maize stover cell wall composition. We found 152 QTL, mostly with small effects, for GLCRel and cell wall components on both a dry matter and cell wall basis. Because no major QTL were found, methods that increase the frequency of favorable QTL alleles or that predict performance based on markers would be appropriate in marker-assisted breeding for maize stover quality for cellulosic ethanol.
    Crop Science 01/2010; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corn (Zea mays L.) stover, the residue left after harvest, is an abundant biomass source for producing cellulosic ethanol in the United States. Corn has been bred for increased grain yield but not for stover quality for cellulosic ethanol production. Our objective in this study was to assess the feasibility of breeding corn for grain yield and agronomic traits as well as stover quality traits for cellulosic ethanol production. Testcrosses of 223 B73 x Mo17 recombinant inbreds were evaluated at four Minnesota locations in 2007. Three stover quality traits were measured: concentration of cell wall glucose in dry stover ("Glucose"); cell wall glucose released from the stover by thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification ("Glucose Release"); and concentration of lignin on a cell wall basis ("Lignin"). Genetic variances were significant for grain yield, moisture, stalk and root lodging, plant height, and all three stover quality traits. Heritabilities of the stover quality traits were 0.57 for Glucose, 0.63 for Glucose Release, and 0.68 for Lignin. Phenotypic and genetic correlations were favorable or neutral among grain yield, agronomic traits, Glucose, Glucose Release, and Lignin. Lines selected with a multiple-trait index for grain yield, agronomic traits, and stover quality traits had improved means for each trait in the index. Current corn breeding programs should be able to incorporate stover quality for cellulosic ethanol as a breeding objective, without having to use unadapted or exotic germplasm and without adversely affecting genetic gains for grain yield and agronomic traits.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Bermuda grass is an attractive candidate as a feedstock for biofuel production because over four million hectares of Bermuda grass are already grown for forage in the Southern USA. Because both rumen digestion and biochemical conversion to ethanol depend upon enzymatic conversion of the cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, it is probable that grasses bred for increased forage quality would be more amenable for ethanol production. However, it is not known how variation in rumen digestibility and cell wall/fiber components correlates with efficiency of conversion to ethanol via fermentation. The objective of this research was to determine relationships between ethanol production evaluated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), 72-h in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in vitro ruminal gas production after 24 and 96h, and biomass composition for 50 genetically diverse Bermuda grass accessions. The Bermuda grass samples were subjected to standard 72-h IVDMD and forage fiber analyses. Also, in separate labs, gas production was measured in sealed volume-calibrated vials after 24 (NNG24) and 96h (NNG96) of in vitro fermentation by ruminal fluid; ethanol and pentose sugar productions were measured from a bench-top SSF procedure; cell wall constituents were determined by the Uppsala Dietary Fiber Method; and total nitrogen, carbon, and ash concentrations were determined by using the LECO combustion method. Ethanol production was moderately correlated with IVDMD (r = 0.55) and NNG96 (r = 0.63) but highly correlated with NNG24 (r = 0.93). Ethanol was negatively correlated with neutral detergent fiber (NDF; r = −0.53) and pentose sugars (r = −0.60), but not correlated with glucose content. Regression models indicated that NDF and cell wall pentose sugar concentrations had significant negative effects on ethanol production. Variation among entries for IVDMD was affected by variability of NDF, pentose sugar concentrations, and biomass nitrogen content. Variation in Klason lignin content had only minor negative impacts on ethanol production and IVDMD. Biochemical conversion efficiency of Bermuda grass by SSF can be best estimated by NNG24 but not by IVDMD. KeywordsBermuda grass-Biochemical conversion-Fiber components-In vitro gas production-Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation
    BioEnergy Research 01/2010; 3(3):225-237. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa] breeding, molecular genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex polysomic inheritance and few genomic resources. Increasing cellulose and decreasing lignin in alfalfa stem cell walls would improve this crop as a cellulosic ethanol feedstock. We conducted genome-wide analysis of single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs) of two alfalfa genotypes (252, 1283) that differ in stem cell wall lignin and cellulose concentrations. SFP analysis was conducted using the Medicago GeneChip (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) as a cross-species platform. Analysis of GeneChip expression data files of alfalfa stem internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 at two growth stages (elongating, post-elongation) revealed 10,890 SFPs in 8230 probe sets. Validation analysis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing of a random sample of SFPs indicated a 17% false discovery rate. Functional classification and over-representation analysis showed that genes involved in photosynthesis, stress response and cell wall biosynthesis were highly enriched among SFP-harboring genes. The Medicago GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for detecting SFPs in tetraploid alfalfa.
