Arturo Soto-Matos

PharmaMar, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Are you Arturo Soto-Matos?

Claim your profile

Publications (19)64.85 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: PM00104 (Zalypsis(®)) is a novel marine-derived compound that has shown antineoplastic activity against a number of human tumour cell lines. Myelosuppression was found to be a PM00104 dose-limiting toxicity during phase I studies. The objective of this study was to characterize the time course of neutropenia after intravenous PM00104 administration in cancer patients. METHODS: Absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) and pharmacokinetic data from 144 patients receiving PM00104 doses ranging from 0.053 to 5 mg/m(2) were used to estimate the system-related (baseline ANC [Circ(0)], mean transit time [MTT], feedback on proliferation [γ] and maturation [δ]) and drug-specific (first-order elimination rate constant from effect compartment [k(e0)] [α and β]) parameters of a modified Friberg's model. The concentrations in the effect compartment (C(e)) were assumed to reduce the proliferation rate of the progenitor cells according to the function [Formula: see text] Model evaluation and simulations were undertaken to evaluate the effect of dose intensity, dose density and the intravenous infusion duration on severe neutropenia incidence. RESULTS: The typical values (between-subject variability [%]) of the Circ(0), MTT, γ, δ, k(e0), α and β were estimated to be 5.66 × 10(9) cells/L (13 %), 149 h (29 %), 0.136, 0.191, 0.00639 h(-1) (32 %), 0.332 L/µg (24 %) and 1.47, respectively. Age, bodyweight, sex, serum albumin, total protein, liver metastases, number of previous chemotherapy lines and performance status were not associated with model parameters. The model evaluation evidenced an accurate prediction of the neutropenia grade 3 and/or 4 incidence. Simulations indicated that PM00104 dose and dosing interval, but not infusion duration, were the main determinants of the neutropenia severity and duration. CONCLUSIONS: The time course of neutropenia following PM00104 was well characterized by the model developed. The model-predicted time course of the ANCs and its variability confirmed that neutropenia is reversible, of short duration and non-cumulative.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 10/2012; · 6.11 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and recommended phase II dose (RD) of elisidepsin. METHODS: Eligible patients with refractory, advanced solid tumors received elisidepsin as 24-h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks. Pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed during cycles 1 and 2. RESULTS: Forty-two patients received elisidepsin at doses from 0.5 to 6.8 mg/m(2). The MTD was 6.8 mg/m(2), and the RD was 5.5 mg/m(2). Cohort expansion at the RD was done at a fixed dose (FD) of 10 mg, considered equivalent to 5.5 mg/m(2). DLTs (reversible grade 3 transaminase increases) occurred at 6.8 mg/m(2) (n = 2 patients), 5.5 mg/m(2) (n = 1), and 10 mg FD (n = 1). One patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma achieved complete response for >38 months, and 12 patients had disease stabilization (8 for ≥3 months). Median time-to-progression for these 12 patients was 4.8 months. Plasma elisidepsin concentrations increased with dose. No drug accumulation between cycles was found. No correlation was observed between body surface area (BSA) and plasma clearance; therefore, elisidepsin was given as flat dose (in mg) in the expansion cohort at the RD and in ongoing clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Elisidepsin is well tolerated with predictable reversible transaminase increases. Encouraging preliminary evidence of antitumor activity was observed.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2012; · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PM00104 binds guanines at DNA minor grooves, impacting DNA replication and transcription. A phase I study was undertaken to investigate safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), recommended phase II dose (RP2D), pharmacokinetics (PKs) and preliminary antitumour activity of PM00104 as a 1- or 3-h infusion three-weekly. Patients with advanced solid tumours received PM00104 in a dose escalation trial, as guided by toxicity and PK data. A total of 47 patients were treated; 27 patients on the 1-h schedule (0.23-3.6 mg m(-2)) and 20 patients on the 3-h schedule (1.8-3.5 mg m(-2)). Dose-limiting toxicities comprised reversible nausea, vomiting, fatigue, elevated transaminases and thrombocytopenia, establishing the 1-h schedule RP2D at 3.0 mg m(-2). With the 3-h schedule, DLTs of reversible hypotension and neutropenia established the RP2D at 2.8 mg m(-2). Common PM00104-related adverse events at the RP2D comprised grade 1-2 nausea, fatigue and myelosuppression. In both schedules, PKs increased linearly, but doses over the 1-h schedule RP2D resulted in higher than proportional increases in exposure. A patient with advanced urothelial carcinoma had RECIST shrinkage by 49%, and three patients had RECIST stable disease ≥6 months. PM00104 is well tolerated, with preliminary evidence of antitumour activity observed. The 1-h 3-weekly schedule is being assessed in phase II clinical trials.
