Yao-Guang Zhang

Chongqing Normal University, Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China

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Publications (6)11.05 Total impact

  • Xu Pang, Xing-Zhong Yuan, Zhen-Dong Cao, Yao-Guang Zhang, Shi-Jian Fu
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of temperature on the repeat constant acceleration swimming performance and on the metabolic recovery capacity in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), their constant acceleration test speed (U CAT) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) recovery process were measured twice with 1-h intervals at different acclimation temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C). Temperature significantly affected U CAT, the pre-exercise metabolic rate (MO2), metabolic peak values (MO2peak), the metabolic scope (MS, MO2peak-pre-exercise MO2) and the magnitude of the EPOC (P < 0.05). These parameters significantly increased as the temperature increased from 15 to 25 °C and significantly decreased (U CAT and EPOC magnitude) or did not change (MO2peak and MS) when the temperature increased from 25 to 30 °C in the first test (P < 0.05). The relationships between temperature (T) and these parameters (U CAT, MO2peak, MS and EPOC magnitude) in the first test were as follows: U CAT = 62.14/{1 + [(T - 25.1)/21.1](2)} (r = 0.847, P < 0.001, n = 40); MO2peak = 1,052.11/{1 + [(T - 29.2)/18.9](2)} (r = 0.901, P < 0.001, n = 39); MS = 753.74/{1 + [(T - 27.1)/18.6](2)} (r = 0.768, P < 0.001, n = 39); and EPOC = 195.42/{1 + [(T - 25.6)/8.7](2)} (r = 0.752, P < 0.001, n = 39). The optimal temperatures for U CAT, MO2peak, MS and EPOC magnitude in juvenile qingbo were 25.1, 29.2, 27.1 and 28.6 °C, respectively. Repeat exercise had different effect on U CAT and EPOC magnitude at different temperature (interaction effect, P < 0.05). There was no difference in U CAT and in EPOC magnitude between the first and second tests at low temperatures (10-20 °C). However, both U CAT and EPOC magnitude decreased significantly during the second test compared with the first test at high temperatures (25 and 30 °C) (P < 0.05). The present study showed that the recovery of the constant acceleration swimming performance was poorer at higher temperatures than at low temperatures in juvenile qingbo. These differences may be related to larger anaerobic metabolism, a lower pH value in the blood, larger ionic fluids and/or higher levels of hormones present at high temperatures.
    Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 10/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many animals experience fasting because of the high temporal and spatial sporadicity of food availability. Once food is available, animals use external energy to restore their depressed functional performance. In the present study, the physiological and morphological responses to the first bout of refeeding in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were characterized. Fish that had undergone long-term fasting (fasted for 32 days, the S32 group) exhibited a lower resting metabolic rate ([Formula: see text]O2rest decreased by 49 %), lower peak metabolic rate ([Formula: see text]O2peak decreased by 24 %), greater energy expenditure (increased by 15 %) during specific dynamic action (SDA) and longer duration SDA response (increased by 41 %) than those of a control group (S0 group, fasted for 0 days). The S32 group showed a significantly reduced peak gastric evacuation rate (0.131 g meal h(-1)) compared with the S0 group (0.315 g meal h(-1)). The S0 group also had a shorter gastric evacuation time (36 h) than either of the two fasting groups (both 64 h). The S32 group displayed a higher minimum gastric pH (3.1) than the S0 and S16 groups (2.6). Refeeding did not trigger an increase in the wet mass of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the liver wet mass of the S0 and the two fasting groups increased significantly with refeeding. The trypsin and lipase of the S0 group showed higher mass-specific activities and organ capacities than either of the two fasting groups at certain specific time points. A similar result was found for aminopeptidase activity. Multiple loach meals equaling 6 % of the body weight of the fed fish completely restored the liver morphology within the S16 but not the S32 group. Our results suggest that the regulation of the digestive performance of the gastrointestinal tract in S. meridionalis that are finishing their first small meal after fasting is delayed compared with that of nonfasting fish and that it is similar to the characteristics (lower [Formula: see text]O2peak, greater SDA and a longer duration of the SDA response) of the refeeding SDA.
