Mark J O'Connor

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States

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Publications (30)261.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are promising targeted treatment options for hereditary breast tumors with a Homologous Recombination (HR) deficiency caused by BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. However, the functional consequence of BRCA gene mutations is not always known and tumors can be HR deficient for other reasons than BRCA gene mutations. Therefore, we aimed to develop a functional test to determine HR activity in tumor samples to facilitate selection of patients eligible for PARP inhibitor treatment. Experimental design: We obtained 54 fresh primary breast tumor samples from patients undergoing surgery. We determined their HR capacity by studying the formation of ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) of the HR protein RAD51 after ex vivo irradiation of these organotypic breast tumor samples. Tumors showing impaired RAD51 IRIF formation were subjected to genetic and epigenetic analysis. Results: Five out of 45 primary breast tumors with sufficient numbers of proliferating tumor cells were RAD51 IRIF formation deficient (11%, 95%CI: 5%-24%). This HR defect was significantly associated with Triple Negative Breast Cancer (OR:57, 95%CI: 3.9-825, p=0.003). Two out of five HR deficient tumors were not caused by mutations in the BRCA genes, but by BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation. Conclusion: The functional RAD51 IRIF assay faithfully identifies HR deficient tumors and has clear advantages over gene sequencing. It is a relatively easy assay that can be performed on biopsy material, making it a powerful tool to select patients with an HR-deficient cancer for PARP inhibitor treatment in the clinic.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 06/2014;
  • Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2013; 12(12):1978. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain cancer with a median survival of only 12-15 months. Current standard treatment consists of surgery followed by chemoradiation. The poor survival of GBM patients is due to aggressive tumor invasiveness, an inability to remove all tumor tissue, and an innate tumor chemo- and radioresistance. ATM, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated, is an excellent target for radiosensitizing GBM because of its critical role in regulating the DNA damage response and p53, among other cellular processes. As a first step toward this goal, we recently showed that the novel ATM kinase inhibitor KU-60019 reduced migration, invasion, growth, and potently radiosensitized human glioma cells in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using orthotopic xenograft models of GBM, we now show that KU-60019 is also an effective radiosensitizer in vivo. Human glioma cells expressing reporter genes for monitoring tumor growth and dispersal were grown intra-cranially, and KU-60019 was administered intra-tumorally by convection-enhanced delivery or osmotic pump. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the combined effect of KU-60019 and radiation significantly increased survival of mice 2-3 fold over controls. Importantly, we show that glioma with mutant p53 is much more sensitive to KU-60019 radiosensitization than genetically matched wild-type glioma. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that an ATM kinase inhibitor may be an effective radiosensitizer and adjuvant therapy for patients with mutant p53 brain cancers.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 04/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BRCA1 protein measurement has previously been evaluated as a potential diagnostic marker without reaching a conclusive recommendation. In this study, we applied current best practice in antibody validation to further characterize MS110, a widely used antibody targeting BRCA1. Antibody specificity was investigated using different biochemical validation techniques. We found that BRCA1 could not be reliably detected using immunoprecipitation and Western blot in endogenously expressing cells. We used immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell pellets to establish compatibility with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. We demonstrated that in transfected cells and cell lines with known genetic BRCA1 status, MS110 successfully detected BRCA1 giving the expected level of staining in immunohistochemistry. Following this, we investigated the use of BRCA1 protein measurement by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of triple negative breast and serous ovarian tumour samples to explore the use of BRCA1 protein measurement by immunohistochemistry for patient stratification. Using MS110 in repeated standardized experiments, on serial sections from a panel of patient samples, results demonstrated considerable run-to-run variability. We concluded that in formalin-fixed tissue samples, MS110 does detect BRCA1; however, using standard methodologies, BRCA1 expression levels in tissue samples is incompatible with the use of this protein as a statistically robust patient selection marker in immunohistochemistry. These results demonstrate the need for further development to deliver BRCA1 protein quantification by immunohistochemistry as a patient stratification marker.