    British Journal of Cancer 04/2012; 106(8):1379-85. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This analysis determined the incidence of serious rhabdomyolysis events reported during trabectedin treatment since the first phase I clinical trial in April 1996 up to September 2010. Search was done in the Yondelis(®) Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials databases using a list of terms according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA, v. 13.1), followed by a medical review of all cases retrieved. Total estimated sample was 10,841 patients: 2,789 from clinical trials; 3,926 from compassionate use programs; and 4,126 treated in the marketplace. Two groups were identified: (1) rhabdomyolysis and (2) clinically relevant creatine phosphokinase (CPK) increases without acute renal failure (ARF). Descriptive analysis included demographic, clinical/laboratory data, and contributing/confounding factors. Potential predictive factors were evaluated by multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Possible changes of pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients with rhabdomyolysis were explored using a population PK model. The global incidence of rhabdomyolysis was 0.7%, and most cases occurred in Cycle 2 of treatment. The incidence of fatal cases was 0.3%. None of the variables evaluated to detect potential risk factors of rhabdomyolysis were predictive. Additionally, CPK increases (without ARF) were detected in 0.4% of patients as an incidental finding with good prognosis. Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon event during trabectedin treatment. Multivariate analyses did not show any potential factor that could be predictive or represent a significantly higher risk of developing rhabdomyolysis. Nevertheless, close patient monitoring and adherence to drug administration guidelines may help to limit the incidence of this event.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 04/2012; 69(6):1557-65. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This dose-escalating phase I clinical trial was designed to determine the recommended dose (RD) and to assess the safety and feasibility of weekly plitidepsin (1-hour i.v. infusion, Days 1, 8 and 15) combined with carboplatin (1-hour i.v. infusion, Day 1, after plitidepsin) in 4-week (q4wk) cycles given to patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphomas. Twenty patients were enrolled and evaluable for both safety and efficacy. The starting dose was plitidepsin 1.8 mg/m(2) and carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) = 5 min*mg/ml; dose escalation proceeded based on worst toxicity in the previous cohort. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was plitidepsin 3.0 mg/m(2) and carboplatin AUC = 5 min*mg/ml, with grade 3 transaminase increases as the most common dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). The RD for phase II studies was plitidepsin 2.4 mg/m(2) and carboplatin AUC = 5 min*mg/ml, with fatigue, myalgia and nausea as the most common drug-related adverse events (AEs). No unexpected toxicity was seen. Twelve patients (60%), ten of whom were heavily pretreated (≥2 previous chemotherapy lines) showed stable disease (SD), with a median time to progression (TTP) of 4.4 months. In conclusion, plitidepsin 2.4 mg/m(2) and carboplatin AUC = 5 min*mg/ml is a safe dose for future phase II studies evaluating the use of this combination in cancer patients potentially sensitive to platinum-based therapy.
    Investigational New Drugs 12/2011; 29(6):1406-13. · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: No abstract available.
    Acta Haematologica 09/2011; 126(4):238-9; author reply 240. · 0.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of trabectedin has never been reported in patients with impaired renal function or in patients on hemodialysis. We examined trabectedin PK in a patient on hemodialysis, starting trabectedin therapy at a standard dose for recurrence of a retroperitoneal myxoid liposarcoma that had occurred under immunosuppressive drugs for kidney transplant. As compared with a population with normal renal function, the study patient presented a higher C (max) and AUC, with lower clearance, terminal half-life, and volume of distribution. The low dialysis clearance, accounting for a minor part of the total body clearance and the absence of detectable trabectedin in the dialysate samples, suggests that hemodialysis does not efficiently clear trabectedin. Trabectedin tolerance was good. This case reports for the first time the feasibility of trabectedin therapy in a hemodialyzed patient. Given the rising incidence of cancer in patients with end-stage renal disease, it is crucial to provide data that improve the management of anticancer drugs in dialyzed patients.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2011; 68(5):1363-7. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended dose (RD), and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated for trabectedin 3-h every-3-weeks schedule in 33 cancer patients stratified according to liver dysfunction degree as per baseline alkaline phosphatase (AP). Stratification was as follows: stratum I [upper limit of normal (ULN) < AP ≤ 1.5 × ULN; n = 16], stratum II [1.5 × ULN < AP ≤ 2.5 × ULN; n = 12], and stratum III [AP >2.5 × ULN; n = 5] (bilirubin <2.5 × ULN for all 3 strata). In each stratum, patients were treated in sequential cohorts at escalating doses. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were grade 3 transaminase increases not recovering baseline values on day 21, febrile neutropenia/grade 4 neutropenia lasting >5 days and AP increase more than twice over baseline. The MTD and RD for stratum I (mild baseline AP) was 1.3 mg/m(2). Recruitment was stopped early in strata II/III (moderate/severe baseline AP) without reaching the MTD due to slow accrual and difficulty in finding patients. Biochemical parameters other than AP (bilirubin, AST or ALT) were similar between strata. No relevant PK differences were found between strata. In conclusion, the MTD and RD (1.3 mg/m(2)) were confirmed only for stratum I. Stratification criteria based on baseline AP apparently did not segregate the patients according to their liver dysfunction degree. Antitumor activity was found in patients with pretreated ovarian cancer.