    The Plant Genome 01/2009; · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In previous research, we demonstrated that cell wall polysaccharide (CWP) levels of soybean (Glycine max L.) cotyledons are negatively correlated with the sum of seed oil and protein content. Although the results suggest that reducing cotyledon CWP levels would be desirable, it is not known whether CWP are mobilized during early seedling growth and, if so, to what extent mobilization contributes to seed reserves.RESULTS: Ungerminated (dry) seeds contained equivalent amounts [approximately 20 mg (cotyledon pair)⁻¹] of non-cell wall carbohydrates (NCWC) and CWP. Galactose and arabinose accounted for 47% of total CWP in cotyledons of dry seeds. Measured 14 days after planting (DAP), the levels of NCWC and CWP were reduced 98% and 34%, respectively, in cotyledons of seedlings grown under a 16-h photoperiod. Measured 14 DAP, greater than 85% of cotyledon cell wall galactose plus arabinose was mobilized. The transformation of the cotyledon to a photosynthetic organ was associated with restructuring of the cell wall involving increases in uronic acids, glucose and rhamnose.CONCLUSION: CWP of soybean cotyledons are modified during early seedling growth due to mobilization and cell wall restructuring triggered by light. The amount of carbon mobilized makes only a small contribution to total cotyledon reserves.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2009; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have initiated a genome-wide transcript profiling study using the model legume Medicago truncatula to identify putative genes related to cell wall biosynthesis and regulatory function in legumes. We used the GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array to compare transcript abundance in elongating versus postelongation stem internode segments of two M. truncatula accessions and two Medicago sativa (alfalfa) clones with contrasting stem cell wall concentration and composition. Hundreds of differentially expressed probe sets between elongating and postelongation stem segments showed similar patterns of gene expression in the model legume and cultivated alfalfa. Differentially expressed genes included genes with putative functions associated with primary and secondary cell wall biosynthesis and growth. Mining of public microarray data for coexpressed genes with two marker genes for secondary cell wall synthesis identified additional candidate secondary cell wall-related genes. Coexpressed genes included protein kinases, transcription factors, and unclassified groups that were not previously reported with secondary cell wall-associated genes. M. truncatula has been recognized as an excellent model plant for legume genomics. The stem tissue transcriptome analysis, described here, indicates that M. truncatula has utility as a model plant for cell wall genomics in legumes in general and shows excellent potential for translating gene discoveries to its close relative, cultivated alfalfa, in particular. The natural variation for stem cell wall traits in Medicago may offer a new tool to study an expanded repertoire of valuable agronomic traits in related species, including woody dicots in the eurosid I clade.
    BioEnergy Research 01/2009; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a promising bioenergy and bioproduct feedstock because of its high yield, N-fixation capacity, potential for planting in rotation with corn (Zea mays L.), and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on biomass yield, cellulosic ethanol traits, and paper pulp fiber characteristics of alfalfa stems. Landscape position (summit and mild slope), season of harvest (four harvests per season), and multiple years (2005 and 2006) provided environmental variation. Alfalfa stem samples were analyzed for cell wall carbohydrate and lignin concentration. Stems were subjected to dilute acid pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, and pulping processes to measure relevant cellulosic ethanol and paper production traits. Landscape position was not a significant source of variation for yield or any biomass quality trait. Yields varied among harvests in 2005 (1,410-3,265 kg ha⁻¹) and 2006 (1,610-3,795 kg ha⁻¹). All cell wall, conversion test, and paper production traits exhibited year by harvest interactions with no clear pattern. Total carbohydrates and lignin ranged from 440 to 531 g kg⁻¹ DM and from 113 to 161 g kg⁻¹ DM, respectively. Release of cell wall sugars by the conversion test ranged widely (419 to 962 g kg⁻¹ DM). Fiber traits were similarly variable with length and fine content ranging from 1.24 to 1.59 mm and from 15.2% to 21.9%, respectively. Utilizing alfalfa biomass for cellulosic ethanol and paper pulp production will involve dealing with significant feedstock quality variation due to growth environment.