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 01/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) is one of several DNA repair proteins that are suggested to sensitize tumor cells to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib when deficient. The aim of this study was to assess the spatiotemporal concordance of ATM immunohistochemistry (IHC) in gastric cancer in order to determine if measurements made at the level of various sample types and times could be inferred as having the potential to be relevant to treatment decisions made at the patient level. Two independent cohorts composed of 591 gastric cancer patients divided into a gastrectomy cohort (n = 450) and a metastasis cohort (n = 141) were used in this study. A total of 2,705 ATM IHC samples were examined, including 450 whole tissue, 3 sets of 450 tissue microarray (TMA), 301 biopsy, 222 metastatic tumor and 2 additional whole tissue samples of 50 cases from the gastrectomy cohort, and 141 pairs of primary and metastatic tumors from the metastasis cohort. The prevalence of ATM negativity was 13.1% in biopsies, 13.9, 15.1, and 16.0% in TMAs and 15.9% in whole tissue samples of the gastrectomy cohort, and 21.4% in primary tumor and 21.5% in metastatic tumor samples of the metastasis cohort. coefficients were 0.341 for biopsy, 0.572 as the average of 3 TMAs and 0.415 for the largely synchronous metastatic tumors of the gastrectomy cohort, and 0.153 for the largely asynchronous metastatic tumors of the metastasis cohort. Using whole tissue sections from tumor resections or primary tumor, respectively, as the reference standards, specificity and sensitivity were 91.6 and 41.0% for biopsy, 93.9 and 61.9% as the average of 3 TMAs, and 86.6 and 58.8% for metastatic tumors of the gastrectomy cohort and 81.7 and 33.3% for metastatic tumors of the metastasis cohort, respectively. Although we have demonstrated that the IHC assay for ATM was robust and reproducible in gastric tumor samples, we have also found that measurements were subject to significant discordance across multiple sample types from the same patient. Further work will be necessary to determine if classification may be made more consistent by multiple sampling. However, the lack of agreement between primary and asynchronous metastatic samples suggests that such sampling would need to be performed at the time of any treatment decision.
    Pathobiology 01/2013; 80(3):127-137. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a promising therapeutic strategy for homologous recombination-deficient tumors, such as BRCA1-associated cancers. We previously reported that BRCA1-deficient mouse mammary tumors may acquire resistance to the clinical PARP inhibitor (PARPi) olaparib through activation of the P-glycoprotein drug efflux transporter. Here we show that tumor-specific genetic inactivation of P-glycoprotein increases the long-term response of BRCA1-deficient mouse mammary tumors to olaparib, but these tumors eventually developed PARPi resistance. In a fraction of cases this is caused by partial restoration of homologous recombination due to somatic loss of 53BP1. Importantly, PARPi resistance was minimized by long-term treatment with the novel PARP inhibitor AZD2461, which is a poor P-glycoprotein substrate. Together, our data suggest that restoration of homologous recombination is an important mechanism for PARPi resistance in BRCA1-deficient mammary tumors and that the risk of relapse of BRCA1-deficient tumors can be effectively minimized by using optimized PARP inhibitors.
    Cancer Discovery 10/2012; · 15.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired DNA damage response pathways may create vulnerabilities of cancer cells that can be exploited therapeutically. One such selective vulnerability is the sensitivity of BRCA1- or BRCA2-defective tumors (hence defective in DNA repair by homologous recombination, HR) to inhibitors of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme critical for repair pathways alternative to HR. While promising, treatment with PARP-1 inhibitors (PARP-1i) faces some hurdles, including (1) acquired resistance, (2) search for other sensitizing, non-BRCA1/2 cancer defects and (3) lack of biomarkers to predict response to PARP-1i. Here we addressed these issues using PARP-1i on 20 human cell lines from carcinomas of the breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and ovary. Aberrations of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex sensitized cancer cells to PARP-1i, while p53 status was less predictive, even in response to PARP-1i combinations with camptothecin or ionizing radiation. Furthermore, monitoring PARsylation and Rad51 foci formation as surrogate markers for PARP activity and HR, respectively, supported their candidacy for biomarkers of PARP-1i responses. As to resistance mechanisms, we confirmed the role of the multidrug resistance efflux transporters and its reversibility. More importantly, we demonstrated that shRNA lentivirus-mediated depletion of 53BP1 in human BRCA1-mutant breast cancer cells increased their resistance to PARP-1i. Given the preferential loss of 53BP1 in BRCA-defective and triple-negative breast carcinomas, our findings warrant assessment of 53BP1 among candidate predictive biomarkers of response to PARPi. Overall, this study helps characterize genetic and functional determinants of cellular responses to PARP-1i and contributes to the search for biomarkers to exploit PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2012; 11(20):3837-50. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is notoriously resistant to treatment. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. ATM elicits the DNA damage response (DDR), which confers cellular radioresistance; thus, targeting the DDR with an ATM inhibitior (ATMi) is very attractive. Herein, we show that dynamic ATM kinase inhibition in the nanomolar range results in potent radiosensitization of human glioma cells, inhibits growth and does not conflict with temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. The second generation ATMi analog KU-60019 provided quick, reversible and complete inhibition of the DDR at sub-micromolar concentrations in human glioblastoma cells. KU-60019 inhibited the phosphorylation of the major DNA damage effectors p53, H2AX and KAP1 as well as AKT. Colony-forming radiosurvival showed that continuous exposure to nanomolar concentrations of KU-60019 effectively radiosensitized glioblastoma cell lines. When cells were co-treated with KU-60019 and TMZ, a slight increase in radiation-induced cell killing was noted, although TMZ alone was unable to radiosensitize these cells. In addition, without radiation, KU-60019 with or without TMZ reduced glioma cell growth but had no significant effect on the survival of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived astrocytes. Altogether, transient inhibition of the ATM kinase provides a promising strategy for radiosensitizing GBM in combination with standard treatment. In addition, without radiation, KU-60019 limits growth of glioma cells in co-culture with human astrocytes that seem unaffected by the same treatment. Thus, inter-fraction growth inhibition could perhaps be achieved in vivo with minor adverse effects to the brain.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2012; 11(6):1167-73. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Defective homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair imposed by BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficiency sensitizes cells to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibition and is currently exploited in clinical treatment of HR-deficient tumors. Here we show that mild hyperthermia (41-42.5 °C) induces degradation of BRCA2 and inhibits HR. We demonstrate that hyperthermia can be used to sensitize innately HR-proficient tumor cells to PARP-1 inhibitors and that this effect can be enhanced by heat shock protein inhibition. Our results, obtained from cell lines and in vivo tumor models, enable the design of unique therapeutic strategies involving localized on-demand induction of HR deficiency, an approach that we term induced synthetic lethality.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2011; 108(24):9851-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with ovarian carcinomas succumb to their disease and there is a critical need for improved therapeutic approaches. Carcinomas arising in BRCA mutation carriers display defective DNA double-strand break repair that can be therapeutically exploited by inhibition of PARP-1, a key enzyme in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks, creating synthetic lethality in tumor cells. To investigate synthetic lethality in vivo, we established a BRCA2 germline-mutated xenograft model that was developed directly from human ovarian cancer tissue, treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib (AZD2281) alone and in combination with carboplatin. We show that olaparib alone and in combination with carboplatin greatly inhibit growth in BRCA2-mutated ovarian serous carcinoma. This effect was not observed in a serous carcinoma with normal BRCA function, showing a specific antitumor effect of olaparib in mutation carriers. Immunohistochemistry (cleaved caspase-3 and Ki-67 stains) of remnant tissue after olaparib treatment revealed significantly decreased proliferation and increased apoptotic indices in these tumors compared with untreated controls. Furthermore, olaparib-treated tumors showed highly reduced PARP-1 activity that correlated with olaparib levels. We established a BRCA2-mutated human ovarian cancer xenograft model suitable for experimental drug testing. The demonstrated in vivo efficacy of olaparib extends on the preclinical rationale for further clinical trials targeting ovarian cancer patients with BRCA mutations.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2011; 17(4):783-91. · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Cancer - EUR J CANCER. 01/2011; 47.