    Medical Oncology 06/2011; 29(3):2240-50. · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of PM00104 (Zalypsis(®)) in cancer patients. A total of 135 patients included in four phase I clinical trials who receive intravenous PM00104 at doses ranging from 53 to 5,000 μg/m(2) and administered as 1-, 3-, or 24-h infusion every 3 weeks or as 1-h infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle, or 1-h infusion daily during 5 consecutive days every 3 weeks were included in the analysis. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed with non-linear mixed effect model using NONMEM VI software. The effect of selected patient covariates on PM00104 pharmacokinetics was investigated. Model evaluation was performed using predictive checks and non-parametric bootstrap. An open four-compartment catenary linear model with first-order elimination was developed to best describe the data. Plasma clearance and its between-subject variability was 43.7 L/h (34%). Volume of distribution at steady state was 822 L (117%). Within the range of covariates studied, age, sex, body size variables, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine clearance, albumin, total protein, hemoglobin, performance status, liver metastases, dose-limiting toxicity, and stable disease for 3 months were not statistically related to PM00104 pharmacokinetic parameters. Bootstrap and posterior predictive check evidenced the model was deemed appropriate to describe the time course of PM00104 plasma concentrations in cancer patients. The integration of phase I pharmacokinetic data demonstrated PM00104 linear elimination from plasma, dose proportionality up to 5,000 μg/m(2), and time-independent pharmacokinetics. No clinically relevant covariates were identified as predictors of PM00104 pharmacokinetics.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2011; 69(1):15-24. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spisulosine is a marine compound that showed antitumor activity in preclinical studies. We report results of a phase I trial performed in patients with advanced solid tumors with the marine compound, with the aim to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a weekly 3-h intravenous (iv.) infusion, and to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the compound. Two centers contributed 25 patients to the trial, and 7 dose levels were explored. In dose levels ranging from 4 to 128 mg/m²/day, no dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were observed. One patient had DLT at 200 mg/m², a reversible grade 3 ALT increase. The MTD was not reached due to early termination of the Spisulosine trial program but is considered to be likely in the range of 200 mg/m² for this schedule. Drug-related adverse reactions included mild to moderate nausea, pyrexia, injection site reactions, and vomiting. One case of grade 4 peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy associated with general weakness and pain was observed during treatment cycle 4 and possibly contributed to the death of the patient. Grade 3 laboratory abnormalities included anemia and lymphopenia and increases in liver enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, and bilirubin). Objective responses were not observed, and only four patients had short-lasting stable disease (<3 months). The PK data indicated a wide distribution, a long residence time, and dose proportionality of the agent. Hepato- and neuro-toxicity are schedule independent dose-limiting adverse events for this marine compound, as illustrated by this and other early clinical trials.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 04/2011; 68(6):1397-403. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This analysis provides a cross-study evaluation of the cardiac safety of trabectedin. Drug-related cardiac adverse events (CAEs) were retrieved from phase I-III clinical trials, pharmacovigilance databases, and spontaneously reported cases. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was monitored in combination phase I studies with doxorubicin or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and in a phase III trial (with PLD). CAEs [grade 4 cardiac arrest with severe pancytopenia and sepsis (n = 1 patient), grade 4 atrial fibrillation (n = 2), and grade 1 tachycardia (n = 1)] occurred in 4/283 patients (1.4%) in 6 single-agent phase I trials. CAEs (grade 1 sinus tachycardia in a hypertensive patient and grade 1 ventricular dysfunction) occurred in 2/155 patients (1.3%) in 4 phase I combination trials. Results from 19 single-agent phase II trials showed CAEs in 20/1,132 patients (1.8%): arrhythmias (tachycardia/palpitations; n = 13; 1.1%) were the most common. A rather similar rate of symptomatic CAEs was observed in both arms of a phase III trial in recurrent ovarian cancer: 6/330 patients (1.8%; PLD) and 11/333 patients (3.3%; trabectedin/PLD). No clinically relevant LVEF changes occurred in phase I combination trials. In the phase III trial, LVEF decreases from baseline were similar: 9% of patients (PLD) and 7% (trabectedin/PLD), with no relevant symptoms. During postmarketing experience in soft tissue sarcoma (2,046 patients treated), 4 CAEs (2 cardiac arrest, 2 cardiac failure; ~0.2%) occurred in patients with preexisting conditions. Trabectedin has a low incidence of CAEs, consisting mainly of arrhythmias. This extensive data review indicates a low cardiac risk profile for trabectedin.