Sternal wound infections occurring after cardiac surgery have a critical impact on morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. This study evaluated the efficacy of a gentamicin-collagen sponge in decreasing deep sternal-wound infections in high-risk cardiac surgery patients.METHODS
We conducted a quasi-experimental single-centre prospective cohort study in diabetic and/or overweight patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass surgery with bilateral internal mammary artery grafts. The end-point was the rate of reoperation for deep sternal wound infection. The period from January 2006 to October 2008, before the introduction of the gentamicin sponge, was compared with the period from November 2008 to December 2010.RESULTSOf 552 patients (median body mass index, 31.5; 37.7% with diabetes requiring insulin), 68 (12.3%) had deep sternal wound infections. Reoperation for deep sternal wound infections occurred in 40/289 (13.8%) preintervention patients and 22/175 (12.6%) patients managed with the sponge. Independent risk factors were female sex and longer time on mechanical ventilation, but not use of the sponge (adjusted odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.73; P = 0.88). The group managed with the sponge had a higher proportion of gentamicin-resistant micro-organisms (21/27, 77.8%) compared with the other patients (23/56, 41.1%; P < 0.01). The median time to reoperation for wound infection was higher with the sponge (21 vs 17 days, P < 0.01).CONCLUSIONSA gentamicin-collagen sponge was not effective in preventing deep sternal wound infections in high-risk patients. Our results suggest that a substantial proportion of wound contaminations occur after bypass surgery with bilateral internal mammary artery grafts.
Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery 10/2012;
ABSTRACT: To describe the characteristics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in high-risk patients with aortic stenosis (AS), and its impact on indications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and on outcomes.
Of 240 patients referred for TAVI, 230 had documented CAD status. Mean age was 81.5±8 years. Hundred and forty-four (63%) had CAD. Compared to patients with no CAD, those with CAD had a higher risk of mortality (EuroSCORE: 31±18%, vs. 23±11%, p=0.004). Overall, 145 patients (63%) underwent TAVI, 31 (13%) surgery, and 54 (24%) medical treatment. No patient was denied intervention because of the CAD. CAD led to re-orientate one patient (0.4%) towards surgery. PCI was performed before TAVI in 11 (7%). Survival rates were respectively 90% and 85% in the CAD and non-CAD groups (p=0.37) at 30 days, and 76.4±5.4% and 70.6±6.8% (p=0.28) at 1-year. At follow-up, functional status was similar in both groups and no further revascularisation was needed.
In high-risk patients referred for TAVI, CAD is frequent and associated with worse baseline characteristics. It has a limited impact on indications for TAVI. It seldom requires revascularisation and does not preclude satisfactory outcomes after TAVI.
EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 09/2011; 7(5):549-55. · 3.29 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe differences in intra- and postoperative care between general (GA) and local/regional anesthesia (LRA) in consecutive high-risk patients with aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
A retrospective review of data collected in an institutional registry.
An academic hospital.
One hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral TAVI.
GA versus LRA followed by postoperative care. Complications were defined by pre-established criteria.
Consecutive patients referred for transfemoral TAVI between October 2006 and October 2010 initially underwent GA (n = 91) followed by LRA after March 2010 (n= 34). Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (25-75 percentiles) as appropriate. GA and LRA TAVI patients had similar preoperative characteristics. LRA was associated with a significantly shorter procedure duration (LRA: 80 [67-102]; GA: 120 [90-140 minutes]; p < 0.001), hospital stay (LRA: 8.5 [7-14.5]; GA: 15.5 [10-24] days; p < 0.001), intraoperative requirements of catecholamines (LRA 23%; GA: 90% of patients; p < 0.001), and volume expansion (LRA: 11 [8-16]; GA: 22 [15-36] mL/kg; p < 0.001). There were significant differences in delta creatinine (day 1, preoperative creatinine values; LRA: 0 [-12 to 9]; GA: -15 (-25 to 2.9) μmol, p < 0.004). The frequency of any postoperative complications was 38% (LRA) and 77% (GA) (p = 0.11). Thirty-day mortality was 7% (GA) and 9% (LRA) (p = 0.9).
This observational study suggests that LRA was associated with less intraoperative hemodynamic instability and significant shortening of the procedure and hospital stay. Changes in the anesthetic technique adapted to changes in TAVI interventional techniques and did not increase the rate of postoperative complications.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 07/2011; 25(6):1036-43. · 1.06 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess the results of percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty (PABV) as a potential bridge to further intervention in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
Two hundred and fifty-three patients referred for TAVI were studied: 41 (16%) were considered transiently unsuitable for either aortic valve replacement (AVR) or TAVI and underwent PABV as a bridge to intervention. In the others, primary TAVI or AVR was performed in 140 cases, and medical therapy alone in 72.The overall population was at high risk: 82 ± 8 years, logistic EuroSCORE: 28 ± 16%, STS score: 16 ± 10%. There was no PABV-related death. Twenty-three patients underwent secondary TAVI (n=19) or AVR (n=4), 18 did not undergo further intervention. One and two year survival rates were respectively 94 ± 5% and 85 ± 10% after bridge PABV, and 33 ± 11 and 6 ± 5% after PABV alone. There was no difference in survival between the primary TAVI / AVR and bridge PABV (p=0.08), and between medical treatment and PABV alone (p=0.36).
In high-risk patients with aortic stenosis and temporary contraindications to AVR or TAVI, PABV may be used as a bridge to intervention with good mid-term outcomes. In others, PABV can be safely used but is associated with a poor outcome.
EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 05/2011; 7(1):49-56. · 3.29 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of preoperative statin therapy on postoperative mortality in high-risk patients after isolated valve surgery.
An observational cohort study.
A 1,200-bed university hospital.