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition is toxic to cells with mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2, a concept termed synthetic lethality. However, whether this approach is applicable to other human cancers with defects in other DNA repair genes has yet to be determined. The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is altered in several human cancers including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we characterize a panel of MCL cell lines for ATM status and function and investigate the potential for synthetic lethality in MCL in the presence of small-molecule inhibitors of PARP-1. We show that Granta-519 and UPN2 cells have low levels of ATM protein, are defective in DNA damage-induced ATM-dependent signaling, are radiation sensitive, and have cell cycle checkpoint defects: all characteristics of defective ATM function. Significantly, Granta-519 and UPN2 cells were more sensitive to PARP-1 inhibition than were the ATM-proficient MCL cell lines examined. Furthermore, the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib (known previously as AZD2281/KU-0059436) significantly decreased tumor growth and increased overall survival in mice bearing s.c. xenografts of ATM-deficient Granta-519 cells while producing only a modest effect on overall survival of mice bearing xenografts of the ATM-proficient cell line, Z138. Thus, PARP inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of MCL, and the concept of synthetic lethality extends to human cancers with ATM alterations.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 02/2010; 9(2):347-57. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) is critical for cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. Thus, specific small molecule inhibitors targeting ATM could perhaps be developed into efficient radiosensitizers. Recently, a specific inhibitor of the ATM kinase, KU-55933, was shown to radiosensitize human cancer cells. Herein, we report on an improved analogue of KU-55933 (KU-60019) with K(i) and IC(50) values half of those of KU-55933. KU-60019 is 10-fold more effective than KU-55933 at blocking radiation-induced phosphorylation of key ATM targets in human glioma cells. As expected, KU-60019 is a highly effective radiosensitizer of human glioma cells. A-T fibroblasts were not radiosensitized by KU-60019, strongly suggesting that the ATM kinase is specifically targeted. Furthermore, KU-60019 reduced basal S473 AKT phosphorylation, suggesting that the ATM kinase might regulate a protein phosphatase acting on AKT. In line with this finding, the effect of KU-60019 on AKT phosphorylation was countered by low levels of okadaic acid, a phosphatase inhibitor, and A-T cells were impaired in S473 AKT phosphorylation in response to radiation and insulin and unresponsive to KU-60019. We also show that KU-60019 inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion in vitro, suggesting that glioma growth and motility might be controlled by ATM via AKT. Inhibitors of MEK and AKT did not further radiosensitize cells treated with KU-60019, supporting the idea that KU-60019 interferes with prosurvival signaling separate from its radiosensitizing properties. Altogether, KU-60019 inhibits the DNA damage response, reduces AKT phosphorylation and prosurvival signaling, inhibits migration and invasion, and effectively radiosensitizes human glioma cells.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 10/2009; 8(10):2894-902. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a potential synthetic lethal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers with specific DNA-repair defects, including those arising in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We conducted a clinical evaluation in humans of olaparib (AZD2281), a novel, potent, orally active PARP inhibitor. This was a phase 1 trial that included the analysis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of olaparib. Selection was aimed at having a study population enriched in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We enrolled and treated 60 patients; 22 were carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and 1 had a strong family history of BRCA-associated cancer but declined to undergo mutational testing. The olaparib dose and schedule were increased from 10 mg daily for 2 of every 3 weeks to 600 mg twice daily continuously. Reversible dose-limiting toxicity was seen in one of eight patients receiving 400 mg twice daily (grade 3 mood alteration and fatigue) and two of five patients receiving 600 mg twice daily (grade 4 thrombocytopenia and grade 3 somnolence). This led us to enroll another cohort, consisting only of carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, to receive olaparib at a dose of 200 mg twice daily. Other adverse effects included mild gastrointestinal symptoms. There was no obvious increase in adverse effects seen in the mutation carriers. Pharmacokinetic data indicated rapid absorption and elimination; pharmacodynamic studies confirmed PARP inhibition in surrogate samples (of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and plucked eyebrow-hair follicles) and tumor tissue. Objective antitumor activity was reported only in mutation carriers, all of whom had ovarian, breast, or prostate cancer and had received multiple treatment regimens. Olaparib has few of the adverse effects of conventional chemotherapy, inhibits PARP, and has antitumor activity in cancer associated with the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00516373.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2009; 361(2):123-34. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germ-line heterozygosity of the BRCA2 gene in women predisposes to breast and ovarian cancers. Successful therapies targeted specifically at these neoplasms have thus far remained elusive. Recent studies in mice have shown that inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) targets cells lacking Brca2 and xenografts derived from BRCA2-deficient ES cells or Chinese hamster ovary cells. We set out to develop a more relevant preclinical model that will inform and accelerate translation into the clinic. As such, we conditionally deleted Brca2 and p53 within murine mammary epithelium and treated the resulting tumors in situ with a highly potent PARP-1 inhibitor (AZD2281) alone or in combination with carboplatin. Daily exposure to AZD2281 for 28 days caused significant regression or growth inhibition in 46 of 52 tumors. This response was shown to be specific to tumors lacking both Brca2and p53. AZD2281/carboplatin combination therapy for 28 days showed no advantage over carboplatin monotherapy. However, if PARP inhibitor treatment was continued, this significantly increased the time to tumor relapse and death in these mice. This preclinical study is the first to show in vivo hypersensitivity of spontaneously arising Brca2-deficient mammary tumors to PARP-1 inhibition monotherapy or combination therapy. As such, our data add substantial weight to the argument for the use of PARP inhibitors as therapeutic agents against human breast cancers in which BRCA2 is mutated. Moreover, the specificity that we have shown further suggests that PARP inhibitors will be generally effective against tumors caused by dysregulation of components of the homologous recombination pathway.
