[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of carvacrol and methyl cinnamate vapors incorporated into strawberry puree edible films on the postharvest quality of strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa) was investigated. Fresh strawberries were packed in clamshells and kept at 10 °C for 10 days with 90% RH. Strawberry puree edible films, applied in the clamshell, served as carriers for the controlled release of natural antimicrobial compounds without direct contact with the fruit. Changes in weight loss, visible decay, firmness, surface color, total soluble solids content, total soluble phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of strawberries during storage were evaluated. A significant delay and reduction in the severity of visible decay was observed in fruit exposed to antimicrobial vapors. Carvacrol and methyl cinnamate vapors released from the films helped to maintain firmness and brightness of strawberries as compare to the untreated strawberries. The natural antimicrobial vapors also increased the total soluble phenolics content and antioxidant activity of fruit at the end of the storage period.
Postharvest Biology and Technology 03/2014; 89:11–18. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing strawberry consumption has led to a growing safety concern since they are not washed after harvest. Antimicrobial edible coating could be an effective postharvest technique to assure microbial safety and, at the same time, retain overall quality of the fruits. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Botrytis cinerea and several physical properties (turbidity, viscosity and whitish index) of alginate coating. A full factorial design was used to select the concentrations of carvacrol and methyl cinnamate based on their effect against E. coli and B. cinerea. A central composite design was then performed to evaluate the effects/interactions of the two antimicrobials on the coating characteristics. The results from analysis of variance showed the significant fitting of all responses to the quadratic model. Considering the desirable responses, the optimal concentrations were at 0.98% (w/w) carvacrol and 1.45% (w/w) methyl cinnamate.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 01/2014; · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic (TSP) contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colored potatoes), and fresh-cut fruit, vegetables and root crops (apple wedge, iceberg lettuce, broccoli floret and stem, and sliced radish, daikon, and parsnip) were treated with increasing UV-B dose levels (1.3–5.9 kJ m−2) and followed by incubation to allow for the samples to respond. TSP levels were measured. The changes in TSP were species-dependent. Whole grapes, blueberries, pink and red cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn, colored potatoes and sweet potatoes did not benefit from UV-B exposure. Strawberries showed a slight, but significant increase in TSP at the highest UV-B dose. UV-B exposure did not affect TSP of apple wedge, broccoli floret and stem, sliced radish and daikon after incubation. Fresh-cut lettuce and parsnip showed significant 1.2 and 2.3 times increase, respectively, in TSP mostly due to the combination effect of wounding and UV-B light exposure after 3 d of incubation. UV-B light exposure (1.3–5.9 kJ m−2) can be used as an additional processing step on selected specialty crops to enhance their soluble phenolic contents.
Postharvest Biology and Technology 01/2014; 93:72–82. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were examined for the electrospun samples. The electrospun PVA samples generally had thinner and more uniform fibers than the electrospun PLA samples. For the PVA samples, an increase in total solids content and PVA to gelatin ratio generally resulted in higher average fiber diameter values and wider diameter distributions. Pollock gelatin in both types of electrospun samples remained amorphous. The PVA in electrospun samples had comparable melting temperatures to that of neat PVA, whereas the PLA in electrospun samples had slightly lower melting temperatures than that of neat PLA. Also, the PLA in electrospun samples had crystallization temperatures approximately 30°C lower than that in neat PLA. This was due to better alignment of PLA chains during electrospinning, which resulted in the chains being more readily crystallized at lower temperatures. In addition, the electrospun PVA samples completely dissolved in water at room temperature after soaking for one day, whereas the electrospun PLA samples remained intact even after soaking for three days.