All consecutive patients undergoing isolated nonemergent valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between November 2005 and December 2007 were included.
During the period, 772 consecutive patients underwent nonemergent isolated valve surgery. Among them, 430 were high cardiovascular risk (defined by patients with 2 or more cardiovascular risk factors). In the high-risk cardiovascular patients, statin pretreatment was administered in 222 patients (52%). In multivariate analysis, after adjustment with a propensity score analysis, preoperative statin therapy was associated with a significant reduction of postoperative mortality in patients with high risk (odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.97; p = 0.04). Low left ventricular ejection fraction and elevated pulmonary artery pressure also were independently associated with increased postoperative mortality. By contrast, in the low-risk patient group, few patients received preoperative statin therapy (7%).
This study suggests that preoperative statin therapy may have a potential beneficial effect on postoperative mortality after isolated cardiac valve surgery in high-risk cardiovascular patients.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 12/2010; 24(6):921-6. · 1.06 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Although results of cardiac surgery are improving, octogenarians have a higher procedure-related mortality and more complications with increased length of stay in ICU. Consequently, careful evaluation of perioperative risk seems necessary. The aims of our study were to assess and compare the performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score in the prediction of perioperative mortality among octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis and to compare these predictive performances with those obtained in younger patients.
This retrospective study included all consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in our institution between November 2005 and December 2007. For each patient, risk assessment for mortality was performed using logistic EuroSCORE, additive EuroSCORE and CARE score. The main outcome measure was early postoperative mortality. Predictive performances of these scores were assessed by calibration and discrimination using goodness-of-fit test and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, respectively.
During this 2-year period, we studied 2117 patients, among whom 134/211 octogenarians and 335/1906 nonoctogenarians underwent an aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. When considering patients with aortic stenosis, discrimination was poor in octogenarians and the difference from nonoctogenarians was significant for each score (0.58, 0.59 and 0.56 vs. 0.82, 0.81 and 0.77 for additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and CARE score in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians, respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, in the whole cohort, logistic EuroSCORE significantly overestimated mortality among octogenarians.
Predictive performances of these scores are poor in octogenarians undergoing cardiac surgery, especially aortic valve replacement. Risk assessment and therapeutic decisions in octogenarians should not be made with these scoring systems alone.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 08/2010; 27(8):702-7. · 2.23 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe, from the point of view of anesthesia and intensive care specialists, the perioperative management of high-risk patients with aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter (transfemoral and transapical) aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The authors specifically focused on immediate postoperative complications.
Retrospective review of collected data.
Ninety consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI.
General anesthesia followed by postoperative care. Complications were defined by pre-established criteria.
Of 184 patients referred between October 2006 and February 2009, 90 were consecutively treated with TAVI because of a high surgical risk or contraindications to surgery. The transfemoral approach was used as the first option (n = 62), and the transapical approach when contraindications to the former were present (n = 28). Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (25-75 percentiles) as appropriate. Patients were 81 ± 8 years old, in New York Heart Association classes II (9%), III (54 %), or IV (37%); left ventricular ejection fraction was below 0.5 in 38% of patients. The predicted surgical mortality was 24% (16-32) and 15% (11-23) with the logistic EuroSCORE and STS-Predicted Risk of Mortality, respectively. The valve was implanted in 92% of the cases. The duration of anesthesia and (intra- and postoperative) mechanical ventilation was 190 (160-230) minutes and 245 (180-420) minutes, respectively. Hospital mortality was 11%. The most frequent cardiac complications were heart failure (20%) and atrioventricular block (16%), with 6% requiring a pacemaker. Vascular complications (major and minor) occurred in 29% of the patients.
Despite their severe comorbidities, the mortality of the patients in this cohort was below that predicted by cardiac surgery risk scores. Monitoring, hemodynamic instability, and the frequency of complications require management and follow-up of these patients in similar ways as for open cardiac surgery. The frequency of complications in this cohort was comparable to that published by other groups.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 02/2010; 24(5):752-61. · 1.06 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Residual neuromuscular blockade remains a problem even after short surgical procedures. The train-of-four (TOF) ratio at the adductor pollicis required to avoid residual paralysis is now considered to be at least 0.9. The incidence of residual paralysis using this new threshold is not known, especially after a single intubating dose of intermediate-duration nondepolarizing relaxant. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the incidence of residual paralysis in the postanesthesia care unit after a single intubating dose of twice the ED(95) of a nondepolarizing muscle relaxant with an intermediate duration of action.
Five hundred twenty-six patients were enrolled. They received a single dose of vecuronium, rocuronium, or atracurium to facilitate tracheal intubation and received no more relaxant thereafter. Neuromuscular blockade was not reversed at the end of the procedure. On arrival in the postanesthesia care unit, the TOF ratio was measured at the adductor pollicis, using acceleromyography. Head lift, tongue depressor test, and manual assessment of TOF and DBS fade were also performed. The time delay between the injection of muscle relaxant and quantitative measurement of neuromuscular blockade was calculated from computerized anesthetic records.
The TOF ratios less than 0.7 and 0.9 were observed in 16% and 45% of the patients, respectively. Two hundred thirty-nine patients were tested 2 h or more after the administration of the muscle relaxant. Ten percent of these patients had a TOF ratio less than 0.7, and 37% had a TOF ratio less than 0.9. Clinical tests (head lift and tongue depressor) and manual assessment of fade showed a poor sensitivity (11-14%) to detect residual blockade (TOF < 0.9).
After a single dose of intermediate-duration muscle relaxant and no reversal, residual paralysis is common, even more than 2 h after the administration of muscle relaxant. Quantitative measurement of neuromuscular transmission is the only recommended method to diagnose residual block.
Anesthesiology 05/2003; 98(5):1042-8. · 5.36 Impact Factor