    Cancer Research 05/2009; 69(9):3850-5. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas target-specific drugs are available for treating ERBB2-overexpressing and hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, no tailored therapy exists for hormone receptor- and ERBB2-negative ("triple-negative") mammary carcinomas. Triple-negative tumors account for 15% of all breast cancers and frequently harbor defects in DNA double-strand break repair through homologous recombination (HR), such as BRCA1 dysfunction. The DNA-repair defects characteristic of BRCA1-deficient cells confer sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibition, which could be relevant to treatment of triple-negative tumors. To evaluate PARP1 inhibition in a realistic in vivo setting, we tested the PARP inhibitor AZD2281 in a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) for BRCA1-associated breast cancer. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with AZD2281 inhibited tumor growth without signs of toxicity, resulting in strongly increased survival. Long-term treatment with AZD2281 in this model did result in the development of drug resistance, caused by up-regulation of Abcb1a/b genes encoding P-glycoprotein efflux pumps. This resistance to AZD2281 could be reversed by coadministration of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor tariquidar. Combination of AZD2281 with cisplatin or carboplatin increased the recurrence-free and overall survival, suggesting that AZD2281 potentiates the effect of these DNA-damaging agents. Our results demonstrate in vivo efficacy of AZD2281 against BRCA1-deficient breast cancer and illustrate how GEMMs of cancer can be used for preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutics and for testing ways to overcome or circumvent therapy resistance.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2008; 105(44):17079-84. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation is an immediate cellular response to metabolic-, chemical-, or ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and represents a new target for cancer therapy. In this article, we disclose a novel series of substituted 4-benzyl-2 H-phthalazin-1-ones that possess high inhibitory enzyme and cellular potency for both PARP-1 and PARP-2. Optimized compounds from the series also demonstrate good pharmacokinetic profiles, oral bioavailability, and activity in vivo in an SW620 colorectal cancer xenograft model. 4-[3-(4-Cyclopropanecarbonylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)-4-fluorobenzyl]-2 H-phthalazin-1-one (KU-0059436, AZD2281) 47 is a single digit nanomolar inhibitor of both PARP-1 and PARP-2 that shows standalone activity against BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cell lines. Compound 47 is currently undergoing clinical development for the treatment of BRCA1- and BRCA2-defective cancers.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2008; 51(20):6581-91. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess efficacy of the novel, selective poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitor AZD2281 against newly established BRCA2-deficient mouse mammary tumor cell lines and to determine potential synergy between AZD2281 and cisplatin. We established and thoroughly characterized a panel of clonal cell lines from independent BRCA2-deficient mouse mammary tumors and BRCA2-proficient control tumors. Subsequently, we assessed sensitivity of these lines to conventional cytotoxic drugs and the novel PARP inhibitor AZD2281. Finally, in vitro combination studies were done to investigate interaction between AZD2281 and cisplatin. Genetic, transcriptional, and functional analyses confirmed the successful isolation of BRCA2-deficient and BRCA2-proficient mouse mammary tumor cell lines. Treatment of these cell lines with 11 different anticancer drugs or with gamma-irradiation showed that AZD2281, a novel and specific PARP inhibitor, caused the strongest differential growth inhibition of BRCA2-deficient versus BRCA2-proficient mammary tumor cells. Finally, drug combination studies showed synergistic cytotoxicity of AZD2281 and cisplatin against BRCA2-deficient cells but not against BRCA2-proficient control cells. We have successfully established the first set of BRCA2-deficient mammary tumor cell lines, which form an important addition to the existing preclinical models for BRCA-mutated breast cancer. The exquisite sensitivity of these cells to the PARP inhibitor AZD2281, alone or in combination with cisplatin, provides strong support for AZD2281 as a novel targeted therapeutic against BRCA-deficient cancers.
    Clinical Cancer Research 07/2008; 14(12):3916-25. · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2008; 6(12):154-154.