International journal of biological macromolecules 01/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wounding stresses resulting from fresh-cut processing are known to enhance the antioxidant capacity (AC) of carrots by increasing the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light exposure further promotes the formation of phenolic compounds. Changes in total soluble phenolics (TSP), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), total carotenoids, AC, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity of five commercial fresh-cut carrot products (baby carrots, carrot stixx, shredded carrots, crinkle cut coins, and oblong chips) were evaluated after exposure to UV-B dosage at 141.4mJ/cm(2). Significant increases in TSP, AC and 5-CQA levels were observed for each sample following UV-B exposure. Increases in PAL activity were also observed in all carrot products, except crinkle cut coins. Total carotenoids of the carrot products were unchanged by UV-B exposure. Increases in AC levels corresponded directly with increases in the area/weight ratio (exposure area) of the fresh-cut carrot products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cold- and warm-water fish gelatin granules were exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation for doses up to 29.7 J/cm(2) . Solutions and films were prepared from the granules. Gel electrophoresis and refractive index were used to examine changes in molecular weight of the samples. Also, the gel strength and rheological properties of the solutions as well as the tensile and water vapor barrier properties of the films were characterized. SDS-PAGE and refractive index results indicated cross-linking of gelatin chains after exposure to radiation. Interestingly, UV-B treated samples displayed higher gel strengths, with cold- and warm-water fish gelatin having gel strength increases from 1.39 to 2.11 N and from 7.15 to 8.34 N, respectively. In addition, both gelatin samples exhibited an increase in viscosity for higher UV doses. For gelatin films, the cold-water fish gelatin samples made from irradiated granules showed greater tensile strength. In comparison, the warm-water gelatin films made from irradiated granules had lower tensile strength, but better water vapor barrier properties. This might be due to the UV induced cross-linking in warm-water gelatin that disrupted helical structures.
Journal of Food Science 08/2012; 77(9):E215-E223. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5 and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and tomato-based film-forming solutions and 0.5 and 0.75% cinnamaldehyde (active ingredient of cinnamon oil) to apple-based film-forming solutions on sensory properties of cooked chicken wrapped with these films. Paired preference tests indicated no difference between baked chicken wrapped with tomato and apple films containing 0.5% carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde compared to chicken wrapped with tomato or apple films without the plant antimicrobials. The taste panel indicated a higher preference for carvacrol-containing tomato-coated chicken over the corresponding apple coating. There was also a higher preference for cinnamaldehyde-containing apple films over corresponding carvacrol-containing wrapping. Films containing antibacterial active compounds derived from essential oils can be used to protect raw chicken pieces against bacterial contamination without adversely affecting preferences of wrapped chicken pieces after baking.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2012; 60(32):7799-804. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light as a postharvest treatment to enhance the antioxidant content of carrots and fresh-cut carrot products was evaluated. Four levels of UV-B dose ranging from 1.3 to 12 kJ m(-2) were applied to whole, baby and various styles of cut carrots, and the changes in antioxidant capacity, total soluble phenolics and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 126.96.36.199) activity were measured after a 3 day incubation period at 15 °C and 45% relative humidity.
Both cutting style and dose level were factors in determining carrot responses to UV-B treatment. Antioxidant capacity increased significantly (1.4-6.6-fold). Total soluble phenolic results correlated directly with those of antioxidant capacity (R(2) = 0.953), indicating that the enhancements achieved were due to an increase in phenolic content. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) was the primary phenolic responsible for this increase. Higher PAL activity was also observed in UV-B-treated samples, indicating that the increase in 5-CQA was a biological response to UV-B exposure.
UV-B treatment has the potential to increase the nutritional value of carrots and offers an exciting opportunity to increase consumer accessibility to dietary choices that are rich in antioxidants.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 03/2012; 92(11):2341-8. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the gelation, thermal, mechanical, and oxygen permeability properties of different mammalian, warm- and cold-water fish gelatin solutions and films. Mammalian gelatin solutions had the highest gel set temperatures, followed by warm-water fish and then cold-water fish gelatin solutions. These differences were related to concentrations of imino acids present in each gelatin, with mammalian gelatin having the highest and cold-water fish gelatin having the lowest concentrations. Mammalian and warm-water fish gelatin films contained helical structures, whereas cold-water fish gelatin films were amorphous. This was due to the films being dried at room temperature (23 °C), which was below or near the gelation temperatures of mammalian and warm-water fish gelatin solutions and well above the gelation temperature of cold-water fish gelatin solutions. Tensile strength, percent elongation, and puncture deformation were highest in mammalian gelatin films, followed by warm-water fish gelatin film and then by cold-water fish gelatin films. Oxygen permeability values of cold-water fish gelatin films were significantly lower than those for mammalian gelatin films. These differences were most likely due to higher moisture sorption in mammalian gelatin films, leading to higher oxygen diffusivity.
Journal of Food Science 09/2011; 76(7):E519-24. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fruit and vegetable skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and phenols with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These flavoring plant essential oil components are generally regarded as safe. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenols have the potential to be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica of apple skin polyphenols at 0% to 10% (w/w) concentrations in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films. Commercial apple skin polyphenol powder had a water activity of 0.44 and high total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g, respectively). Antimicrobial activities of edible film containing apple skin polyphenols were determined by the overlay method. Apple edible film with apple skin polyphenols was highly effective against L. monocytogenes. The minimum concentration need to inactive L. monocytogenes was 1.5%. However, apple skin polyphenols did not show any antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica even at 10% level. The presence of apple skin polyphenols reduced water vapor permeability of films. Apple skin polyphenols increased elongation of films and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that apple skin polyphenols can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by direct contact.
