Youngjoo Sohn

Kyung Hee University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (39)96.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Peiminine is the main biologically active component derived from Fritillaria ussuriensis. Peiminine was investigated in various pulmonary diseases, but its antiallergic effect and the related mechanism have not been reported yet. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of peiminine on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in HMC-1 cells. The pro-inflammatory cytokine production was measured using ELISA, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway activation, as determined by Western blot analysis. Peiminine inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1beta (IL-1β). It was shown to have inhibitory effects on MAPKs phosphorylation and NF-B expression in human mast cells (HMC)-1 using Western blot. HMC-1 cells were observed for confirmation of histamine release. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions were evaluated using an animal model and peiminine demonstrated inhibitory effects on IgE-dependent anaphylaxis. These results suggest that peiminine has regulatory potential for allergic inflammatory reactions mediated by HMC-1 cells.
    Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/08923973.2015.1059441 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A double targeting strategy of anti-neoplastic agent paclitaxel (PTX) was developed by incorporating magnetic nanoparticles and RGD peptide for enhanced cell cytotoxicity effect at lower dosage. A dual targeting mechanism including magnetic targeting and RGD ligand-specific targeting enhanced the overall cytotoxicity and reduced the effective dosage of PTX to achieve enhanced and sustained release of PTX in vitro. We addressed the issues of water-insolubility of oleic acid (OA)-stabilized SPIONs and low incorporation efficiency of hydrophobic PTX with SPION nanocarriers by using an amphiphilic polymer poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide-r-acrylamide)-b-l-lactic acid] (PNAL) as micelle-forming materials. A targeting moiety, GGGGRGD peptide, a RGD sequence-containing peptide with a short linker, is attached to the surface of PNAL-SPIONs via a homo-crosslinker. Confocal microscopy image analysis revealed that the cellular uptake was increased from (1.5 ± 0.5 % (PNAL) to 11.7 ± 0.8 % (RGD-PNAL-SPIONs) at 6 h incubation, once both RGD peptide and magnetic force attraction were incorporated into the carriers. Such multi-targeting nanocarriers showed promising potential in cancer-oriented diagnosis and therapy.
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research 06/2015; 17(6):248. DOI:10.1007/s11051-015-3033-2 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    Jun-Hee Na, Se-Um Kim, Youngjoo Sohn, Sin-Doo Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Self-organized wrinkling patterns of a liquid crystalline polymer, dictated by the chemico-physically anisotropic nature of the surface wettability, are demonstrated in confined geometries. The symmetry of the geometrical constraints of the confinement primarily governs the periodic wrinkling patterns of such polymer in the wetting region. In a circular geometry, the number of the radial domains with multi-fold symmetries is linearly proportional to the radius of the confinement. The physical origin of the wrinkling process comes from the periodic bend-splay distortions through the relaxation of the curvature elasticity.
    Soft Matter 04/2015; 11(24). DOI:10.1039/C5SM00694E · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The bacteria Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, mite-borne disease, which causes an acute febrile illness in patients. An epidemiologic study was conducted to understand the characteristics of scrub typhus in South Korea. Findings Reporting of tsutsugamushi disease is mandatory in South Korea since 1994. To investigate the prevalence of tsutsugamushi disease from 2001 to 2013, medical records from the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention were reviewed. In total, 70,914 cases were reported during 2001–2013. Of these, 37.16% (26,349) were male and 62.84% (44,565) were female. The highest number of cases was in the 60–69-year-old age group (19,484; 27.48%), and 72.22% (51,212) were in the 50–79-year-old age group. There were 65,100 cases (91.80%) reported during October (24,964; 35.20%) and November (40,136; 56.60%). An almost four-fold increase in the number of patients was observed in 2013 (10,485 cases) compared to 2001 (2,637 cases). The highest number of patients was reported in the Jeonbuk (9,425; 13.29%) and lowest in the Jeju (362; 0.51%). Conclusions A rapid increase in the incidence of patients with tsutsugamushi disease was observed in most areas from 2001 to 2013, with the majority of cases reported in the western and southern coast.