    BioEnergy Research 01/2009; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    Judy A. Schnurr, Hans-Joachim G. Jung, Deborah A. Samac
    Crop Science 01/2007; 47(4). · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] embryo development, cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) derived from UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) (uronic acids, arabinose, xylose) exhibited a linear increase during the period of 25-45 days after flowering (daf). At embryo maturity, CWPs derived from UDP-GlcA accounted for 39% of total CWPs. To ascertain the relative importance of the nucleotide sugar oxidation (NSO) and the myo-inositol oxidation (MIO) pathways to UDP-GlcA biosynthesis, UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) dehydrogenase (UDP-Glc DH, EC 1.1.1.22) and UDP-glucuronic acid pyrophosphorylase (UDP-GlcA PPase, EC 2.7.7.44) activities, respectively, were measured in desalted extracts of developing embryos. UDP-Glc DH and UDP-GlcA PPase activities, expressed on a per seed basis, increased 3.5- and 3.9-fold, respectively, during the period of 25-45 daf. However, UDP-GlcA PPase activity was 35-50-fold greater than UDP-Glc DH activity. The soybean UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase gene (USP1), a homolog of pea USP, and a candidate gene for UDP-GlcA PPase, was cloned and the recombinant enzyme characterized. Recombinant soybean USP1 (71 kDa) exhibited high activity with glucuronic acid 1-phosphate (GlcA-1-P), glucose 1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) and galactose 1-phosphate (Gal-1-P), but low activity with mannose 1-phosphate (Man-1-P), N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate and Glc-6-P. Determination of kinetic constants indicated that USP1 has a higher affinity for GlcA-1-P (Km= 0.14 ± 0.02 mM) than for Glc-1-P (Km= 0.23 ± 0.02 mM). Semiquantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcript levels of the UDP-glucose DH (UGD) and USP gene families in developing soybean embryos. Transcript levels, normalized to the 18S rRNA controls, were greater for UGD than USP throughout embryo development. The possibility that USP serves as UDP-GlcA PPase, the terminal enzyme of the MIO pathway, is discussed.
    Physiologia Plantarum 10/2006; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alfalfa stems, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass; perennial herbaceous species that have potential as biomass energy crops in temperate regions; were evaluated for their bioconversion potential as energy crops. Each forage species was harvested at two or three maturity stages and analyzed for carbohydrates, lignin, protein, lipid, organic acids, and mineral composition. The biomass samples were also evaluated for sugar yields following pretreatment with dilute sulfuric followed by enzymatic saccharification using a commercial cellulase preparation. Total carbohydrate content of the plants varied from 518 to 655 g kg−1 dry matter (DM) and cellulose concentration from 209 to 322 g kg−1 DM. Carbohydrate and lignin contents were lower for samples from early maturity samples compared to samples from late maturity harvests. Several important trends were observed in regards to the efficiency of sugar recovery following treatments with dilute acid and cellulase. First, a significant amount of the available carbohydrates were in the form of soluble sugars and storage carbohydrates (4.3–16.3% wt/wt). Recovery of soluble sugars following dilute acid pretreatment was problematic, especially that of fructose. Fructose was found to be extremely labile to the dilute acid pretreatments. Second, the efficiency at which available glucose was recovered was inversely correlated to maturity and lignin content. However, total glucose yields were higher for the later maturities because of higher cellulose contents compared to the earlier maturity samples. Finally, cell wall polysaccharides, as determined by the widely applied detergent fiber system were found to be inaccurate. The detergent fiber method consistently over-estimated cellulose and hemicellulose and underestimated lignin by substantial amounts.
    Biomass and Bioenergy 10/2006; · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Hans-Joachim G Jung, Per Åman, Hadden Graham
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of fibre from lucerne (Medicago sativa L) hay and rumen digesta from a cow fed the hay, as well as the variation in fibre composition due to particle size and time post-feeding for the digesta, was examined. Neutral sugar residues accounted for the greatest proportion of the fibre in all samples. The feed contained equal amounts of uronic acid residues and Klason liynin, while in the digesta uronic acid residue contents were decreased and Klason lignin levels were increased. Esterified phenolics accounted for less than 0.5 % of the fibre in all samples. Glucose was the primary sugar residue in the fibre, but xylose levels increased substantially in the digesta. The levels of other sugar residues declined in the digesta relative to the feed. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the major esterified phenolics, and ferulic acid levels declined relative to the total phenolic acids in the digesta. The degree of variation in composition among particle size fractions or in digesta samples with time afer feeding were small relative to those observed between the feed and digesta. Invitro degradability reflected differences in fibre composition, with a large difference between lucerne hay and rumen digesta, but only minor differences among digesta samples collected from different times after feeding.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 09/2006; 51(3):411 - 416. · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Hans-Joachim G Jung, Kenneth P Vogel
