D W McCarthy

Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States

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Publications (17)59.74 Total impact

  • Paul McQuade, Deborah W McCarthy, Michael J Welch
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    ABSTRACT: There are many possible metal-based positron-emitting radionuclides that can be utilized in positron tomography. At the present time, the most promising nuclides are copper, gallium, and yttrium. It is highly likely that radiopharmaceuticals labeled with these nuclides will be generally utilized in clinical practice over the next several years.
    07/2006: pages 237-250;
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    ABSTRACT: (64)Cu is a useful radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) and a promising radiotherapy agent for the treatment of cancer. Recently, (64)Cu-labeled radiopharmaceuticals were reported to be useful for internal radiation therapy as well as PET monitoring of tumors.(64)Cu was produced at the Fukui Medical University's cyclotron using twelve MeV proton irradiation and the (64)Ni(p,n) (64)Cu nuclear reaction. A (64)Ni target was electroplated on a gold disk at a thickness of 50 to > 100 microm. Electroplating was performed at 2.5 V, at currents between 5-15 mA, and was completed in 12-24 hr. The (64)Ni target was bombarded with a 50 +/- 3 microA proton current. After bombardment, (64)Cu was separated from the (64)Ni target and other contaminants using an anion exchange column. Target (64)Ni was recovered and re-used. The yield of (64)Cu was 0.6 to > 3.0 mCi/microA*h, and averaged 1.983 mCi/microA*h. The radionuclidic purity of (64)Cu was over 99%. In this study, we obtained sufficient qualities and quantities of (64)Cu for therapeutic application and dose monitoring using PET using an ultra-small cyclotron.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 07/2003; 30(5):535-9. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is overexpressed on a variety of carcinomas and has been the target for detection and treatment of these neoplasms in animals. In particular, analogues of the tetradecapeptide bombesin (BN) have been radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and (111)In for detection of GRPR-positive tumors by gamma ray scintigraphy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of the bombesin analogue, DOTA-Aoc-BN(7-14), for positron-emission tomographic (PET) imaging after radiolabeling with the positron-emitter (64)Cu. A saturation binding assay on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells showed that (64)Cu-DOTA-Aoc-BN(7-14) had an equilibrium binding constant (K(d)) of 6.1 +/- 2.5 nM and a receptor concentration (B(max)) of 2.7 +/- 0.6 x 10(5) receptors/cell. The radiolabeled analogue also showed rapid internalization with 18.2% internalized into 10(5) PC-3 cells by 2 h. The tumor localization of (64)Cu-DOTA-Aoc-BN(7-14) was 5.5% injected dose per gram in athymic nude mice bearing PC-3 xenografts at 2 h postinjection. The tumor retention with respect to the 2 h value was 76% and 45% at 4 and 24 h, respectively, and was GRPR-mediated as shown by inhibition with a coinjection of excess peptide. MicroPET imaging of (64)Cu-DOTA-Aoc-BN(7-14) in athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous PC-3 tumors showed good tumor localization. Further studies with (64)Cu-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-PTSM) suggested that low blood flow to the PC-3 tumors may have limited the localization of (64)Cu-DOTA-Aoc-BN(7-14). This study demonstrates that (64)Cu-DOTA-Aoc-BN(7-14) can be used to detect GRPR-positive tumors by PET imaging.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 01/2003; 14(4):756-63. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used copper-64-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-PTSM) to radiolabel cells ex vivo for in vivo positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies of cell trafficking in mice and for eventual application in patients. 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) cell labeling also was evaluated for comparison. 