[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disassembly of the nuclear lamina is essential in mitosis and apoptosis requiring multiple coordinated enzymatic activities in nucleus and cytoplasm. Activation and coordination of the different activities is poorly understood and moreover complicated as some factors translocate between cytoplasm and nucleus in preparatory phases. Here we used the ability of parvoviruses to induce nuclear membrane breakdown to understand the triggers of key mitotic enzymes. Nuclear envelope disintegration was shown upon infection, microinjection but also upon their application to permeabilized cells. The latter technique also showed that nuclear envelope disintegration was independent upon soluble cytoplasmic factors. Using time-lapse microscopy, we observed that nuclear disassembly exhibited mitosis-like kinetics and occurred suddenly, implying a catastrophic event irrespective of cell- or type of parvovirus used. Analyzing the order of the processes allowed us to propose a model starting with direct binding of parvoviruses to distinct proteins of the nuclear pore causing structural rearrangement of the parvoviruses. The resulting exposure of domains comprising amphipathic helices was required for nuclear envelope disintegration, which comprised disruption of inner and outer nuclear membrane as shown by electron microscopy. Consistent with Ca(++) efflux from the lumen between inner and outer nuclear membrane we found that Ca(++) was essential for nuclear disassembly by activating PKC. PKC activation then triggered activation of cdk-2, which became further activated by caspase-3. Collectively our study shows a unique interaction of a virus with the nuclear envelope, provides evidence that a nuclear pool of executing enzymes is sufficient for nuclear disassembly in quiescent cells, and demonstrates that nuclear disassembly can be uncoupled from initial phases of mitosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intermediate filaments (IFs) have recently been shown to serve novel roles during infection by many viruses. Here we have begun to study the role of IFs during the early steps of infection by the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). We found that during early infection with MVM, after endosomal escape, the vimentin IF network was considerably altered, yielding collapsed immunofluorescence staining near the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, we found that vimentin plays an important role in the life cycle of MVM. The number of cells, which successfully replicated MVM, was reduced in infected cells in which the vimentin network was genetically or pharmacologically modified; viral endocytosis, however, remained unaltered. Perinuclear accumulation of MVM-containing vesicles was reduced in cells lacking vimentin. Our data suggests that vimentin is required for the MVM life cycle, presenting possibly a dual role: (1) following MVM escape from endosomes and (2) during endosomal trafficking of MVM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Baculoviruses are one of the largest viruses that replicate in the nucleus of their host cells. During infection, the rod-shape, 250-nm long nucleocapsid delivers its genome into the nucleus. Electron microscopy evidence suggests that baculoviruses, specifically the Alphabaculoviruses (nucleopolyhedroviruses) and the Betabaculoviruses (granuloviruses), have evolved two very distinct modes for doing this. Here we review historical and current experimental results of baculovirus nuclear import studies, with an emphasis on electron microscopy studies employing the prototypical baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infecting cultured cells. We also discuss the implications of recent studies towards theories of nuclear transport mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular factors associated with the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) during infection are thought to play important roles in the MVM life cycle but only a few of these have been identified. Here we used a proteomic-based approach in order to identify host-binding partners of MVM. Using purified MVM as bait for immunoprecipitation assays, a total of 150 proteins were identified in MVM immunoprecipitates by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Galectin-3 was one of six proteins showing a statistically significant enrichment across replicates. Small interfering RNA depletion studies revealed an important role for Galectin-3 in MVM endocytosis and infectivity in LA9 mouse fibroblast cells. Galectin-3-depleted cells were less susceptible to MVM infection than control cells and showed a significant reduction of MVM cellular uptake, but not of MVM binding to the cell surface. Our results indicate an important role for Galectin-3 in the cellular uptake of MVM. We propose that Galectin-3 facilitates the access of MVM to its receptor(s) at the plasma membrane and in this way promotes MVM endocytosis.
Journal of proteomics 12/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear envelope (NE) is a vital structure that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Because the NE is such a critical cellular barrier, many viral pathogens have evolved to modulate its permeability. They do this either by breaching the NE or by disrupting the integrity and functionality of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Viruses modulate NE permeability for different reasons. Some viruses disrupt NE to deliver the viral genome into the nucleus for replication, while others cause NE disruption during nuclear egress of newly assembled capsids. Yet, other viruses modulate NE permeability and affect the compartmentalization of host proteins or block the nuclear transport of host proteins involved in the host antiviral response. Recent scientific advances demonstrated that other viruses use proteins of the NPC for viral assembly or disassembly. Here we review the ways in which various viruses affect NE and NPC during infection.
International review of cell and molecular biology 01/2012; 299:117-59. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Baculoviruses are one of the largest viruses that replicate in the nucleus of their host cells. During an infection the capsid, containing the DNA viral genome, is released into the cytoplasm and delivers the genome into the nucleus by a mechanism that is largely unknown. Here, we used capsids of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in combination with electron microscopy and discovered this capsid crosses the NPC and enters into the nucleus intact, where it releases its genome. To better illustrate the existence of this capsid through the NPC in its native conformation, we reconstructed the nuclear import event using electron tomography. In addition, using different experimental conditions, we were able to visualize the intact capsid interacting with NPC cytoplasmic filaments, as an initial docking site, and midway through the NPC. Our data suggests the NPC central channel undergoes large-scale rearrangements to allow translocation of the intact 250-nm long baculovirus capsid. We discuss our results in the light of the hypothetical models of NPC function.
Journal of Structural Biology 11/2011; 177(1):90-8. · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hallmark of HIV type 1 and other lentiviruses is their ability to infect and replicate in nondividing cells by commandeering host nuclear transport factors. During the early stages of infection, this is expected to permit the safe passage of viral preintegration complexes (PICs) through nuclear pores. Numerous nuclear transport factors have been identified as essential for HIV-1 infection by genome-wide small interfering RNA screens, and many of these are currently under investigation. Here, using knockdown studies, Matreyek and Engelman further characterize the importance of transportin-3 and nuclear pore complex component nucleoporin 153 for the early stages of HIV-1 infection and show that these two proteins operate synergistically. Also, as was previously observed for transportin-3, they show that the requirement of nucleoporin 153 for PIC nuclear entry is determined by the HIV-1 Capsid protein. The refinement of the list of key nuclear pore complex and transport proteins required for PIC entry, along with a better understanding of the specific mechanisms employed, will undoubtedly lead to the development of future antiretroviral therapies that will have the potential to block HIV-1 viral DNA integration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) commandeers host cell proteins and machineries for its replication. Our earlier work showed that HIV-1 induced the cytoplasmic retention of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and ribonucleic acid (RNA)-binding proteins. This retention is dependent on nuclear export of the viral genomic RNA and on changes in the localization and expression level of the nucleoporin (Nup) p62 (Nup62). To further characterize the extent of perturbation induced by HIV-1, we performed proteomics analyses of nuclear envelopes (NEs) isolated from infected T cells. Infection induced extensive changes in the composition of the NE and its associated proteins, including a remarkable decrease in the abundance of Nups. Immunogold electron microscopy revealed the translocation of Nups into the cytoplasm. Nup62 was identified as a component of purified virus, and small interfering RNA depletion studies revealed an important role for this Nup in virus gene expression and infectivity. This detailed analysis highlights the profound effects on NE composition induced by HIV-1 infection, providing further evidence of the magnitude of viral control over the cell biology of its host.
The Journal of Cell Biology 05/2011; 193(4):619-31. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parvoviruses are small, nonenveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses which replicate in the nucleus of the host cell. We have previously found that early during infection the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) causes small, transient disruptions of the nuclear envelope (NE). We have now investigated the mechanism used by MVM to disrupt the NE. Here we show that the viral phospholipase A2, the only known enzymatic domain on the parvovirus capsid, is not involved in causing NE disruption. Instead, the virus utilizes host cell caspases, which are proteases involved in causing NE breakdown during apoptosis, to facilitate these nuclear membrane disruptions. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors indicate that caspase-3 in particular is involved. A caspase-3 inhibitor prevents nuclear lamin cleavage and NE disruption in MVM-infected mouse fibroblast cells and reduces nuclear entry of MVM capsids and viral gene expression. Caspase-3 is, however, not activated above basal levels in MVM-infected cells, and other aspects of apoptosis are not triggered during early MVM infection. Instead, basally active caspase-3 is relocalized to the nuclei of infected cells. We propose that NE disruption involving caspases plays a role in (i) parvovirus entry into the nucleus and (ii) alteration of the compartmentalization of host proteins in a way that is favorable for the virus.
Journal of Virology 03/2011; 85(10):4863-74. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under investigation, including the utilization of host defence peptides (HDPs) as emerging anti-parasitic therapies. HDPs are characterised by their small size, amphipathic nature and cationicity, which induce permeabilization of cell membranes, whilst modulating the immune response of the host. Recently, members of the cathelicidin family of HDPs have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activities against various parasites including Leishmania. The cathelicidin bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28) has broad antimicrobial activities and confers protection in animal models of bacterial infection or sepsis. We tested the effectiveness of the use of BMAP-28 and two of its isomers the D-amino acid form (D-BMAP-28) and the retro-inverso form (RI-BMAP-28), as anti-leishmanial agents against the promastigote and amastigote intracellular Leishmania major lifecycle stages.
An MTS viability assay was utilized to show the potent antiparasitic activity of BMAP-28 and its protease resistant isomers against L. major promastigotes in vitro. Cell membrane permeability assays, caspase 3/7, Tunel assays and morphologic studies suggested that this was a late stage apoptotic cell death with early osmotic cell lysis caused by the antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, BMAP-28 and its isomers demonstrated anti-leishmanial activities against intracellular amastigotes within a macrophage infection model.
Interestingly, D-BMAP-28 appears to be the most potent antiparasitic of the three isomers against wild type L. major promastigotes and amastigotes. These exciting results suggest that BMAP-28 and its protease resistant isomers have significant therapeutic potential as novel anti-leishmanials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many viruses depend on nuclear proteins for replication. Therefore, their viral genome must enter the nucleus of the host cell. In this review we briefly summarize the principles of nucleocytoplasmic transport, and then describe the diverse strategies used by viruses to deliver their genomes into the host nucleus. Some of the emerging mechanisms include: (1) nuclear entry during mitosis, when the nuclear envelope is disassembled, (2) viral genome release in the cytoplasm followed by entry of the genome through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), (3) capsid docking at the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, followed by genome release, (4) nuclear entry of intact capsids through the NPC, followed by genome release, and (5) nuclear entry via virus-induced disruption of the nuclear envelope. Which mechanism a particular virus uses depends on the size and structure of the virus, as well as the cellular cues used by the virus to trigger capsid disassembly and genome release. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Signaling and Cellular Fate through Modulation of Nuclear Protein Import.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2010; 1813(9):1634-45. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleoporin 153 (Nup153), a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), has been implicated in the interaction of the NPC with the nuclear lamina. Here we show that depletion of Nup153 by RNAi results in alteration of the organization of the nuclear lamina and the nuclear lamin-binding protein Sun1. More striking, Nup153 depletion induces a dramatic cytoskeletal rearrangement that impairs cell migration in human breast carcinoma cells. Our results point to a very prominent role of Nup153 in connection to cell motility that could be exploited in order to develop novel anti-cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importin beta mediates active passage of cellular substrates through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Adaptors such as importin alpha and snurportin associate with importin beta via an importin beta binding (IBB) domain. The intrinsic structural flexibility of importin beta allows its concerted interactions with IBB domains, phenylalanine-glycine nucleoporins, and the GTPase Ran during transport. In this paper, we provide evidence that the nature of the IBB domain modulates the affinity of the import complex for the NPC. In permeabilized cells, importin beta imports a cargo fused to the snurportin IBB (sIBB) with approximately 70% reduced energy requirement as compared with the classical importin alpha IBB. At the molecular level, this is explained by approximately 200-fold reduced affinity of importin beta for Nup62, when bound to the sIBB. Consistently, in vivo, the importin beta.sIBB complex has greatly reduced persistence inside the central channel of the NPC. We propose that by controlling the degree of strain in the tertiary structure of importin beta, the IBB domain modulates the affinity of the import complex for nucleoporins, thus dictating its persistence inside the NPC.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(18):13769-80. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microinjection of Xenopus laevis oocytes is an excellent system for studying nuclear transport because of the large size of the oocyte and its high nuclear pore complex (NPC) density. In addition, the fact that Xenopus oocytes are not permissive for most mammalian viruses makes this system especially useful for studying nuclear transport of viruses in the absence of the confounding factor of virus replication. In this article, we briefly discuss the contribution of microinjection of Xenopus oocytes to the field of nuclear transport. We then describe the protocols we have developed using microinjection of Xenopus oocytes to study nuclear transport of viral capsids, and summarize variations of the technique that can be used to address many different questions about the nuclear transport of viruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virtually all DNA viruses including hepatitis B viruses (HBV) replicate their genome inside the nucleus. In non-dividing cells, the genome has to pass through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) by the aid of nuclear transport receptors as e.g. importin beta (karyopherin). Most viruses release their genome in the cytoplasm or at the cytosolic face of the NPC, as the diameter of their capsids exceeds the size of the NPC. The DNA genome of HBV is derived from reverse transcription of an RNA pregenome. Genome maturation occurs in cytosolic capsids and progeny capsids can deliver the genome into the nucleus causing nuclear genome amplification. The karyophilic capsids are small enough to pass the NPC, but nuclear entry of capsids with an immature genome is halted in the nuclear basket on the nuclear side of the NPC, and the genome remains encapsidated. In contrast, capsids with a mature genome enter the basket and consequently liberate the genome. Investigating the difference between immature and mature capsids, we found that mature capsids had to disintegrate in order to leave the nuclear basket. The arrest of a karyophilic cargo at the nuclear pore is a rare phenomenon, which has been described for only very few cellular proteins participating in nuclear entry. We analyzed the interactions causing HBV capsid retention. By pull-down assays and partial siRNA depletion, we showed that HBV capsids directly interact with nucleoporin 153 (Nup153), an essential protein of the nuclear basket which participates in nuclear transport via importin beta. The binding sites of importin beta and capsids were shown to overlap but capsid binding was 150-fold stronger. In cellulo experiments using digitonin-permeabilized cells confirmed the interference between capsid binding and nuclear import by importin beta. Collectively, our findings describe a unique nuclear import strategy not only for viruses but for all karyophilic cargos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rise of antibiotic resistant pathogens is one of the most pressing global health issues. Discovery of new classes of antibiotics has not kept pace; new agents often suffer from cross-resistance to existing agents of similar structure. Short, cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity are essential to the host defenses of many organisms and represent a promising new class of antimicrobials. This paper reports the successful in silico screening for potent antibiotic peptides using a combination of QSAR and machine learning techniques. On the basis of initial high-throughput measurements of activity of over 1400 random peptides, artificial neural network models were built using QSAR descriptors and subsequently used to screen an in silico library of approximately 100,000 peptides. In vitro validation of the modeling showed 94% accuracy in identifying highly active peptides. The best peptides identified through screening were found to have activities comparable or superior to those of four conventional antibiotics and superior to the peptide most advanced in clinical development against a broad array of multiresistant human pathogens.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2009; 52(7):2006-15. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our earlier work indicated that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA (vRNA) is trafficked to the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) when heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 is depleted from cells. Also, Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein promoted dynein motor complex, late endosome and vRNA clustering at the MTOC suggesting that the dynein motor and late endosomes were involved in vRNA trafficking. To investigate the role of the dynein motor in vRNA trafficking, dynein motor function was disrupted by small interference RNA-mediated depletion of the dynein heavy chain or by p50/dynamitin overexpression. These treatments led to a marked relocalization of vRNA and viral structural protein Gag to the cell periphery with late endosomes and a severalfold increase in HIV-1 production. In contrast, rerouting vRNA to the MTOC reduced virus production. vRNA localization depended on Gag membrane association as shown using both myristoylation and Gag nucleocapsid domain proviral mutants. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic localization of vRNA and Gag was not attributable to intracellular or internalized endocytosed virus particles. Our results demonstrate that dynein motor function is important for regulating Gag and vRNA egress on endosomal membranes in the cytoplasm to directly impact on viral production.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2009; 284(21):14572-85. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early in infection, the genome of the influenza A virus, consisting of eight complexes of RNA and proteins (termed viral ribonucleoproteins; vRNPs), enters the nucleus of infected cells for replication. Incoming vRNPs are imported into the nucleus of infected cells using at least two nuclear localization sequences on nucleoprotein (NP; NLS1 at the N terminus, and NLS2 in the middle of the protein). Progeny vRNP assembly occurs in the nucleus, and later in infection, these are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Nuclear-exported vRNPs are different from incoming vRNPs in that they are prevented from re-entering the nucleus. Why nuclear-exported vRNPs do not re-enter the nucleus is unknown.