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    ABSTRACT: Five cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L) and four cultivars of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) were harvested at vegetative, boot and heading stages of maturity. Leaf and stem fractions were analysed for detergent fibre composition and 48-h ruminal in-vitro degradability, ester- and ether-linked non-core lignin phenolic acids, and core lignin composition. Big bluestem leaves contained more neutral detergent fibre than switchgrass, but general composition of the fibre did not differ. Stem fibre of switchgrass had relatively lower levels of cellulose and lignin at the vegetative stage than observed in big bluestem. Esterified and etherified p-coumaric and ferulic acid concentrations were generally higher in switchgrass plant parts. Yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products from core lignin was greater for switchgrass leaves, but very little difference in composition was noted. Leaf tissue contained lower concentrations of all lignin components than stems. Maturation resulted in increased total lignification, but all components did not respond in the same manner. Variation for all measures of lignification seemed to be as great within species as between the grass species. Degradability of fibre declined with maturation. The only species difference was that switchgrass fibre was more degradable at the vegetative stage. Relationships between lignification and fibre degradability were in agreement with some, but not all, previously reported relationships. Concentration of core lignin was only a significant predictor of fibre degradability when the relationship was examined across maturity stages. Within a stage of maturity, lignin composition was more closely related to fibre degradability than was concentration. However, the best predictors of fibre digestibility differed among species, plant part and maturity.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 09/2006; 59(2):169 - 176. · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Hans-Joachim G Jung, Dwayne R Buxtono
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-five inbred maize (Zea mays L) lines were evaluated for genetic variation in stem cell-wall concentration, composition and degradability, and for relationships among cell-wall components and polysaccharide degradability. Cell-wall neutral sugars, uronic acids, Klason lignin, and ester- and ether-linked phenolic acids were measured on lower stem internode samples collected at the time of silking in 2 years. Twenty-four and 96 h in-vitro ruminal fermentations were used to determine the rapidly and potentially degradable cell-wall polysaccharide fractions, respectively. Genetic variation (P < 0.05) was found for all measures of cell-wall composition and many estimates of rapidly and potentially degradable cell-wall polysaccharide components. Inbred line means varied by 50–300% for most traits. Three brown midrib mutant inbred lines included in the study were not the lowest in lignin content nor did they exhibit the greatest cell-wall degradabilities in this population of inbred maize. Year of growth (environment) influenced (P < 0.05) cell-wall traits even though reproductive physiological maturity at sampling was similar in both years. Degradability of the cell-wall polysaccharide components were intercorrelated (P < 0.05) within the rapidly and potentially degradable fractions, but rate and extent of degradation of the cell-wall components were not correlated (P > 0.05), except for uronic acids. A multiple regression model of principal components (R2 = 0.41, P < 0.05) indicated that cell-wall lignification and substitution of wall polymers with phenolic and uronic acids were negatively associated, and pectic substances were positively related with rapid polysaccharide degradation. Very little of the variation (R2 = 0.15, P < 0.05) in potential cell-wall polysaccharide degradation could be explained by this multiple regression analysis. There is a large degree of genetic variation among current inbred maize lines for stem cell-wall quality traits, which should allow improvement of maize as a forage crop. Because of the complex matrix interactions in cell-wall organization, however, no single cell-wall component, or simple combination, can accurately predict degradability of maize cell walls.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 09/2006; 66(3):313 - 322. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical and biological delignification methods were used to investigate the relationship between the concentration and composition of lignin and degradation of forage cell walls. Stem material from lucerne (Medicago sativa L), smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) and maize (Zea mays L) stalks was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium chlorite, sodium hydroxide, nitrobenzene, and the lignolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Klason lignin and esterified and etherified phenolic acids were delermined. Cell wall neutral sugar and uronic acid composition and the extent of in-vitro degradability were measured. Chemical delignification generally removed lignin. but the fungal treatment resulted in the removal of more polysaccharide than lignin. The concentrations of esterfied and etherified p-coumaric and ferulic acids were generally reduced in treated cell walls; chlorite treatment preferentially removing p-coumaric acid whereas nitrobenzene treatment removed more ferulic acid. Syringyl moieties were completely removed from the core lignin polymer by nitrobenzene treatment of forage stems. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide and nitrobenzene were generally the most effective delignification treatments for improving polysaccharide degradability, with the grass species responding similarly to delignification whereas lucerne was somewhat less responsive. Fungal delignification, under these experimental conditions, did not improve cell wall degradability of these forages. Multiple regression and covariate analyses indicated that the lignin components measured were not powerful predictors of cell wall degradability. Neither the concentration nor the composition of the lignin fractions was consistently correlated with degradation. This lack of effect was attributed to the more generalised disruption of the cell wall matrix structure by delignification treatments.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 09/2006; 58(3):347 - 355. · 1.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

831 Citations
93.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2014
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Agricultural Research Service
      Kerrville, Texas, United States
  • 1994–2010
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Agricultural Research Service
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2006
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
    • Iowa State University
      Ames, Iowa, United States