Journal of Food Science 03/2011; 76(2):M149-55. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellulose ﬁbers were miniaturized by microﬂuidics technology to decrease their size and incorporated in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) ﬁlms to study the effect of addition of such ﬁbers on the mechanical and barrier properties of HPMC ﬁlms suitable for application in food packaging. The particle size of ﬁbers and the mechanical properties, water vapor and oxygen permeabilities, total pore volume, and light
and electron microscopy micrographs of ﬁlms were analyzed. Incorporation of cellulose ﬁbers in the ﬁlms improved their mechanical and barrier properties signiﬁcantly. This study is the ﬁrst to investigate the use of microﬂuidics technology for the purpose of decreasing the size of cellulose ﬁbers and the addition of reduced size microﬁbers to improve physical properties of HPMC ﬁlms.
Journal of Food Engineering 01/2011; 104(1):154-160. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catastrophic phase inversion (CPI) was used as a low-energy emulsification method to prepare oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions in a lipid (Acetem)/water/nonionic surfactant (Tween 60) system. CPIs in which water-in-oil emulsions (W/O) are transformed into oil-in-water emulsions (O/W) were induced by changes in the phase ratio. Dynamic phase inversion emulsification was achieved by slowly increasing the water volume fraction (fw) to obtain O/W emulsions from water in oil emulsions. Composition and processing variables were optimized to minimize droplet size and polydispersity index (PdI). It was found that addition of the continuous phase to the dispersed phase following the standard CPI procedure resulted in the formation of oil droplets with diameters of 100-200 nm. Droplet size distribution during CPI and emulsification time depended on stirring speed and surfactant concentration. Droplet sizes in the inverted emulsions were compared to those obtained by direct emulsification: The process time to reach droplet sizes of around 100 nm was reduced by 12 times by using CPI emulsification. The Acetem/water nanoemulsion was also used as a carrier to incorporate oregano and cinnamon essential oils into soy protein edible films. The resulting composite films containing oregano oil showed better moisture barrier and mechanical properties compared to soy protein films.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2010; 58(22):11932-8. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) is the U.S.A.'s largest commercial fishery, with an annual catch of over 1 million tons. During pollock processing, the skins are discarded or made into fish meal, despite their value for gelatin production. The absence of gelatin-processing facilities in Alaska necessitates drying of the skins before transport to decrease the moisture content, but conventional hot-air drying is expensive. This study evaluated a less energy-intensive technology, the use of desiccants for reducing water weight in pollock skins prior to shipment. To ensure that the functional properties of gelatin obtained from dried pollock skins were not affected during desiccation, gelatins were prepared from each skin-drying treatment and compared with gelatin extracted from air-dried pollock skins. None of the desiccation treatments decreased the gel strength of pollock skin gelatin, nor were there major differences in gelling temperature or viscosity among the gelatin solutions. This suggests that pollock skins can be economically stabilized for transport to a gelatin-processing facility through the use of regenerable desiccants that are already common in the food industry. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Pollock skins destined for gelatin production can be stabilized using chemical desiccants prior to shipment. The dehydration process does not harm the functional properties of gelatin, such as gel strength, gelling temperature, and viscosity. This research suggests that fish skins can be economically stabilized for transport to a gelatin-processing facility through the use of regenerable desiccants that are already common in the food industry.