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2011; 68(5):1223-31. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plitidepsin is a cyclic depsipeptide of marine origin in clinical development in cancer patients. Previously, some depsipeptides have been linked to increased cardiac toxicity. Clinical databases were searched for cardiac adverse events (CAEs) that occurred in clinical trials with the single-agent plitidepsin. Demographic, clinical and pharmacological variables were explored by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Forty-six of 578 treated patients (8.0%) had at least one CAE (11 patients (1.9%) with plitidepsin-related CAEs), none with fatal outcome as a direct consequence. The more frequent CAEs were rhythm abnormalities (n = 31; 5.4%), mostly atrial fibrillation/flutter (n = 15; 2.6%). Of note, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias did not occur. Myocardial injury events (n = 17; 3.0%) included possible ischemic-related and non-ischemic events. Other events (miscellaneous, n = 6; 1.0%) were not related to plitidepsin. Significant associations were found with prostate or pancreas cancer primary diagnosis (p = 0.0017), known baseline cardiac risk factors (p = 0.0072), myalgia present at baseline (p = 0.0140), hemoglobin levels lower than 10 g/dL (p = 0.0208) and grade ≥2 hypokalemia (p = 0.0095). Treatment-related variables (plitidepsin dose, number of cycles, schedule and/or total cumulative dose) were not associated. Electrocardiograms performed before and after plitidepsin administration (n = 136) detected no relevant effect on QTc interval. None of the pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed had a significant impact on the probability of developing a CAE. In conclusion, the most frequent CAE type was atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter, although its frequency was not different to that reported in the age-matched healthy population, while other CAEs types were rare. No dose-cumulative pattern was observed, and no treatment-related variables were associated with CAEs. Relevant risk factors identified were related to the patient's condition and/or to disease-related characteristics rather than to drug exposure. Therefore, the current analysis supports a safe cardiac risk profile for single-agent plitidepsin in cancer patients.
    Marine Drugs 01/2011; 9(6):1007-23. · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This phase I study evaluated the feasibility, safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary evidence of anticancer activity of the sequential administration of paclitaxel and trabectedin on an every-2-week schedule in patients with refractory solid malignancies. The study also sought to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) level on this schedule, as well as to recommend doses for disease-directed studies. Twenty-seven patients were treated with paclitaxel (80-120 mg/m(2); 1-hour i.v. infusion, day 1) and trabectedin (0.525-0.775 mg/m(2); 3-hour i.v. infusion, day 2) with doses increased in successive cohorts. Blood sampling for PK and drug-drug interaction studies was done. Neutropenia, which resulted in treatment delay exceeding 1 week, was the principal dose-limiting toxicity for this paclitaxel-trabectedin regimen and precluded dose escalation above 120 mg/m(2) paclitaxel and 0.650 mg/m(2) trabectedin. At the MTD (120 mg/m(2) paclitaxel and 0.650 mg/m(2) trabectedin), the safety profile was favorable in patients receiving cumulative treatment. Relevant drug-drug PK interactions between paclitaxel and trabectedin were not identified. A patient with soft tissue sarcoma had a complete response and several patients with various refractory solid malignancies showed protracted stable disease as their best response. The MTD level of sequential paclitaxel 1-hour infusion (day 1) and trabectedin 3-hour infusion (day 2) administered every 2 weeks is 120 and 0.650 mg/m(2), respectively. The manageable toxicities at the MTD, preliminary evidence of antitumor activity, and lack of notable PK drug-drug interactions warrant further disease-directed studies of this regimen in relevant tumor types and settings.