64Cu-PTSM uptake by C6 rat glioma (C6) cells increased for 180 min and then stabilized. The labeling efficiency was directly proportional to 64Cu-PTSM concentration and influenced negatively by serum. Label uptake per cell was greater with 64Cu-PTSM than with FDG. However, both 64Cu-PTSM- and FDG-labeled cells showed efflux of cell activity into supernatant. The 64Cu-PTSM labeling procedure did not interfere significantly with C6 cell viability and proliferation rate. MicroPET images of living mice indicate that tail-vein-injected labeled C6 cells traffic to the lungs and liver. In addition, transient splenic accumulation of radioactivity was clearly detectable in a mouse scanned at 3.33 h postinfusion of 64Cu-PTSM-labeled lymphocytes. In contrast, the liver was the principal organ of tracer localization after tail-vein administration of 64Cu-PTSM alone. These results indicate that in vivo imaging of cell trafficking is possible with 64Cu-PTSM-labeled cells. Given the longer t(1/2) of 64Cu (12.7 h) relative to 18F (110 min), longer cell-tracking periods (up to 24-36 h) should be possible now with PET.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2002; 99(5):3030-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The positron emitting radionuclides, oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 have been produced at Washington University for many years utilizing two biomedical cyclotrons; a Cyclotron Corporation CS15 and a Japan Steel Works 16/8 cyclotron. In recent years we have become interested in the production of non-standard PET isotopes. We were initially interested in copper-64 production using the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu nuclear reaction, but now apply this technique to other positron emitting copper isotopes, copper-60 and copper-61. Copper-64 is being produced routinely and made available to other institutions. In 1999 over ten Curies of copper-64 were produced, making copper available to thirteen institutions, as well as research groups at Washington University. We are currently developing methods for the routine productions of other PET radioisotopes of interest, these include; bromine-76, bromine-77, iodine-124, gallium-66, and technetium-94m. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    AIP Conference Proceedings. 07/2001; 576(1):841-844.
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    ABSTRACT: 64Cu (half-life, 12.7 h; beta+, 0.653 MeV [17.4%]; beta-, 0.579 MeV [39%]) has shown potential as a radioisotope for PET imaging and radiotherapy. (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-D-Phe1-octreotide (OC) was developed for imaging somatostatin-receptor-positive tumors using conventional scintigraphy. With the advantages of PET over conventional scintigraphy, an agent for PET imaging of these tumors is desirable. Here, we show that 64Cu-TETA-OC (where TETA is 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid) and PET can be used to detect somatostatin-receptor-positive tumors in humans. Eight patients with a history of neuroendocrine tumors (five patients with carcinoid tumors and three patients with islet cell tumors) were imaged by conventional scintigraphy with (111)In-DTPA-OC (204-233 MBq [5.5-6.3 mCi]) and by PET imaging with 64Cu-TETA-OC (111 MBq [3 mCi]). Blood and urine samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. PET images were collected at times ranging from 0 to 36 h after injection, and the absorbed doses to normal organs were determined. In six of the eight patients, cancerous lesions were visible by both (111)In-DTPA-OC SPECT and 64Cu-TETA-OC PET. In one patient, (111)In-DTPA-OC showed mild uptake in a lung lesion that was not detected by 64Cu-TETA-OC PET. In one patient, no tumors were detected by either agent; however, pathologic follow-up indicated that the patient had no tumors. In two patients whose tumors were visualized with (111)In-DTPA-OC and 64Cu-TETA-OC, 64Cu-TETA-OC and PET showed more lesions than (111)In-DTPA-OC. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that 64Cu-TETA-OC was rapidly cleared from the blood and that 59.2% +/- 17.6% of the injected dose was excreted in the urine. Absorbed dose measurements indicated that the bladder wall was the dose-limiting organ. The high rate of lesion detection, sensitivity, and favorable dosimetry and pharmacokinetics of 64Cu-TETA-OC indicate that it is a promising radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of patients with neuroendocrine tumors.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2001; 42(2):213-21. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid imaging by antitumor antibodies has been limited by the prolonged targeting kinetics and clearance of labeled whole antibodies. Genetically engineered fragments with rapid access and high retention in tumor tissue combined with rapid blood clearance are suitable for labeling with short-lived radionuclides, including positron-emitting isotopes for positron-emission tomography (PET). An engineered fragment was developed from the high-affinity anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody T84.66. This single-chain variable fragment (Fv)-C(H)3, or minibody, was produced as a bivalent 80 kDa dimer. The macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N", N"'-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was conjugated to the anti-CEA minibody for labeling with copper-64, a positron-emitting radionuclide (t(1/2) = 12.7 h). In vivo distribution was evaluated in athymic mice bearing paired LS174T human colon carcinoma (CEA positive) and C6 rat glioma (CEA negative) xenografts. Five hours after injection with (64)Cu-DOTA-minibody, microPET imaging showed high uptake in CEA-positive tumor (17.9% injected dose per gram +/- 3.79) compared with control tumor (6.0% injected dose per gram +/- 1.0). In addition, significant uptake was seen in liver, with low uptake in other tissues. Average target/background ratios relative to neighboring tissue were 3-4:1. Engineered antibody fragments labeled with positron-emitting isotopes such as copper-64 provide a new class of agents for PET imaging of tumors.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2000; 97(15):8495-500. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radionuclides are produced according to the present invention at commercially significant yields and at specific activities which are suitable for use in radiodiagnostic agents such as PET imaging agents and radiotherapeutic agents and/or compositions. In the method and system of the present invention, a solid target having an isotopically enriched target layer electroplated on an inert substrate is positioned in a specially designed target holder and irradiated with a charged-particle beam. The beam is preferably generated using an accelerator such as a biomedical cyclotron at energies ranging from about 5 MeV to about 25 MeV. The target is preferably directly irradiated, without an intervening attenuating foil, and with the charged particle beam impinging an area which substantially matches the target area. The irradiated target is remotely and automatically transferred from the target holder, preferably without transferring any target holder subassemblies, to a conveyance system which is preferably a pneumatic or hydraulic conveyance system, and then further transferred to an automated separation system. The system is effective for processing a single target or a plurality of targets. After separation, the unreacted target material can be recycled for preparation of other targets. In a preferred application of the invention, a biomedical cyclotron has been used to produce over 500 mCi of .sup.64 Cu having a specific activity of over 300 mCi/.mu.g Cu according to the reaction .sup.64 Ni(p,n).sup.64 Cu. These results indicate that accelerator-produced .sup.64 Cu is suitable for radiopharmaceutical diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
    Year: 12/1999
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we described the high yield production of 64Cu using a target system designed specifically for low energy, biomedical cyclotrons. In this study, the use of this target system for the production of 60Cu and 61Cu is described and the utility of these isotopes in the labeling of biomolecules for tumor and hypoxia imaging is demonstrated. 60Cu and 61Cu were produced by the 60Ni(p,n)60Cu, 61Ni(p,n)61Cu, and 60Ni(d,n)61Cu nuclear reactions. The nickel target (>99% enriched or natural nickel) was plated onto a gold disk as described previously (54-225 microm thickness) and irradiated (14.7 MeV proton beam and 8.1 MeV deuteron beam). The copper isotopes were separated from the nickel via ion exchange chromatography and the radioisotopic purity was assessed by gamma spectroscopy. Yields of up to 865 mCi of 60Cu have been achieved using enriched 60Ni. 61Cu has been produced with a maximum yield of 144 mCi using enriched 61Ni and 72 mCi using enriched 60Ni. Specific activities (using enriched material) ranged from 80 to 300 mCi/microg Cu for 60Cu and from 20 to 81 mCi/microg Cu for 61Cu. Bombardments of natural Ni targets were performed using both protons and deuterons. Yields and radioisotopic impurities were determined and compared with that for enriched materials. 60Cu was used to radiolabel diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone), ATSM. 60Cu-ATSM was injected into rats that had an occluded left anterior descending coronary artery. Uptake of 60Cu-ATSM in the hypoxic region of the heart was visualized clearly using autoradiography. In addition, 60Cu-ATSM was injected into dogs and excellent images of the heart and heart walls were obtained using positron emission tomography (PET). 