    Parasites & Vectors 04/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0858-6 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between anti- Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibody levels and the prevalence of malaria in epidemic areas of South Korea was evaluated. Blood samples were collected from inhabitants of Gimpo-si (city), Paju-si, and Yeoncheon-gun (county) in Gyeonggi-do (province), as well as Cheorwon-gun in Gangwon-do from November to December 2004. Microscopic examinations were used to identify malaria parasites. ELISA was used to quantitate anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibodies against P. vivax. A total of 1,774 blood samples were collected. The overall CSP-ELISA-positive rate was 7.7% (n=139). The annual parasite incidences (APIs) in these areas gradually decreased from 2004 to 2005 (1.09 and 0.80, respectively). The positive rate in Gimpo (10.4%, 44/425) was the highest identified by CSP-ELISA. The highest API was found in Yeoncheon, followed by Cheorwon, Paju, and Gimpo in both years. The positive rates of CSP-ELISA were closely related to the APIs in the study areas. These results suggest that seroepidemiological studies based on CSP may be helpful in estimating the malaria prevalence in certain areas. In addition, this assay can be used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programs in affected areas.
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology 04/2015; 53(2):169-75. DOI:10.3347/kjp.2015.53.2.169 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, hybrid magnetofluorescent structures composed of organic moiety of poly(TMSMA-r-PEGMA) for biomolecules-resistant surfaces and methyl methacrylate for conjugation of europium complex inorganic moiety of magnetic nanoparticles are reported. Lanthanide complex of europium ion with 4,4,4-Trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-butanedione (NTA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO)[Eu(NTA)3(TOPO)3] were incorporated into poly(TMSMA-r-PEGMA-r-MMA) matrix. Afterward, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with as prepared polymeric europium complex (PEC) to construct hierarchical structure of magnetofluorescent probe. The PL spectra of the PEC@SPIONs excited by UV light showed characteristic emission behavior with a hypersensitive transition 5D0→7F2 at 621 nm. About a 20% quenching in the intensity of the emission peak at 621 nm was found after the addition of SPIONs. Interestingly, when the concentration of PEC against SPIONs is increased, the hypersensitive transition 5D0→7F2 at 621 nm is linearly increased, while 5D1→7F6 at 700 nm is linearly decreased. The cytotoxic effect of PEC@SPIONs was evaluated with U373MG cell by the MTT assay of PEC@SPIONs in cell proliferation. The cell viability in the range of 10–200 ug/ml was more than 80%. No significant difference in cell proliferation until the concentration of 300 ug/ml (77.61 ± 3.33%). The cellular uptake of PEC@SPIONs evaluated by confocal microscopy showed that the magnetofluorescent nanoparticles were internalized extensively in the cytoplasmic region.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 11/2014; 14(11). DOI:10.1166/jnn.2014.9967 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the coarsening dynamics of a liquid-ordered (Lo) domain in a supported lipid membrane under an electric field. In a relatively small nanosmooth region surrounded by geometrical walls of nanocorrugated regions, full coarsening of the Lo domain was produced while in a large nanosmooth region, an intermediate, less-ordered Lo domain was developed so that the diffusion of charged phospholipids in the liquid-disordered (Ld) domain was allowed across the geometrical walls in the presence of an electric field. No appreciable diffusion of the charged lipids into a fully coarsened Lo domain by the electric field implies that the structural ordering of the membrane components plays a significant role on the formation of lipid rafts for biological processes.
    Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 09/2014; 600(1). DOI:10.1080/15421406.2014.936790 · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of the conserved block 9 (CB9) to interspecies conserved block (ICB10) region of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 (ICB910)) as a serodiagnostic tool for understanding malaria transmission. Methods Antibody titre in the blood samples collected from the inhabitants of Gimpo city, Paju city and Yeoncheon county of Gyeonggi Province, as well as Cheorwon county of Gangwon Province, South Korea were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microscopic examination was performed to identify malarial parasites. Results MSP-1(ICB910) is encoded by a 1,212-bp sequence, which produced a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of approximately 46 kDa. Antibody titres in 1,774 blood samples were determined with the help of ELISA using purified recombinant MSP-1(ICB910). The overall ELISA-positive rate was 8.08% (n = 146). The annual parasite incidences (APIs) in the regions where the blood sampling was carried out gradually decreased from 2004 to 2005 (1.09 and 0.80, respectively). Yeoncheon county had the highest ELISA-positive rate (10.20%, 46/451). Yeoncheon county also had the highest API both in 2004 and 2005, followed by Cheorwon county, Paju city and Gimpo city. Conclusions The MSP-1 (ICB910)-ELISA-positive rates were closely related to API in the geographic areas studied. These results suggest that sero-epidemiological studies employing MSP-1 (ICB910)-ELISA may be helpful in estimating the prevalence of malaria in certain geographic areas. MSP-1(ICB910)-ELISA can be effectively used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programmes in the affected areas.
