[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With increased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and histone hypoacetylation being implicated in neurodegeneration, HDAC inhibitors have been reported to have considerable therapeutic potential. Yet, existing inhibitors lack specificity and may show substantial adverse effect. In this study, we identified a novel HDAC1/2 isoform-specific inhibitor, K560, with protective effects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))- and/or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neuronal death in both in vitro and in vivo Parkinson's disease model. K560 attenuated cell death induced by MPP(+) in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells through the sustained expression of an antiapoptotic protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Inhibition of XIAP expression by locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides abolished the protective effect of K560. Inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, reduced p53 phosphorylation, and down-regulation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis on K560 treatment were also observed. Furthermore, pre- and post-oral administration of K560 to mice prevented MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra, suggesting that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 by K560 may pave the way to new strategies for Parkinson's disease treatment.
Neurobiology of aging 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.10.001 · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-small-cell lung carcinomas do not sufficiently respond to cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Combination effects of cancer chemotherapy drugs (paclitaxel and carboplatin) with nobiletin or powdered Shiikuwasha extract from Citrus depressa were examined by isobologram and combination index analyses. It was demonstrated that the combination generated a synergistic inhibitory effect against the proliferation of the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell lines A549 and H460 and that of the two chemotherapy drugs, paclitaxel was responsible for this synergistic effect. Furthermore, the percentage of apoptotic cells was decreased with increasing rates of nobiletin to paclitaxel and carboplatin. These findings were considered to be attributed to the ability of nobiletin to regulate cells in the G1 phase, which escaped cell death initiated by paclitaxel and carboplatin. An antitumor activity assay showed that this combination significantly suppressed the growth of subcutaneous A549 tumor xenografts in nude mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New orally bioavailable 5-(thiophen-2-yl)-substituted 2-aminobenzamide-series histone deacetylase inhibitors were synthesized. These compounds possess a morpholine or piperadine-derived moiety as an aqueous soluble functional group. Among them, 8b, having a 4-ethyl-2,3-dioxopiperazine-1-carboxamide group as a surface recognition domain, showed promising inhibitory activities against HCT116 cell growth and HDAC1/2. Notably, unlike MS-275, this compound did not induce apoptosis in the cell cycle tests. We therefore conducted antitumor tests of 8b and MS-275 against HCT116 cell xenografts in nude mice. Compound 8b reduced the volume of tumor mass to T/C: 60% and 47% at 45 and 80mg/kg over 16days, respectively. These values were comparable to the rate (T/C: 51% at 45mg/kg) for MS-275. Furthermore, 8b, at neither 45 nor 80mg/kg, induced the weight loss which was observed in the mice given MS-275 at 45mg/kg.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavonoids, which are plant polyphenols, are now widely used in supplements and cosmetics. Here, we report that 4'-methylflavonoids are potent inducers of melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells and in mice. We recently identified salt inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) as an inhibitor of melanogenesis via the suppression of the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-specific coactivator 1 (TORC1). Using an in vitro kinase assay targeting SIK2, we identified fisetin as a candidate inhibitor, possibly being capable of promoting melanogenesis. However, fisetin neither inhibited the CREB-inhibitory activity of SIK2 nor promoted melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Conversely, mono-methyl-flavonoids, such as diosmetin (4'-O-metlylluteolin), efficiently inhibited SIK2 and promoted melanogenesis in this cell line. The cAMP-CREB system is impaired in A(y)/a mice and these mice have yellow hair as a result of pheomelanogenesis, while Sik2(+/-); A(y)/a mice also have yellow hair, but activate eumelanogenesis when they are exposed to CREB stimulators. Feeding Sik2(+/-); A(y)/a mice with diets supplemented with fisetin resulted in their hair color changing to brown, and metabolite analysis suggested the presence of mono-methylfisetin in their feces. Thus, we decided to synthesize 4'-O-methylfisetin (4'MF) and found that 4'MF strongly induced melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells, which was accompanied by the nuclear translocation of TORC1, and the 4'-O-methylfisetin-induced melanogenic programs were inhibited by the overexpression of dominant negative TORC1. In conclusion, compounds that modulate SIK2 cascades are helpful to regulate melanogenesis via TORC1 without affecting cAMP levels, and the combined analysis of Sik2(+/-) mice and metabolites from these mice is an effective strategy to identify beneficial compounds to regulate CREB activity in vivo.
PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e26148. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026148 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have designed cancer antiproliferative compounds, starting from aniline or phenol derivative, which comprise one or two nitrooxymethylphenyl groups as do the hybrid drugs NCX4040 and NCX530. Compound 2a with p-nitrooxymethylbenzoyl-oxy and -amino groups as well as 8a with a p-nitrooxymethylbenzoylamino group showed more promising effects than NCX4040 against human colon and breast cancer cells. Since 2a and 8a, but not NCX4040, arrested human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells in the M phase, the former two compounds may inhibit cell growth differently from NCX4040. Merged images of immunofluorescence-stained α-tubulin and Hoechst-stained nuclei in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells showed that 2a and 8a disrupted microtubule formation just as did vincristine, the tubulin polymerization inhibitor. In experiments in vivo, the intraperitoneal administration of 8a at 80 mg/kg/day reduced the growth of HCT116 xenografts in nude mice to T/C 55%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New 2-aminobenzamide-type histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were synthesized. They feature a sulfur-containing bicyclic arylmethyl moiety-a surface recognition domain introduced to increase in cellular uptake-and a substituted tert-amino group which affects physicochemical properties such as aqueous solubility. Compound 22 with a (2-hydroxyethyl)(4-(thiophen-2-yl)benzyl)amino group reduced the volume of human colon cancer HCT116 xenografts in nude mice to T/C 67% by oral administration at 45mg/kg, which was comparable to the rate (T/C 62%) for a positive control, MS-275. Western blot analyses as well as cell cycle and TUNEL assays by flow cytometry suggested that the two compounds inhibited the growth of cancer cells via similar mechanisms.