Journal of Food Science 05/2010; 75(4):C317-21. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been stated that hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) based films have promising applications in the food industry because of their environmental appeal, low cost, flexibility and transparency. Nevertheless, their mechanical and moisture barrier properties should be improved. The aim of this work was to enhance these properties by reinforcing the films with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at the nano scale level. Three sizes of MCC nanoparticles were incorporated into HPMC edible films at different concentrations. Identical MCC nanoparticles were lipid coated (LC) prior to casting into HPMC/LC-MCC composite films. The films were examined for mechanical and moisture barrier properties verifying how the addition of cellulose nanoparticles affected the water affinities (water adsorption/desorption isotherms) and the diffusion coefficients. The expected reinforcing effect of the MCC was observed: HPMC/MCC and HPMC/LC-MCC films showed up to 53% and 48% increase, respectively, in tensile strength values in comparison with unfilled HPMC films. Furthermore, addition of unmodified MCC nanoparticles reduced the moisture permeability up to 40% and use of LC-MCC reduced this value up to 50%. Water vapor permeability was mainly influenced by the differences in water solubility of different composite films since, in spite of the increase in water diffusivity values with the incorporation of MCC to HPMC films, better moisture barrier properties were achieved for HPMC/MCC and HPMC/LC-MCC composite films than for HPMC films.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 01/2010; · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin, produced from shellfish waste, which may be employed to elaborate edible films or coatings to enhance shelf life of food products. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nanofiller (cellulose nanofibers, CNF) and plasticizer (glycerol) on tensile properties (tensile strength-TS, elongation at break-EB, and Young's modulus-YM), water vapor permeability (WVP), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of chitosan edible films, and to establish a formulation to optimize their properties. The experiment was conducted according to a central composite design, with 2 variables: CNF (0 to 20 g/100 g) and glycerol (0 to 30 g/100 g) concentrations in the film (on a dry basis), which was produced by the so-called casting technique. Most responses (except by EB) were favored by high CNF concentrations and low glycerol contents. The optimization was based on maximizing TS, YM, and T(g), and decreasing WVP, while maintaining a minimum acceptable EB of 10%. The optimum conditions were defined as: glycerol concentration, 18 g/100 g; and CNF concentration, 15 g/100 g. AFM imaging of films suggested good dispersion of the CNF and good CNF-matrix interactions, which explains the good performance of the nanocomposite films. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer which may be used to elaborate edible films or coatings to enhance shelf life of foods. This study demonstrates how cellulose nanofibers (CNF) can improve the mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of chitosan films. A nanocomposite film with 15% CNF and plasticized with 18% glycerol was comparable to some synthetic polymers in terms of strength and stiffness, but with poorer elongation and water vapor barrier, indicating that they can be used for applications that do not require high flexibility and/or water vapor barrier. The more important advantage of such films when compared to synthetic polymer films is their environmentally friendly properties.
Journal of Food Science 12/2009; 75(1):N1-7. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.
Journal of Food Science 09/2009; 74(7):M372-8. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils (EOs) in tomato puree film-forming solutions (TPFFS) formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations were investigated in this study. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor-phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The results indicate that the antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: oregano oil > allspice oil > garlic oil. Listeria monocytogenes was less resistant to EO vapors, while E. coli O157:H7 was more resistant to EOs as determined by both overlay and vapor-phase diffusion tests. The presence of plant EO antimicrobials reduced the viscosity of TPFFS at the higher shear rates, but did not affect water vapor permeability of films. EOs increased elongation and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that the 3 plant-derived EOs can be used to prepare tomato-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by both direct contact and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.
Journal of Food Science 09/2009; 74(7):M390-7. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellulose nanoreinforcements have been used to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Nanocomposite edible films have been developed by adding cellulose nanofibers (CNF) in different concentrations (up to 36 g/100 g) as nanoreinforcement to mango puree based edible films. The effect of CNF was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the nanocomposite films. CNF were effective in increasing tensile strength, and its effect on Young's modulus was even more noticeable, especially at higher concentrations, suggesting the formation of a fibrillar network within the matrix. The addition of CNF was also effective to improve water vapor barrier of the films. Its influence on T(g) was small but significant. The study demonstrated that the properties of mango puree edible films can be significantly improved through CNF reinforcement.
Journal of Food Science 07/2009; 74(5):N31-5. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fish gelatin films made from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) were dried at 4°C, 23°C, 40°C, and 60°C. The tensile, thermal, thermal stability, water sorption, and water vapor permeability properties were examined for cold-cast gelatin films (dried below gelation temperature at 4°C) and hot-cast gelatin films (dried above gelation temperature at the higher temperatures). Cold-cast gelatin films retained helical-structured gelatin, whereas hot-cast gelatin films were amorphous. This resulted in cold-cast gelatin films having higher tensile strength and percent elongation values than hot-cast gelatin films. Also, water sorption isotherms indicated cold-cast gelatin films had higher equilibrium moisture contents than hot-cast gelatin films, except at low and high relative humidity. In addition, cold-cast gelatin films had water vapor permeability values two to three times higher than those of hot-cast gelatin films. The higher water vapor permeability values might in part be due to higher moisture contents found in cold-cast gelatin films.