[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of multiple antigenically distinct types and subtypes of influenza viruses allows the construction of a multivalent vector system for the mucosal delivery of foreign sequences. Influenza A viruses have been exploited successfully for the expression of extraneous antigens as well as immunostimulatory molecules. In this study, we describe the development of an influenza B virus vector whose functional part of the interferon antagonist NS1 was replaced by human interleukin 2 (IL2) as a genetic adjuvant. We demonstrate that IL2 expressed by this viral vector displays immune adjuvant activity in immunized mice. Animals vaccinated with the IL2 viral vector showed an increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody response and higher protective efficacy after challenge with a wild-type influenza B virus when compared to mice vaccinated with a control virus. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to construct influenza B vaccine strains expressing immune-potentiating foreign sequences from the NS genomic segment. Based on these data, it is now hypothetically possible to create a trivalent (or quadrivalent) live attenuated influenza vaccine in which each component expresses a selected genetic adjuvant with tailored expression levels.
Archives of Virology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00705-015-2525-9 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) epidemic currently ongoing in West Africa is not the first among
numerous epidemics in the continent. Yet it seems to be the worst EHF epidemic outbreak caused by Ebola virus Zaire since 1976 as regards its extremely large scale and rapid spread in the population. Experiments to study the agent have continued for more than 20 years. The EHF virus has a relatively simple genome with seven genes and additional reading frame resulting from RNA editing. While being of a relatively low genetic capacity, the virus can be ranked as a standard for pathogenicity with the ability to evade the host immune response in uttermost perfection. The EHF virus has similarities with retroviruses, but belongs to (–)RNA viruses of a nonretroviral origin. Genetic elements of the virus, NIRV, were detected in animal and human genomes. EHF virus glycoprotein (GP) is a class I fusion protein and shows more similarities than distinctions in tertiary structure with SIV and HIV gp41 proteins and even influenza virus hemagglutinin. EHF is an
unusual infectious disease, and studying the molecular basis of its pathogenesis may contribute to new findings in therapy of severe conditions leading to a fatal outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A long-term objective when designing influenza vaccines is to create one with broad cross-reactivity that will provide effective control over influenza, no matter which strain has caused the disease. Here we summarize the results from an investigation into the immunogenic and protective capacities inherent in variations of a recombinant protein, HBc/4M2e. This protein contains four copies of the ectodomain from the influenza virus protein M2 (M2e) fused within the immunodominant loop of the hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBc). Variations of this basic design include preparations containing M2e from the consensus human influenza virus; the M2e from the highly pathogenic avian A/H5N1 virus and a combination of two copies from human and two copies from avian influenza viruses. Intramuscular delivery in mice with preparations containing four identical copies of M2e induced high IgG titers in blood sera and bronchoalveolar lavages. It also provoked the formation of memory T-cells and antibodies were retained in the blood sera for a significant period of time post immunization. Furthermore, these preparations prevented the death of 75-100% of animals, which were challenged with lethal doses of virus. This resulted in a 1.2-3.5 log 10 decrease in viral replication within the lungs. Moreover, HBc particles carrying only “human” or “avian” M2e displayed cross-reactivity in relation to human (A/H1N1, A/H2N2 and A/H3N2) or A/H5N1 and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, respectively; however, with the particles carrying both “human” and “avian” M2e this effect was much weaker, especially in relation to influenza virus A/H5N1. It is apparent from this work that to quickly produce vaccine for a pandemic it would be necessary to have several variations of a recombinant protein, containing four copies of M2e (each one against a group of likely influenza virus strains) with these relevant constructs housed within a comprehensive collection Escherichia coli-producers and maintained ready for use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bis-spiro heterocycles containing spiro units at the 1,3-positions of the pyrrolizidine (isothia-pyrrolizidine) moiety were synthesized by the reaction of unstabilized azomethine ylides, which were generated in situ from isatin and proline (isothiaproline), with hetarylidene-substituted rhodanines. Quantum chemical calculations of potential energy surface sections and descriptors controlling the regioselectivity of cycloaddition were carried out. For a number of compounds in vitro activity against the influenza virus A/California/07/09 (H1N1)pdm2009 was experimentally established.
Russian Chemical Bulletin 05/2015; 63(5):1130-1136. DOI:10.1007/s11172-014-0560-4 · 0.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: В качестве реакций, имитирующих возможные метаболические превращения противовирусного препарата Триазавирин® и его производных, изучено нуклеофильное замещение нитрогруппы в ряду [1,2,4]триазоло[5,1-с][1,2,4]триазинонов под действием цистеина и глутатиона как модели взаимодействия с тиольными фрагментами вирусных белков.
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds 04/2015; 51(3):275-280. · 0.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nucleophilic susbstitution of nitro group in [1,2,4]triazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazinones upon treatment with cysteine and glutathione was studied as a model for the interaction with thiol groups of virus proteins, which mimics the metabolic transformations of antiviral drug Triazavirin® and its derivatives.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is devoted to the antiviral activity of peptide fragments from the PB1 protein – a component of the influenza A RNA polymerase. The antiviral activity of the peptides synthesized was studied in MDCK cell cultures against the pandemic influenza strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pdm09. We found that peptide fragments 6-13, 6-14, 26-30, 395-400, and 531-540 of the PB1 protein were capable of suppressing viral replication in cell culture. Terminal modifications i.e. N-acetylation and C-amidation increased the antiviral properties of the peptides significantly. Peptide PB1 (6 – 14) with both termini modified showed maximum antiviral activity, its inhibitory activity manifesting itself during the early stages of viral replication. It was also shown that the fluorescent-labeled analog of this peptide was able to penetrate into the cell. The broad range of virus-inhibiting activity of PB1 (6-14) peptide was confirmed using a panel of influenza A viruses of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes including those resistant to oseltamivir, the leading drug in anti-influenza therapy. Thus, short peptide fragments of the PB1 protein could serve as leads for future development of influenza prevention and/or treatment agents.
Antiviral Research 01/2015; 113:4-10. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.10.015 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Arbidol (umifenovir) in adult patients with influenza. Subjects and methods. The analysis of the preliminary results of the multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled post-marketing study ARBITR was performed. A total of 293 adults aged 18 to 65 years with influenza or acute respiratory tract infection of no more than 36 hours duration were enrolled in the study. Individuals were randomized into 2 treatment groups: oral umifenovir 200 mg four times daily for 5 days or placebo four times daily for 5 days. The efficacy endpoints were time to resolution of all symptoms, severity of symptoms and illness, durations of virus shedding. Results. The efficacy of umifenovir was evaluated in the group of 119 (40.6%) patients with influenza: 45 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza and 74 patients whom diagnosis of influenza was made based on clinical and epidemiological data. Umifenovir had influence on the time to resolution of all symptoms. All symptoms were resolved within the first 60 hours after therapy initiation in 23.8% patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza in the umifenovir group and it was 5.7 times greater compared to placebo group (4.2%) (p<0.05). Severity of illness, catarrhal symptoms and intoxication was reduced with umifenovir compared to placebo, reducing of severity was most evidently observed within the first 2-3 days following the therapy initiation. Umifenovir had a significant effect on viral shedding. The proportion of patients still shedding influenza virus on day 4 was significantly reduced in the umifenovir group compared to placebo.(25 vs 53%, respectively; p < 0.05). Conclusion. It was found that the effect of umifenovir in the treatment of influenza in adults is most pronounced in the acute stage of the disease and appears in the reduction of time to resolution of all symptoms of the disease, reducing the severity of symptoms of the disease and durations of virus shedding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparative analysis of the three past epidemics with the participation of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was conducted according to the results of the epidemiological trials of two WHO National influenza centers for the morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality of the influenza in 59 cities of Russia for the period from 2009 to 2013. The first wave of the pandemic of 2009 was the most severe. Compared with this wave, during the next epidemics of 2011 and 2013, the involvement of urban population in the epidemic was reduced, as well as the morbidity in the people 15-64 years old and schoolchildren 7-14 years old. The duration of the epidemic among the adult population, the mortality rate of the total population, and the mortality rates in all age groups were also decreased. Vice versa, the incidence in the children of preschool age and the elderly people and the duration of the epidemic among children (especially preschool children) were increased. The share of patients 65 years and older, children 0-2 years old, and patients with pathology of the cardiovascular systems among the deceased patients increased to 33.6%.