61Cu was labeled to 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraacetic acid-octreotide (TETA-octreotide) and the PET images of tumor-bearing rats were obtained up to 2 h postinjection. After decay of the 61Cu, the same rat was injected with 64Cu-TETA-octreotide and the images were compared. The tumor images obtained using 61Cu were found to be superior to those using 64Cu as predicted based on the larger abundance of positrons emitted by 61Cu vs. 64Cu.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 06/1999; 26(4):351-8. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have evaluated Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM), an effective marker for the delineation of hypoxic but viable tissue, in vitro in the EMT6 carcinoma cell line under varying degrees of hypoxia and compared it with the flow tracer 64Cu-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-PTSM) and the hypoxic tracer 18F-fluoromisonidazole (MISO). We have also compared the uptake of Cu-ATSM and Cu-PTSM in vivo and ex vivo in a murine animal model bearing the EMT6 tumor. Uptake of 64Cu-ATSM, 64Cu-PTSM and 18F-MISO in vitro into EMT6 cells was investigated at the dissolved oxygen concentrations of 0, 1 x 10(3), 5 x 10(3), 5 x 10(4) and 2 x 10(5) ppm. Biodistribution performed at 1, 5, 10, 20 and 40 min compared 64Cu-ATSM with 64Cu-PTSM in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors. To determine long-term retention of 64Cu-ATSM, biodistribution was also performed at 1, 2 and 4 h. Ex vivo autoradiography of tumor slices after co-injection of 60Cu-PTSM (60Cu, T1/2 = 23.7 min) and 64Cu-ATSM (64Cu, t1/2 = 12.7 h) into the same animal was performed. After 1 h, 64Cu-ATSM was taken up by EMT6 cells: 90% at 0 ppm, 77% at 1 x 10(3) ppm, 38% at 5 x 10(3) ppm, 35% at 5 x 10(4) ppm and 31% at 2 x 10(5) ppm. 18F-MISO also showed oxygen concentration dependent uptake, but with lower percentages than 64Cu-ATSM. 64Cu-PTSM showed 83%-85% uptake into the cells after 1 h, independent of oxygen concentration. Biodistribution data of 64Cu-ATSM and 64Cu-PTSM showed optimal tumor uptake after 5 and 10 min, respectively (0.76% injected dose (ID)/organ for 64Cu-ATSM and 1.11%ID/organ for 64Cu-PTSM). Ex vivo imaging experiments showed 60Cu-PTSM uniform throughout the EMT6 tumor, but heterogeneous uptake of 64Cu-ATSM, indicative of selective trapping of 64Cu-ATSM into the hypoxic tumor cells. Cu-ATSM exhibits selectivity for hypoxic tumor tissue both in vivo and in vitro and may provide a successful diagnostic modality for the detection of tumor ischemia.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/1999; 40(1):177-83. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Copper labeled diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) is a promising agent for the imaging of hypoxic tissues. In the present study 64Cu(t1/2 = 12.8 h) labeled Cu-ATSM was used in combination with 11C (t1/2 = 20.3 min) labeled acetate as a regional perfusion marker to visualize hypoxic rat heart tissue in an acute left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occluded rat model using an ex vivo tissue slice imaging technique. 64Cu-ATSM was injected intravenously c.a. 10 min after occlusion and rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 10 min after injection. Carbon-11-acetate was injected 1 min before sacrifice to obtain a measure of blood flow. The heart was dissected, frozen, and cut into 1-mm thick slices with a gauged slicer, and 11C images were obtained with an electronic autoradiography instrument. After decay of 11C, 64Cu images were obtained in the same manner. In ischemic regions, where there was low 11C accumulation, 64Cu showed high accumulation when compared with normal regions. In rats with a large occlusion, the center of the ischemia did not show any accumulation of either 11C or 64Cu, indicating no blood supply. Cu-ATSM appears to be useful for the detection of hypoxia with contrast being observed at short times (10 min) postinjection.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 02/1999; 26(1):117-21. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of 64Cu [T1/2 = 12.7 hr; beta+ (0.655 MeV; 19%); beta- (0.573 MeV; 40%)] as a radioisotope for radiotherapy has been recently established. Here we demonstrate that 64Cu-1,4,8,11 -tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N',N",N'''-tetraacetic acid (TETA)-octreotide, a somatostatin receptor ligand, inhibits the growth of CA20948 rat pancreatic tumors in Lewis rats at doses that cause minimal toxicity. Tumor-bearing rats were administered a single 15 mCi (555 MBq) dose, a fractionated dose of 15 mCi given in 2-3 doses over 2-8 days, or control agents of buffer, unlabeled octreotide or 64Cu-labeled TETA. In certain experiments, blood was removed at times from 4-23 days post-treatment, and a complete blood count along with blood chemistry analyses were obtained. Tumor-growth inhibition was significantly greater in rats injected with a single 15 mCi dose than in rats injected with control agents (p < 0.05). Dose fractionation in two doses, either 1 or 2 days apart, induced significantly increased tumor-growth inhibition compared with rats given a single dose (p < 0.05). The only toxicity observed in treated rats was a decrease in the white blood cell count. This drop was more pronounced in rats treated with a single dose compared with those treated with a fractionated dose. Human absorbed doses of 64Cu-TETA-octreotide to normal organs were estimated from biodistribution data in Lewis rats, and these data indicate that radiotherapy with 64Cu-TETA-octreotide in humans would be feasible. Copper-64-TETA-octreotide is a promising radiopharmaceutical for targeted radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/1998; 39(11):1944-51. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of copper radioisotopes in imaging and therapy applications has created a greater need for bifunctional chelates (BFCs) for complexing copper radioisotopes to biomolecules. It has been demonstrated that the charge and lipophilicity of the Cu-BFC complex has a significant effect on the in vivo behavior of the radiolabeled Cu-BFC-biomolecule conjugate. To evaluate the effects of charge, stability, and macrocyclic backbone size on the biological behavior of 64Cu complexes, a series of macrocyclic 64Cu complexes have been prepared, and the biodistributions of these agents were evaluated in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Two macrocyclic backbones, dodecane and tetradecane, were evaluated; cyclen, DOTA, and DO2A were dodecane backbone derivatives, and cyclam, TETA, and et-cyclam were tetradecane backbone derivatives. The biodistributions of the 64Cu-labeled complexes correlated with differences in the size of the macrocycle backbone and the formal charge of the complex. All compounds showed uptake and clearance through the liver and kidneys; however, the positively charged 64Cu complexes showed significantly higher uptake in both of these organs than did the negatively charged or neutral complexes. 64Cu-TETA, a negatively charged complex with the tetradecane backbone, had the most efficient clearance by 24 hours' postinjection. These data suggest that negatively charged complexes may have more favorable clearance properties when used as BFCs.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 09/1998; 25(6):523-30. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Copper-64 (T 1/2 = 12.7 h) is an intermediate-lived positron-emitting radionuclide that is a useful radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) as well as a promising radiotherapy agent for the treatment for cancer. Currently, copper-64 suitable for biomedical studies is produced in the fast neutron flux trap (irradiation of zinc with fast neutrons) at the Missouri University Research Reactor. Access to the fast neutron flux trap is only possible on a weekly basis, making the availability of this tracer very limited. In order to significantly increase the availability of this intermediate-lived radiotracer, we have investigated and developed a method for the efficient production of high specific activity Cu-64 using a small biomedical cyclotron. It has been suggested that it may be possible to produce Cu-64 on a small biomedical cyclotron utilizing the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu nuclear reaction. We have irradiated both natural nickel and enriched (95% and 98%) Ni-64 plated on gold disks. Nickel has been electroplated successfully at thicknesses of approximately 20-300 mm and bombarded with proton currents of 15-45 microA. A special water-cooled target had been designed to facilitate the irradiations on a biomedical cyclotron up to 60 microA. We have shown that it is possible to separate Cu-64 from Ni-64 and other reaction byproducts rapidly and efficiently by using ion exchange chromatography. Production runs using 19-55 mg of 95% enriched Ni-64 have yielded 150-600 mCi of Cu-64 (2.3-5.0 mCi/microAh) with specific activities of 94-310 mci/microgram Cu. The cyclotron produced Cu-64 had been used to radiolabel PTSM [pyruvaldehyde bis-(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone), used to quantify myocardial, cerebral, renal, and tumor blood flow], MAb 1A3 [monoclonal antibody MAb to colon cancer], and octreotide. A recycling technique for the costly Ni-64 target material has been developed. This technique allows the nickel eluted off the column to be recovered and reused in the electroplating of new targets with an overall efficiency of greater than 90%.