    Clinical Cancer Research 05/2010; 16(9):2656-65. · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2010; 8(7):137-138.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of plitidepsin (Aplidin) in cancer patients. A total of 283 patients (552 cycles) receiving intravenous plitidepsin as monotherapy at doses ranging from 0.13 to 8.0 mg/m(2) and given as 1- or 24-h infusions every week; 3- or 24-h infusion biweekly; or 1-h infusion daily for 5 consecutive days every 21 days were included in the analysis. An open three-compartment pharmacokinetic model and a nonlinear binding to red blood cells model were used to describe the plitidepsin pharmacokinetics in plasma and blood, respectively, using NONMEM V software. The effect of selected covariates on plitidepsin pharmacokinetics was investigated. Model evaluation was performed using goodness-of-fit plots, posterior predictive check and bootstrap. Plasma clearance and its between subject variability (%) was 13.6 l/h (71). Volume of distribution at steady-state was calculated to be 4791 l (59). The parameters B (max) and C (50) of the non-linear blood distribution were 471 microg/l (56) and 41.6 microg/l, respectively. Within the range of covariates studied, age, sex, body size variables, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, creatinine clearance, albumin, total protein, performance status, co-administration of inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4 and presence of liver metastases were not statistically related to plitidepsin pharmacokinetic parameters. Bootstrap and posterior predictive check evidenced the model was deemed appropriate to describe the time course of plitidepsin blood and plasma concentrations in cancer patients. The integration of phase I/II pharmacokinetic data demonstrated plitidepsin linear elimination from plasma, dose-proportionality up to 8.0 mg/m(2), and time-independent pharmacokinetics. The distribution to red blood cells can be considered linear at doses lower than 5 mg/m(2) administered as 3-h or longer infusion. No clinically relevant covariates were identified as predictors of plitidepsin pharmacokinetics.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 11/2008; 64(1):97-108. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reversible transient elevations in transaminases have been observed after trabectedin administration. A semimechanistic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model was developed to evaluate the time course of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation, tolerance development, and the hepatoprotective effect of dexamethasone on trabectedin-induced transient transaminitis following different dosing schedules in cancer patients. Trabectedin was administered to 711 patients as monotherapy (dose range: 0.024-1.8 mg/m(2)) as 1-, 3-, or 24-h infusions every 21 days; 1- or 3-h infusions on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days; or 1-h infusions daily for five consecutive days every 21 days. Population PKPD modeling was performed with covariate evaluation [dexamethasone use (469/711 pt), ECOG performance status scores (89.7% pts <or= 1), and body weight (36-122 kg)] on PD parameters, followed by model validation. Simulations assessed the influence of dosing regimen and selected patient factors on the time course of ALT and the effectiveness of the dose reduction strategy. A precursor-dependent PKPD model described the temporal relationship between ALT elevation and trabectedin concentrations, where the transfer process of ALT from hepatocytes to plasma is stimulated by trabectedin plasma concentrations. Overall, 66% of patients had transaminitis. Mean predicted (%SEM) baseline ALT (ALT(o)) and t (1/2) in plasma were 31.5 (5.1) IU/L and 1.5 days, respectively. The magnitude of the trabectedin stimulation of the ALT transfer rate from hepatocytes to plasma was 11.4% per 100 pg/mL of trabectedin plasma concentration. Dexamethasone decreased the rate of trabectedin-induced ALT release from hepatocyte by 63% (P < 0.001). Model evaluation showed that the model predicted incidence of grade 3/4 transaminase elevation was similar to the observed values. Simulations showed that severity of ALT elevation was dose- and schedule-dependent. The dose reduction strategy decreased the incidence of grade >or=3 toxicity by 13 and 39% following two and four cycles of therapy, respectively. A PKPD model quantifying the hepatoprotective effect of dexamethasone on transient and reversible transaminitis following trabectedin treatment has been developed. The model predicts that co-administration of dexamethasone and the suggested dose reduction strategy based on the serum concentration of liver enzymes will enhance the safe use of trabectedin in the clinic.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 06/2008; 62(1):135-47. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myelosuppression was found to be one of the main toxicities of trabectedin (ET-743, Yondelis) during phase I/II studies. Our objective was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model that describes the time course of the absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) in cancer patients receiving trabectedin. Data from 699 patients who received intravenous trabectedin as monotherapy (dose range: 0.006-1.8 mg/m2) as a 1-, 3-, or 24-h infusion every 21 days; 1- or 3-h infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days; or a 1-h infusion daily for 5 consecutive days every 21 days were used to develop (N=405; ANCs=7,291) and validate (N=294; ANCs=5,029) the model. The PK/PD model comprised a trabectedin-sensitive progenitor cell compartment, linked to the peripheral blood compartment, through three transition compartments representing the maturation chain in the bone marrow. To capture the rebound effect due to endogenous growth factors, the model included a feedback mechanism. The model estimated three system-related parameters: ANC at baseline (Circ0), mean transit time in bone marrow (MTT), and a feedback parameter (gamma). A first-order process quantified by the rate constant k(e0) described the trabectedin concentrations at the effect compartment (C(e)), which were assumed to reduce the proliferation rate and/or to increase the killing rate of the progenitor cells according to the function alphaC(e)beta. The model was qualified and simulations were undertaken to evaluate the neutropenia schedule dependency and the effects of selected covariates. NONMEM software was used to perform the modeling and simulation analyses. For a typical man of 70 kg, the mean values (between-subject variability; %) of the Circ0, MTT, gamma, k(e0), alpha, and beta were estimated to be 4.46 x 10(9)/l (37.9%), 4.0 days (37.5%), 0.218 (41.8%), 2.09 h(-1) (77.9%), 2.00 l/microg (85.1%), and 1.26, respectively. Although in women, k(e0) was reduced by 29% and a 25% increase in body weight resulted in a 12.6% reduction in the beta parameter, the clinical relevance of these effects is limited. The model evaluation procedure indicated accurate prediction of the observed incidence of neutropenia grades 3 and 4 across the dosing regimens evaluated. Simulations indicated that trabectedin dose and interdose interval, but not infusion duration, are the main determinants of the neutropenia severity. The model-predicted time course of the ANC and its variability confirmed that neutropenia is reversible, of short duration, and non-cumulative. The extent and time course of neutropenia following six different dosing regimens of trabectedin were well predicted by the semiphysiological PK/PD model.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 02/2008; 83(1):130-43. · 6.85 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To characterise the population pharmacokinetics of trabectedin (ET-743, Yondelis(R)) in cancer patients. A total of 603 patients (945 cycles) receiving intravenous trabectedin as monotherapy at doses ranging from 0.024 to 1.8 mg/m(2) and given as a 1-, 3- or 24-hour infusion every 21 days; a 1- or 3-hour infusion on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle; or a 1-hour infusion daily for 5 consecutive days every 21 days were included in the analysis. An open four-compartment pharmacokinetic model with linear elimination, linear and nonlinear distribution to the deep and shallow peripheral compartments, respectively, and a catenary compartment off the shallow compartment was developed to best describe the index dataset using NONMEM V software. The effect of selected patient covariates on trabectedin pharmacokinetics was investigated. Model evaluation was performed using goodness-of-fit plots and relative error measurements for the test dataset. Simulations were undertaken to evaluate covariate effects on trabectedin pharmacokinetics. The mean (SD) trabectedin elimination half-life was approximately 180 (61.4) hours. Plasma accumulation was limited when trabectedin was given every 3 weeks. Systemic clearance (31.5 L/h, coefficient of variation 51%) was 19.2% higher in patients receiving concomitant dexamethasone. The typical values of the volume of distribution at steady state for male and female patients were 6070L and 5240L, respectively. Within the range studied, age, body size variables, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, creatinine clearance, albumin, total protein, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and presence of liver metastases were not statistically related to trabectedin pharmacokinetic parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters of trabectedin were consistent across the infusion durations and dose regimens evaluated. The integration of trabectedin pharmacokinetic data demonstrated linear elimination, dose-proportionality up to 1.8 mg/m(2) and time-independent pharmacokinetics. The pharmacokinetic impact of dexamethasone and sex covariates is probably limited given the moderate to large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability of trabectedin. The antiemetic and hepatoprotective effects are still a valid rationale to recommend dexamethasone as a supportive treatment for trabectedin.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 02/2007; 46(10):867-84. · 6.11 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2007; 5(4):321-321.

Publication Stats

92 Citations
199 Downloads
2k Views
64.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2012
    • PharmaMar
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain