[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Brazil 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. americanus' cause huanglongbing (also known as greening), the most destructive citrus disease. A shift in pathogen prevalence was observed over time, with a disproportional increase in 'Ca. L. asiaticus' occurrence. Graft transmission experiments were used for a comparative study of both species using budsticks from symptomatic branches of field-affected trees as inoculum. The plants were inoculated with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' or 'Ca. L. americanus' alone, or simultaneously with both species. Symptom manifestation and conventional and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used for plant evaluations. 'Ca. L. americanus' was detected mainly in symptomatic plants and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' was detected in symptomatic plants as well as in infected plants prior to symptom manifestation. Transmission percentages varied from 54.7 to 88.0% for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 10.0 to 45.2% for 'Ca. L. americanus' in two experiments. In co-inoculated plants, 12.9% contained 'Ca. L. americanus' only, 40.3% contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' only, and 19.3% contained both species. Average bacterial titers for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. americanus', in log cells per gram of leaf midrib, were 6.42 and 4.87 for the experimental plants and 6.67 and 5.74 for the field trees used as the source of inoculum. The higher bacterial populations of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants provided an explanation for the disproportional increase in field prevalence of this species over time, based on the greater likelihood for pathogen transmission by the insect vector.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Difficulties in reproducing the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease symptoms in experimental plants have delayed implementation of studies to better understand the essential aspects of this important disease. In an extensive study, cultivars of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa using procedures that included root immersion, and stem absorption, pricking, or infiltration of the inoculum into plants of different ages. Inoculum consisted of 5-day-old cultures or cell suspensions of CVC strain 9a5c diluted in phosphate-buffered saline. Inoculated plants and controls were grown, or transferred just after inoculation, to 5-liter pots or 72-cell foam trays. Approximately 4, 5, 9, and 12 months after inoculation, leaves were collected and processed for polymerase chain reaction analysis or X. fastidiosa isolation on BCYE agar medium. Root immersion and stem inoculation of 4- and 6-month-old plants resulted in low percentages of symptomatic (0 to 7%) and plants positive by isolation (0 to 9%). Pinpricked or injected stems of 1-month-old seedlings resulted in high percentages of plants symptomatic (29 and 90% in Pera Rio, 75, 59, and 83% in Valencia, and 77% in Natal) or positive by isolation (26 and 93% in Pera Rio, 98, 96, and 83% in Valencia, and 77% in Natal). In foam trays, the seedlings grew less, the incubation period was shorter, and disease severity was higher than in pots. This system allows testing of higher numbers of plants in a reduced space with a more precise reproduction of the experimental conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xylella fastidiosa isolate 8.1.b obtained from a sweet orange tree affected by citrus variegated chlorosis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and shown in 1993 to be the causal agent of the disease, was cloned by repeated culture in liquid and on solid PW medium, yielding triply cloned strain 9a5c. The eighth and the 16th passages of strain 9a5c were mechanically inoculated into sweet orange plants. Presence of X. fastidiosa in sweet orange leaves of shoots having grown after inoculation (first-flush shoots) was detected by DAS-ELISA and PCR. Thirty-eight days after inoculation, 70% of the 20 inoculated plants tested positive, and all plants gave strong positive reactions 90 days after inoculation. Symptoms first appeared after 3 months and were conspicuous after 5 months. X. fastidiosa was reisolated from sweet orange leaves, 44 days after inoculation. These results indicate that X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c, derived from pathogenic isolate 8.1.b by triply cloning, is also pathogenic. Strain 9a5c is now used for the X. fastidiosa genome sequencing project undertaken on a large scale in Brazil.http://link. springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00284/bibs/39n2p106.html
Current Microbiology 09/1999; 39(2):106-8. · 1.52 Impact Factor