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 02/1997; 24(1):35-43. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a method for the efficient and cost-effective production of high specific activity Cu-64, via the Ni-64(p,n)Cu-64 reaction, using a small biomedical cyclotron. Nickel-64 (95% enriched) has been successfully electroplated on gold disks at thicknesses of â¼20-300 μms and bombarded with protons at beam currents up to â¼45 microamps. An automated target has been designed to facilitate the irradiations on a biomedical cyclotron. Techniques have been developed for the rapid and efficient separation of Cu-64 from Ni-64 and other reaction byproducts using ion exchange chromatography. An initial production run using 55 mg of 95% enriched Ni-64 yielded 20 GBq of Cu-64 with specific activity of 4.5 GBq/μg (determined by serial dilution titrations with TETA). In a series of experiments, bombardment of 18.7-23.7 mg of 85% enriched Ni-64 has produced 8.9-18.5 GBq of Cu-64 with specific activity of 4.5 GBq/μg (determined by serial dilution titrations with TETA). In a series of experiments, bombardment of 18.7-23.7 mg of 85% enriched Ni-64 has produced 8.9-18.5 GBq of Cu-64 (133 ± 10 MBq/μAhr) with specific activity of 3.5 GBq-11.5 GBq/μg. The amount and specific activity of the Cu-64 produced is more than adequate for both PET and therapy experiments. The Cu-64 produced in more than adequate for both PET and therapy experiments. The Cu-64 had been used to radiolabel PTSM (pyruvaldehyde bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone)-used to quantify blood flow), a monoclonal antibody (1A3) and octreotide. An efficient technique for recycling the costly enriched nickel-64 target material has been developed. Nickel eluted off the separation column is collected, boiled to dryness and redissolved in the electroplating bath. Using this method, 94.2 ± 3.2% of the Ni-64 has been recovered. The technique described provides a simple, cost-effective method for the cyclotron production of Cu-64.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/1996; 37. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Copper-64 is an intermediate-lived positron emitting radionuclide which is a useful radiotracer for positron emission tomography and a promising radiotherapy agent for cancer treatment. Copper-64 is currently reactor-produced, and because it can only be produced at a small number of reactor facilities, its availability is extremely limited. We have shown that high yields of 64Cu with high specific activity and radiochemical purity can be produced via the 64Ni(p,n)64Cu reaction using a 16 MeV cyclotron beam. An automated target and pneumatic transport line have been constructed and tested which allow production of over 500 mCi batches of 64Cu and delivery to a hot cell for processing. A technique for the rapid and efficient separation of 64Cu from the 64Ni target material and other reaction byproducts has been developed and the enriched target material has been recovered with an efficiency greater than 90%. These techniques can be extended to the production of other potentially useful isotopes, such as 60Cu,61Cu and 67Cu.
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    ABSTRACT: At Washington University we have used a single load and deliver solid target system since the early 90s. Currently we can produce Cd-109, Cu-64, Cu-60, Cu-61, Br-76, Br-77, Ga-66, I-124, Ti-45, Tc-94m, and Y-86. To increase our production capacity of these isotopes and increase safety of our personnel, we have installed a solid target system on our 168 JSW baby cyclotron capable of loading and delivering multiple solid targets with a single setup. The solid target has a cartridge with slots to house 6 electroplated solid target disks. The solid target holder can accommodate foil targets and inclined target using 1 slot and 3 slots respectively. Any combination of targets can be used taking up to 6 slots. The solid target system uses a Flex Link conveyor system with an egg shaped cart to safely deliver the bombarded target into a pig outside the vault area. The entire system is fully automated using a software package from Pyramid Technical Consultants being controlled by a Windows based personal computer.