[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valspodar, a P-glycoprotein modulator, affects pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin when administered in combination, resulting in doxorubicin dose reduction. In animal models, valspodar has minimal interaction with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PEG-LD). To determine any pharmacokinetic interaction in humans, we designed a study to determine maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and pharmacokinetics of total doxorubicin, in PEG-LD and valspodar combination therapy in patients with advanced malignancies. Patients received PEG-LD 20–25 mg m-2 intravenously over 1 h for cycle one. In subsequent 2-week cycles, valspodar was administered as 72 h continuous intravenous infusion with PEG-LD beginning at 8 mg m-2 and escalated in an accelerated titration design to 25 mg m-2. Pharmacokinetic data were collected with and without valspodar. A total of 14 patients completed at least two cycles of therapy. No DLTs were observed in six patients treated at the highest level of PEG-LD 25 mg m-2. The most common toxicities were fatigue, nausea, vomiting, mucositis, palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia, diarrhoea, and ataxia. Partial responses were observed in patients with breast and ovarian carcinoma. The mean (range) total doxorubicin clearance decreased from 27 (10–73) ml h-1 m-2 in cycle 1 to 18 (3–37) ml h-1 m-2 with the addition of valspodar in cycle 2 (P=0.009). Treatment with PEG-LD 25 mg m-2 in combination with valspodar results in a moderate prolongation of total doxorubicin clearance and half-life but did not increase the toxicity of this agent.Keywords: doxil, multidrug resistance, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, PSC 833, valspodar
British Journal of Cancer 06/2005; 93(1):46-53. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an immunosuppressive agent that interferes with antigen presentation and with activity against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In a phase II trial assessing the GVHD prophylactic effects of HCQ, 51 consecutive unrelated donor transplant recipients received HCQ in addition to cyclosporin A, methylprednisolone, and methotrexate. HCQ was initiated on pretransplantation day -21 at 800 mg/d and continued until day +100 after transplantation. HCQ was extremely well tolerated and was not associated with side effects. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated large inter- and intrapatient variability. The addition of HCQ did not affect posttransplantation immune recovery. Grade II to IV acute GVHD was observed in 56% of patients, and grade III and IV GVHD was observed in 17%. Day +100 mortality was 22%. When compared with a matched cohort of patients reported to the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry, patients receiving HCQ had comparable cumulative incidences of grade II to IV acute GVHD. However, lower incidences of grades III and IV GVHD and better GVHD-free survival were observed in HCQ-treated patients (P =.01). We conclude that prophylactic HCQ is well tolerated and associated with a low incidence of severe acute GVHD. An ongoing placebo-controlled randomized trial will further determine what role HCQ plays in preventing GVHD after allografting.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 12/2003; 9(11):714-21. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irinotecan, a camptothecin analogue, is a prodrug which requires bioactivation to form the active metabolite SN-38. SN-38 acts as a DNA topoisomerase I poison. Irinotecan has been widely used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, small cell lung cancer and several other solid tumors. However, large inter-patient variability in irinotecan and SN-38 disposition, as well as severe but unpredictable diarrhea limits the clinical potential of irinotecan. Intense clinical pharmacology studies have been conducted to elucidate its complicated metabolic pathways and to provide scientific rationale in defining strategies to optimize drug therapy. Irinotecan is subjected to be shunted between CYP3A4 mediated oxidative metabolism to form two inactive metabolites APC or NPC and tissue carboxylesterase mediated hydrolysis to form SN-38 which is eventually detoxified via glucuronidation by UGT1A1 to form SN-38G. The pharmacology of this compound is further complicated by the existence of genetic inter-individual differences in activation and deactivation enzymes of irinotecan (e.g., CYP3A4, CYP3A5, UGT1A1) and sharing competitive elimination pathways with many concomitant medications, such as anticonvulsants, St. John's Wort, and ketoconazole. Efflux of the parent compound and metabolites out of cells by several drug transporters (e.g., Pgp, BCRP, MRP1, MRP2) also occurs. This review highlights the latest findings in drug activation, transport mechanisms, glucuronidation, and CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interactions of irinotecan in order to unlock some of its complicated pharmacology and to provide ideas for relevant future studies into optimization of this promising agent.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2003; 10(1):41-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic trioxide has been shown to be effective in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), with minimal overall toxicity reported to date. A phase I/II study was initiated in June 1998 using arsenic trioxide for relapsed APL to determine the maximum tolerated or minimal effective dose and to determine the efficacy of treatment at that dose. Ten patients received 1 to 4 monthly cycles of treatment with 0.1 mg/kg per day intravenous arsenic trioxide. Six of 7 patients evaluable for response achieved cytogenetic or molecular complete remission. However, 3 patients died suddenly during the first cycle of treatment. Autopsies obtained on 2 of these failed to identify a cause of sudden death, despite evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage in one. A third patient, for whom an autopsy was not performed, became asystolic and died while on continuous cardiac telemetry. These observations suggest that arsenic trioxide may be significantly or even fatally toxic at doses currently used and that caution is warranted in its use.