To test our hypothesis that the exposure of NLSs on the vRNP regulates the directionality of the nuclear transport of the influenza vRNPs, we immunolabeled the two NLSs of NP (NLS1 and NLS2) and analyzed their surface accessibility in cells infected with the influenza A virus. We found that the NLS1 epitope on NP was exposed throughout the infected cells, but the NLS2 epitope on NP was only exposed in the nucleus of the infected cells. Addition of the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B further revealed that NLS1 is no longer exposed in cytoplasmic NP and vRNPs that have already undergone nuclear export. Similar immunolabeling studies in the presence of leptomycin B and with cells transfected with the cDNA of NP revealed that the NLS1 on NP is hidden in nuclear exported-NP.
NLS1 mediates the nuclear import of newly-synthesized NP and incoming vRNPs. This NLS becomes hidden on nuclear-exported NP and nuclear-exported vRNPs. Thus the selective exposure of the NLS1 constitutes a critical mechanism to regulate the directionality of the nuclear transport of vRNPs during the influenza A viral life cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microinjection of Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by thin-sectioning electron microscopy (EM) is an excellent system for studying nucleocytoplasmic transport. Because of its large nucleus and high density of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), nuclear transport can be easily visualized in the Xenopus oocyte. Much insight into the mechanisms of nuclear import and export has been gained through use of this system (reviewed by Panté, 2006). In addition, we have used microinjection of Xenopus oocytes to dissect the nuclear import pathways of several viruses that replicate in the host nucleus. Here we demonstrate the cytoplasmic microinjection of Xenopus oocytes with a nuclear import substrate. We also show preparation of the injected oocytes for visualization by thin-sectioning EM, including dissection, dehydration, and embedding of the oocytes into an epoxy embedding resin. Finally, we provide representative results for oocytes that have been microinjected with the capsid of the baculovirus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) or the parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM), and discuss potential applications of the technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influenza A viral genome consists of eight negative-sense, single stranded RNA molecules, individually packed with multiple copies of the influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) into viral ribonulceoprotein particles (vRNPs). The influenza vRNPs are enclosed within the viral envelope. During cell entry, however, these vRNP complexes are released into the cytoplasm, where they gain access to the host nuclear transport machinery. In order to study the nuclear import of influenza vRNPs and the replication of the influenza genome, it is useful to work with isolated vRNPs so that other components of the virus do not interfere with these processes. Here, we describe a procedure to purify these vRNPs from the influenza A virus. The procedure starts with the disruption of the influenza A virion with detergents in order to release the vRNP complexes from the enveloped virion. The vRNPs are then separated from the other components of the influenza A virion on a 33-70% discontinuous glycerol gradient by velocity sedimentation. The fractions obtained from the glycerol gradient are then analyzed on via SDS-PAGE after staining with Coomassie blue. The peak fractions containing NP are then pooled together and concentrated by centrifugation. After concentration, the integrity of the vRNPs is verified by visualization of the vRNPs by transmission electron microscopy after negative staining. The glycerol gradient purification is a modification of that from Kemler et al. (1994)(1), and the negative staining has been performed by Wu et al. (2007).(2).