Mark Shannon

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (5)22.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The capability to reprogram human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened a new area of biology and provides unprecedented access to patient-specific iPSCs for drug screening, disease models, and transplantation therapies. Although the process of obtaining iPSC lines is technically simple, reprogramming is a slow and inefficient process consisting of a largely uncharacterized chain of molecular events. To date, researchers have reported a wide range of reprogramming efficiencies, from <0.01% to >1%, depending on the specific reprogramming factors used, the mode of delivery of the reprogramming factors, properties of the starting cells, and culture conditions. We have applied a quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology, TaqMan Protein Assays to directly quantify the kinetics, and cellular levels of crucial transcription factors during the reprogramming process. Further, we have used the assays to ascertain the threshold levels of reprogramming protein factors required to generate iPSC colonies, to characterize the protein expression signatures of different iPSC lines, and to rapidly identify iPS versus non-iPSC colonies based on expression of pluripotency markers. These data demonstrate that TaqMan Protein Assays can be used as tools to dissect and gain greater understanding of the mechanisms guiding reprogramming and to further characterize individual established iPSC lines.
    Stem cells and development 06/2011; 21(4):530-8. DOI:10.1089/scd.2011.0032 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and, most recently, LIN28 have been identified as key regulators of pluripotency in mammalian embryonic and induced stem cells, and are proven to be crucial for generation of the mouse germ-cell lineage. These factors are a hallmark of certain histological types of germ-cell tumours (GCTs). Here, we report novel information on the temporal and spatial expression pattern of LIN28 during normal human male germ-cell development as well as various types of GCTs. To investigate LIN28 expression, immunohistochemical analyses and quantitative proximity ligation assay-based TaqMan protein assays were applied on snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples as well as representative cell lines. LIN28 was found in primordial germ cells, gonocytes and pre-spermatogonia, in contrast to OCT3/4 and NANOG, which were found only in the first two stages. LIN28 was also found in all precursor lesions (carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma) of type II GCTs, as well as the invasive components seminoma and the non-seminomatous elements embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumour. Choriocarcinoma showed a heterogeneous pattern, while teratomas and spermatocytic seminomas (type III GCTs) were negative. This expression pattern suggests that LIN28 is associated with malignant behaviour of type II GCTs. Cell line experiments involving siRNA knockdown of LIN28, OCT3/4 and SOX2 showed that LIN28 plays a role in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of both seminoma and embryonal carcinoma, closely linked to, and likely upstream of OCT3/4 and NANOG. In conclusion, LIN28 regulates the differentiation status of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma and is likely to play a related role in normal human germ-cell development.
    International Journal of Andrology 06/2011; 34(4 Pt 2):e160-74. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01148.x · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 01/2011; 70(8 Supplement):1163-1163. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM10-1163 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 11/2010; 203(1):98-98. DOI:10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2010.07.113 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The correlation of gene and protein expression changes in biological systems has been hampered by the need for separate sample handling and analysis platforms for nucleic acids and proteins. In contrast to the simple, rapid, and flexible workflow of quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods, which enable characterization of several classes of nucleic acid biomarkers (i.e. DNA, mRNA, and microRNAs), protein analysis methods such as Western blotting are cumbersome, laborious, and much less quantitative. However, TaqMan(R) Protein Assays, which use the proximity ligation assay (PLA) technology, now expand the range of qPCR applications to include the direct detection of proteins through the amplification of a surrogate DNA template after antibody binding. Here we describe an integrated qPCR approach for measuring relative changes in gene and protein expression from the same starting sample and on a single analytical platform that pairs TaqMan Gene Expression (GEx) Assays with TaqMan Protein Assays. We have monitored the changes in mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression of relevant biomarkers in the pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cell line, NTERA2, upon differentiation to neuronal cells. In addition, TaqMan Protein Assays have been used to monitor protein expression in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) that have been reprogrammed from human somatic cells. The data presented establishes a general paradigm utilizing real-time PCR instruments and reagents for studying the relationship between the stem cell transcriptome and proteome.
    Methods 04/2010; 50(4):S23-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ymeth.2010.01.024 · 3.65 Impact Factor