ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (>21 days) are commonly weaned at long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs). The most effective method of weaning such patients has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE To compare weaning duration with pressure support vs unassisted breathing through a tracheostomy collar in patients transferred to an LTACH for weaning from prolonged ventilation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Between 2000 and 2010, a randomized study was conducted in tracheotomized patients transferred to a single LTACH for weaning from prolonged ventilation. Of 500 patients who underwent a 5-day screening procedure, 316 did not tolerate the procedure and were randomly assigned to receive weaning with pressure support (n = 155) or a tracheostomy collar (n = 161). Survival at 6- and 12-month time points was also determined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Primary outcome was weaning duration. Secondary outcome was survival at 6 and 12 months after enrollment. RESULTS Of 316 patients, 4 were withdrawn and not included in analysis. Of 152 patients in the pressure-support group, 68 (44.7%) were weaned; 22 (14.5%) died. Of 160 patients in the tracheostomy collar group, 85 (53.1%) were weaned; 16 (10.0%) died. Median weaning time was shorter with tracheostomy collar use (15 days; interquartile range [IQR], 8-25) than with pressure support (19 days; IQR, 12-31), P = .004. The hazard ratio (HR) for successful weaning rate was higher with tracheostomy collar use than with pressure support (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-1.98; P = .033) after adjusting for baseline clinical covariates. Use of the tracheostomy collar achieved faster weaning than did pressure support among patients who did not tolerate the screening procedure between 12 and 120 hours (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.44-7.70; P = .005), whereas weaning time was equivalent with the 2 methods in patients who did not tolerate the screening procedure within 0 to 12 hours. Mortality was equivalent in the pressure-support and tracheostomy collar groups at 6 months (55.92% vs 51.25%; 4.67% difference, 95% CI, -6.4% to 15.7%) and at 12 months (66.45% vs 60.00%; 6.45% difference, 95% CI, -4.2% to 17.1%). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Among patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and treated at a single long-term care facility, unassisted breathing through a tracheostomy, compared with pressure support, resulted in shorter median weaning time, although weaning mode had no effect on survival at 6 and 12 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01541462.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2013; · 30.03 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation may be associated with mental discomfort. It is not known whether such discomfort is linked with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Accordingly, we investigated whether PTSD occurs in patients after weaning from prolonged ventilation. We also determined whether administering a questionnaire would identify patients at risk for developing PTSD.
A prospective longitudinal study of patients transferred to a long-term acute-care hospital for weaning from prolonged ventilation was undertaken: 72 patients were studied 1 week after weaning, and 41 patients were studied again 3 months later. An experienced psychologist conducted a structured clinical interview 3 months after weaning to establish a diagnosis of PTSD. To assess for the presence of PTSD-related symptoms, the post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS-10) questionnaire was administered 1 week after weaning and 3 months later.
The psychologist diagnosed PTSD in 12% of patients 3 months after ventilator weaning. Patients who developed PTSD were more likely to have a previous history of psychiatric disorders (P < 0.02). A PTSS-10 score >20 one week after weaning reliably identified patients who were diagnosed with PTSD 3 months later: sensitivity 1.0; specificity 0.76; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.91.
PTSD was diagnosed in 12% of patients who were weaned from prolonged ventilation. A PTSS-10 score >20 one week after weaning identified patients diagnosed with PTSD 3 months later. This finding suggests that a simple questionnaire administered before hospital discharge can identify patients at risk for developing PTSD.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 12/2010; 36(12):2030-7. · 5.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Patients who require mechanical ventilation are at risk of emotional stress because of total dependence on a machine for breathing. The stress may negatively impact ventilator weaning and survival. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive disorders in patients being weaned from prolonged mechanical ventilation are linked to weaning failure and decreased survival.
A prospective study of 478 consecutive patients transferred to a long-term acute care hospital for weaning from prolonged ventilation was undertaken. A clinical psychologist conducted a psychiatric interview to assess for the presence of depressive disorders.
Of the 478 patients, 142 had persistent coma or delirium and were unable to be evaluated for depressive disorders. Of the remaining 336 patients, 142 (42%) were diagnosed with depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, co-morbidity score [odds ratio (OR), 1.23; P = 0.007], functional dependence before the acute illness (OR, 1.70, P = 0.03) and history of psychiatric disorders (OR, 3.04, P = 0.0001) were independent predictors of depressive disorders. The rate of weaning failure was higher in patients with depressive disorders than in those without such disorders (61 vs. 33%, P = 0.0001), as was mortality (24 vs. 10%, P = 0.0008). The presence of depressive disorders was independently associated with mortality (OR, 4.3; P = 0.0002); age (OR, 1.06; P = 0.001) and co-morbidity score (OR, 1.24; P = 0.02) also predicted mortality.
Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 42% of patients who were being weaned from prolonged ventilation. Patients with depressive disorders were more likely to experience weaning failure and death.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 03/2010; 36(5):828-35. · 5.17 Impact Factor