    Journal of Comparative Physiology B 01/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Continual swimming exercise usually promotes growth in fish at a moderate water velocity. We hypothesized that the improvement in growth in exercise-trained fish may be accompanied by increases in digestive enzyme activity, respiratory capacity and, hence, postprandial metabolism. Juvenile qingbo fish (Spinibarbus sinensis) were subjected to aerobic training for 8 weeks at a water velocity of control (3 cm s(-1)), 1, 2 and 4 body length (bl) s(-1) at a constant temperature of 25 °C. The feed intake (FI), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), whole-body composition, trypsin and lipase activities, maximal oxygen consumption (M˙O2max) and postprandial M˙O2 response were measured at the end of the training period. Aerobic exercise training induced a significant increase in FI compared with the control group, while the FCR of the 4 bl s(-1) group was significantly lower than for the other three groups (P<0.05). The 1 and 2 bl s(-1) groups showed a significantly higher SGR over the control group (P<0.05). The whole-body fat and protein contents were significantly altered after aerobic exercise training (P<0.05). Furthermore, aerobic exercise training elevated the activity of both trypsin and lipase in the hepatopancreas and intestinal tract of juvenile S. sinensis. The M˙O2max of the 4 bl s(-1) training group was significantly higher than for the control group. The resting M˙O2 (M˙O2rest) and peak postprandial M˙O2 (M˙O2peak) in the three training groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Time to M˙O2peak was significantly shorter in the 1, 2 and 4 bl s(-1) training groups compared with the control group, while exercise training showed no effect on SDA (Specific dynamic action) duration, factorial metabolic scope, energy expended on SDA and the SDA coefficient when compared to the control group. These data suggest that (1) the optimum water velocity for the growth of juvenile S. sinensis occurred at approximately 2.4 bl s(-1); (2) the improvement of growth may have been primarily due to an increase in the FI after long-term training; (3) and aerobic exercise training boosted the activity of digestive enzymes and maximum digestive metabolism, which could favor fast digestion and growth in juvenile S. sinensis.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 04/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postprandial physiological and morphological responses to feeding were examined in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) that had consumed a loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Cantor) meal equivalent to 6 % of the body mass of the catfish. The gastric evacuation rate (GER) peaked at 4 h postfeeding, averaging 0.36 g food weight h(-1), at which time 14 % of the ingested meal had passed into the intestine. Less than 10 % of the ingested meal remained in the stomach at 24 h postfeeding. Pepsin activity peaked at 8 h postfeeding, reaching a level approximately twofold higher than the prefeeding level. Pancreatic trypsin activity peaked at 16 h postfeeding, reaching a level 4.5-fold higher than the prefeeding level. Peaks in lipase activity in both the proximal and middle intestinal segments occurred at 16 h, reaching 2.8- and 2.4-fold higher levels than the prefeeding level, respectively, while the activity in the distal intestine segment reached a level 2.9-fold higher than the prefeeding level at 24 h postfeeding. With respect to amylase activity, only the middle intestinal segment exhibited a change, first an increase and then a decrease, after feeding. Feeding also triggered an approximately 200 % increase in the metabolic rate and resulted in 44.6 kJ kg(-1) being expended on specific dynamic action, equivalent to 16.1 % of the meal's energy. In terms of organ size, the wet mass of the liver increased by 11 % at 24 h postfeeding, whereas the wet mass of the pancreas did not change. Except for a decrease in the thickness of the submucosa in the middle intestinal segment, the thickness of the intestinal fold, mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa of each intestinal segment did not change significantly with feeding. These results suggest that the continuum of physiological responses observed with respect to metabolic increases, GER, regulation of pancreatic and intestinal digestive enzyme activities and liver wet mass to feeding corresponds to the changes in the demand on the digestive system in S. meridionalis. Moreover, species maintained stable gastrointestinal tract morphology during the short interval of repeated feeding.
    Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 03/2012; 38(5):1459-75. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The size and functional capacity of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated organs vary in response to environmental cues. The GI tract and associated organs are also very metabolically active in animals. Hence, animals may reduce the size and function of their GI tract to conserve energy when deprived of food. The main aims of this study were to investigate how Silurus meridionalis regulates the function and structure of its GI tract and associated organs during starvation. Starvation induced a decrease in both maintenance metabolism (MO(2rest), decreased by approximately 50%) and respiratory frequency (indicated by double side gill activity and notated as f(R), decreased by 29%). Lipase, trypsin and aminopeptidase-A showed a similar reduction in mass-specific activities during starvation, but pepsin and α-amylase did not. The starvation of experimental fish resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, the wet mass of the liver and the digestive-somatic system, the hepato-somatic index and the condition factor whereas the wet masses of the GI tract, pancreas, gall bladder and the relative intestinal length did not vary significantly during starvation. The reduction in liver wet mass was the main reason for the decrease in the wet mass of digestive-somatic system in this species. Only the mucosal area of the PI was affected significantly by starvation, decreasing by 34% at the end of the experiment. S. meridionalis displayed a decreasing intestinal mucosal area towards the distal intestine, and this gradient was not affected by starvation. The morphology and structure of both the GI tract and the liver were greatly down-regulated, as indicated by decreases in liver cell size, the mucosal thickness of the stomach and intestine, the density of goblet cells and microvilli surface area (MVSA), implying that food deprivation greatly impaired the digestive and absorptive functions of the GI tract in S. meridionalis. When deprived of food, S. meridionalis can endure harsh periods of starvation and adaptively down-regulate the function and structure of the digestive tract with physiological and biochemical strategies.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 03/2012; 162(3):200-11. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of temperature on resting oxygen consumption rate (MO2rest) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after exhaustive exercise (chasing) were measured in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) (8.40±0.30 g, n=40) to test whether temperature has a significant influence on MO2rest, maximum post-exercise oxygen consumption rate (MO2peak) and EPOC and to investigate how metabolic scope (MS: MO2peak - MO2rest) varies with acclimation temperature. The MO2rest increased from 64.7 (10°C) to 160.3 mg O2 h(-1) kg(-1) (25°C) (P<0.05) and reached a plateau between 25 and 30°C. The post-exercise MO2 in all temperature groups increased immediately to the peak values and then decreased slowly to a steady state that was higher than the pre-exercise MO2. The MO2peak did not significantly differ among the 20, 25 and 30°C groups, though these values were much higher than those of the lower temperature groups (10 and 15°C) (P<0.05). The duration of EPOC varied from 32.9 min at 10°C to 345 min at 20°C, depending on the acclimation temperatures. The MS values of the lower temperature groups (10 and 15°C) were significantly smaller than those of the higher temperature groups (20, 25 and 30°C) (P<0.05). The magnitude of EPOC varied ninefold among all of the temperature groups and was the largest for the 20°C temperature group (about 422.4 mg O2 kg(-1)). These results suggested that (1) the acclimation temperature had a significant effect on maintenance metabolism (as indicated by MO2rest) and the post-exercise metabolic recovery process (as indicated by MO2peak, duration and magnitude of EPOC), and (2) the change of the MS as a function of acclimation temperature in juvenile southern catfish might be related to their high degree of physiological flexibility, which allows them to adapt to changes in environmental conditions in their habitat in the Yangtze River and the Jialing River.
    Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 05/2010; 36(4):1243-52. · 1.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18 Citations
11.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Chongqing Normal University
      • Laboratory of Evolutionary Physiology and Behaviour
      Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China
  • 2010–2013
    • Southwest University in Chongqing
      Pehpei, Chongqing Shi, China