    Malaria Journal 08/2014; 13(1):311. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-13-311 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We develop a simple and biocompatible method of patterning proteins on a wettability gradient surface by thermo-transfer printing. The wettability gradient is produced on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-modified glass substrate through the temperature gradient during thermo-transfer printing. The water contact angle on the PDMS-modified surface is found to gradually increase along the direction of the temperature gradient from a low to a high temperature region. Based on the wettability gradient, the gradual change in the adsorption and immobilization of proteins (cholera toxin B subunit) is achieved in a microfluidic cell with the PDMS-modified surface.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 08/2014; 14(8):6069-6071. DOI:10.1166/jnn.2014.8828 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is a growing interest in the use of acupuncture during pregnancy, the safety of acupuncture is yet to be rigorously investigated. The objective of this review is to identify adverse events (AEs) associated with acupuncture treatment during pregnancy. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and five Korean databases up to February 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional reports. Studies were included regardless of their design if they reported original data and involved acupuncture needling and/or moxibustion treatment for any conditions in pregnant women. Studies of acupuncture for delivery, abortion, assisted reproduction or postpartum conditions were excluded. AE data were extracted and assessed in terms of severity and causality, and incidence was determined. Of 105 included studies, detailed AEs were reported only in 25 studies represented by 27 articles (25.7%). AEs evaluated as certain, probable or possible in the causality assessment were all mild/moderate in severity, with needling pain being the most frequent. Severe AEs or deaths were few and all considered unlikely to have been caused by acupuncture. Total AE incidence was 1.9%, and the incidence of AEs evaluated as certainly, probably or possibly causally related to acupuncture was 1.3%. Acupuncture during pregnancy appears to be associated with few AEs when correctly applied.
    Acupuncture in Medicine 02/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1136/acupmed-2013-010480 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax reemerged in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993, and is likely to continue to affect public health. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of anti-P. vivax antibodies using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in border areas of ROK, to determine the seroprevalence of malaria (2003-2005) and to plan effective control strategies. Blood samples of the inhabitants in Gimpo-si, Paju-si, and Yeoncheon-gun (Gyeonggi-do), and Cheorwon-gun (Gangwon-do) were collected and kept in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Out of a total of 1,774 serum samples tested, the overall seropositivity was 0.94% (n=17). The seropositivity was the highest in Paju-si (1.9%, 7/372), followed by Gimpo-si (1.4%, 6/425), Yeoncheon-gun (0.67%, 3/451), and Cheorwon-gun (0.19%, 1/526). The annual parasite incidence (API) in these areas gradually decreased from 2003 to 2005 (1.69, 1.09, and 0.80 in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively). The highest API was found in Yeoncheon-gun, followed by Cheorwon-gun, Paju-si, and Gimpo-si. The API ranking in these areas did not change over the 3 years. The seropositivity of Gimpo-si showed a strong linear relationship with the API of 2005 (r=0.9983, P=0.036). Seropositivity data obtained using IFAT may be useful for understanding malaria prevalence of relevant years, predicting future transmission of malaria, and for establishing and evaluating malaria control programs in affected areas.
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology 02/2014; 52(1):1-7. DOI:10.3347/kjp.2014.52.1.1 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax re-emerged in 1993. Although the number of infections has been steadily decreasing, it is likely to continue to affect public health until it is eradicated. The aim of this study is to measure anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibody and compare malaria prevalence. As to understand the prevalence, an epidemiology study has to be conducted in the Republic of Korea. A total of 1,825 and 1,959 blood samples were collected in 2010 and 2011, respectively, from the inhabitants of Ganghwa and Cheorwon counties. The antibody titers of the inhabitants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli transformed with a CSP gene-inserted pET-28a(+) expression vector. Microscopic examination was performed to identify malaria parasites. The annual parasite incidence (API) in Ganghwa decreased from 4.28 in 2010 to 2.23 in 2011, and that in Cheorwon decreased from 1.88 in 2010 to 1.15 in 2011. The antibody-positive CSP rate in these areas also decreased from 18.14% (331/1825) in 2010 to 15.36% (301/1959) in 2011. Pearson analysis showed a strong correlation between the API and the antibody-positive CSP rate in these areas (r = 1.000, P < 0.01). The intensity of the immune responses of the inhabitants of Cheorwon, as measured by the mean optical density, decreased from 0.9186 +/- 0.0472 in 2010 to 0.7035 +/- 0.0457 in 2011 (P = 0.034), but increased in Ganghwa from 0.7649 +/- 0.0192 in 2010 to 0.8237 +/- 0.1970 in 2011 (P = 0.006). The immune response increased according to age (r = 0.686, P = 0.041). The positive CSP-ELISA rate was closely related to the API in the study areas. This suggests that seroepidemiological studies based on CSP-ELISA may be helpful in estimating the malaria prevalence. Moreover, such studies can be used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programmes in high-risk areas in Korea.
    Malaria Journal 12/2013; 12(1):448. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-12-448 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After the re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax in 1993, a total of 31,254 cases of vivax malaria were reported between 1993--2012 in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The purpose of this study was to review Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention records to investigate the transmission of malaria from 2010--2012. Reporting of microscopy-diagnosed cases of malaria is mandatory in the ROK. In this study, all available records of malaria cases and malaria vectors collected from 2010 -- 2012 in Cheorwon County, Gangwon Province and Ganghwa County, Incheon Metropolitan City, were reviewed. Although the number of cases of malaria peaked a third time in 2010 (1,772 cases) since the re-emergence of P. vivax, the incidence decreased two-fold to 838 in 2011 and three-fold to 555 in 2012. The number of cases decreased 52.7% in 2011 compared with that in 2010 and 33.8% in 2012 compared with that in 2011. However, the number of cases increased in Incheon Metropolitan City (15.3%) and Gyeongnam Province (23.1%) in 2012 compared with 2011. Of the 3,165 cases of vivax malaria in 2010--2012, 798 (25.2%) were in ROK military personnel, 519 (16.4%) in veterans, and 1,848 (58.4%) in civilians. In total, there were 2,666 male patients and 499 female patients, and the ratio of female to male patients increased from 1:7.9 in 2011 to 1:4.1 in 2012. A rapid decrease in the incidence of malaria was observed in most areas from 2010 to 2012, but the incidence increased again in the western part of the demilitarized zone. Therefore, more intensive surveillance is needed throughout high risk areas to identify factors responsible for increase/decrease in the incidence of malaria in the ROK.
    Malaria Journal 09/2013; 12(1):309. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-12-309 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new self-assembly method for the fabrication of periodic structures using monodispersed polystyrene nanoparticles matrix was developed. The self-assembly could be formed into polystyrene nanoparticles matrix constructed by the face centered cubic (FCC) structure and hexagonally close-packed (HCP) monolayer. The polystyrene nanoparticles have been prepared by emulsion polymerization. Several aspects were investigated by using different techniques: Particle sizer, TEM and DSC etc. In this study, the feasibility of synthesizing nanoparticles of 550 nm polystyrene with a perfect spherical shape and a narrow size distribution was demonstrated. Subsequently, an investigation of the self-assembly of polystyrene nanospheres to built up an opal structure was performed. This arrangement was achieved by gravitational sedimentation under vacuum. The face centered cubic structure was identified by using SEM, thus that the different facet type {100}, {110} and {111} were composed. The self-assembly of monodispersed polystyrene nanoparticles in 2D structure was fabricated in the structure of hexagonally close-packed monolayer.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 09/2013; 13(9):6300-6. DOI:10.1166/jnn.2013.7714 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal bone growth is the results of chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy and subsequent endochondral ossification in the growth plate. Recently, laser acupuncture (LA), an intervention to stimulate acupoint with low-level laser irradiation, has been suggested as an intervention to improve the longitudinal bone growth. This study investigated the effects of laser acupuncture on growth, particularly longitudinal bone growth in adolescent male rats. Laser acupuncture was performed once every other day for a total of 9 treatments over 18 days to adolescent male rats. Morphometry of the growth plate, longitudinal bone growth rate, and the protein expression of BMP-2 and IGF-1 in growth plate were observed. The bone growth rate and the heights of growth plates were significantly increased by laser acupuncture. BMP-2 but not IGF-1 immunostaining in growth plate was increased as well. In conclusion, LA promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats, suggesting that laser acupuncture may be a promising intervention for improving the growth potential for children and adolescents.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2013; 2013:424587. DOI:10.1155/2013/424587 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, Schizonepeta tenuifolia (ST) has been used for the treatment of skin disorders, such as allergic dermatitis, eczema, and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we examined whether ST inhibited 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) in BALB/c mice. In histopathological analyses of the epidermis and dermis, skin thickness was significantly increased in DNCB-induced mice as compared with normal group. Treatment with ST inhibited this inflammatory change and markedly suppressed the secretion of immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6 levels in the serum of DNCB-induced mice. In addition, ST treatment significantly restored the upregulation of proinflammatory factors, such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase expression. Taken together, due to its ability to suppress inflammatory factors and upregulate proinflammatory factors, ST may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for AD. ST extract application decreased both epidermis and dermis thickness in DNCB-induced mice. In serum, ST reduced immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 6 level. In addition, ST suppressed NF-κB activation as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase activities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 08/2013; 27(8). DOI:10.1002/ptr.4833 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Assaying for the parasitic lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is widely used as a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis, that is antibody detection ability, is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed, and recombinant protein pLDH was evaluated as a serodiagnostic antigen for the detection of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Methods Genomic DNA was purified, and the pLDH gene of P. vivax was amplified from blood samples from 20 patients. The samples came from five epidemic areas: Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, and Paju-si of Gyeonggi Province, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon-gun of Gangwon Province, South Korea, from 2010 to 2011. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein pLDH was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Sequence analysis of 20 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 951 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 316 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% identity with the P. vivax Belem strain (DQ060151) and P. vivax Hainan strain (FJ527750), 89.6% homology with Plasmodium falciparum FCC1_HN (DQ825436), 90.2% homology with Plasmodium berghei (AY437808), 96.8% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi (JF958130), and 90.2% homology with Plasmodium reichenowi (AB122147). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 456 (T to C) was also observed in the isolate from Bucheon, but it did not change in the amino acid sequence. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 32 kDa, as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Of the 40 P. vivax patients, 34 (85.0%) were positive by ELISA. Conclusions The pLDH genes of 19 isolates of P. vivax were identical, except one for SNP at nucleotide 456. This observation indicates that this gene is relatively stable. Based on these results, the relationship between antibody production against pLDH and the pattern of disease onset should be investigated further before using pLDH for serodiagnosis.
    Malaria Journal 05/2013; 12(1):166. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-12-166 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract [6]-Shogaol is a major bioactive component of Zingiber officinale. Although [6]-shogaol has a number of pharmacological activities including antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects, the specific mechanisms of its anti-allergic effects have not been studied. In this study, we present the effects of [6]-shogaol on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats received intradermal injections of anti-DNP IgE was injected into dorsal skin sites. After 48 h, [6]-shogaol was administered orally 1 h prior to challenge with DNP-HSA in saline containing 4% Evans blue through the dorsal vein of the penis. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) were cultured and purified to investigate histamine release. In vitro, we evaluated the regulatory effects of [6]-shogaol on the level of inflammatory mediators in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionomycin A23187-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). [6]-Shogaol reduced the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction compared to the control group, and histamine release decreased significantly following the treatment of RPMCs with [6]-shogaol. In HMC-1 cells, [6]-shogaol inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of JNK in compound 48/80-induced HMC-1 cells. [6]-shogaol inhibited mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by inhibiting the release of histamine and the production of proinflammatory cytokines with the involvement of regulation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of JNK.
    Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 04/2013; DOI:10.3109/08923973.2013.782318 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a scalable artificial iris with self-regulating spoke patterns of a liquid crystalline polymer that resemble the iris frills of the human eye. The underlying concept relies primarily on the reversible photo-induced conformation change of spiropyran dyes embedded in a transparent polymer. The spoke patterns around the scalable pupil, defined by selective wetting inscription, were produced using reactive liquid crystalline mesogens on a flexible substrate through polymerization. The self-regulation capability of our artificial iris, not requiring driving circuits and peripheral sensors, plays a central role in developing a new class of biomedical and photonic devices in a monolithic architecture.
    Biomaterials 02/2013; 34(13). DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.01.020 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax re-emerged in 1993 and has now become a major public health problem during the summer season in South Korea. The aim of this study was to interpret and understand the meaning of seroepidemiological studies for developing the best malaria control programme in South Korea. Blood samples were collected in Gimpo city, Paju city, Yeoncheon County, Cheorwon County and Goseong County of high risk area in South Korea. Microscopy was performed to identify patients infected with P. vivax. Antibody detection for P. vivax was performed using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 1,574 blood samples was collected from participants in the study areas and evaluated against three parameters: IFAT positive rate, annual antibody positive index (AAPI), and annual parasite index (API). The IFAT positive rate was 7.24% (n = 114). Of the five study areas, Gimpo had the highest IFAT positive rate (13.68%) and AAPI (4.63). Yeongcheon had the highest API in 2005 (2.06) while Gimpo had the highest API in 2006 (5.00). No correlation was observed between any of the three parameters and study sites' distance from the demilitarized zone (DMZ). These results showed that P. vivax antibody levels could provide useful information about the prevalence of malaria in endemic areas. Furthermore, AAPI results for each year showed a closer relationship to API the following year than the API of the same year and thus could be helpful in predicting malaria transmission risks.
    Malaria Journal 08/2012; 11:257. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-11-257 · 3.49 Impact Factor