[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common glomerular disease in adults and ranks among the top causes of a primary glomerular disease causing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Primary FSGS is, however, a diagnosis of exclusion and distinction between primary versus secondary FSGS is not always obvious, resulting in a number of patients with secondary FSGS undergoing unnecessary immunosuppressive therapy.
We reviewed the Mayo Clinic Renal Pathology Database for patients with a diagnosis of FSGS on native renal biopsy and divided the patients into nephrotic syndrome-associated (NS-associated) and non-nephrotic syndrome-associated (NNS-associated) FSGS as a first approximation followed by dividing the lesion according to the degree of foot process effacement (FPE) on electron microscopy (EM) examination.
A total of 41 patients with FSGS with complete evaluation were identified. Of these, 18 were classified as having NS and 23 were classified as having NNS. Baseline characteristics (age, gender, body mass index, serum creatinine and hematuria) were not different between the groups. All of the patients with NS showed diffuse FPE ranging from 80 to 100% (mean 96%). On the other hand, of the 23 patients in the NNS group, 22 had segmental FPE and showed patchy effacement, with all cases showing 20-60% FPE (mean of 48%).
Adult patients presenting with NS, an FSGS lesion on LM, extensive FPE (≥80%) on EM examination and no risk factors associated with secondary FSGS are likely to have primary FSGS. Conversely, the absence of NS in a patient with segmental FPE on EM strongly suggests a secondary FSGS. Dividing FSGS into the presence or absence of NS together with the degree of FPE on EM examination is more helpful as it provides a more practical way to separate patients into cases of primary versus secondary FSGS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystin 1 and 2, the protein abnormalities associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), are also found in airway cilia and smooth muscle cells. There is evidence of increased radiologic bronchiectasis associated with ADPKD, though the clinical and functional implications of this association are unknown. We hypothesized an increased prevalence of both radiologic and clinical bronchiectasis is associated with APDKD as compared to non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD) controls.
A retrospective case-control study was performed at our institution involving consecutive ADPKD and non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients seen over a 13 year period with both chest CT and PFT. CTs were independently reviewed by two blinded thoracic radiologists. Manually collected clinical data included symptoms, smoker status, transplant history, and PFT findings.
Ninety-two ADPKD and 95 non-ADPKD CKD control patients were compared. Increased prevalence of radiologic bronchiectasis, predominantly mild lower lobe disease, was found in ADPKD patients compared to CKD control (19 vs. 9%, P = 0.032, OR 2.49 (CI 1.1-5.8)). After adjustment for covariates, ADPKD was associated with increased risk of radiologic bronchiectasis (OR 2.78 (CI 1.16-7.12)). Symptomatic bronchiectasis occurred in approximately a third of ADPKD patients with radiologic disease. Smoking was associated with increased radiologic bronchiectasis in ADPKD patients (OR 3.59, CI 1.23-12.1).
Radiological bronchiectasis is increased in patients with ADPKD particularly those with smoking history as compared to non-ADPKD CKD controls. A third of such patients have symptomatic disease. Bronchiectasis should be considered in the differential in ADPKD patients with respiratory symptoms and smoking history.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93674. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a small-vessel vasculitis that primarily comprises 2 clinical syndromes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. Cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids have traditionally been used for induction of remission. However, more recent studies have shown that rituximab is as effective as cyclophosphamide for induction therapy in patients with newly diagnosed severe AAV and superior for patients with relapsing AAV. There is also accumulating evidence indicating a potential role of rituximab for maintenance therapy in AAV. In this article, we will review the evidence supporting the various treatment choices for patients with AAV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) has been classified based on its pathogenesis into immune complex-mediated and complement-mediated MPGN. The immune complex-mediated type is secondary to chronic infections, autoimmune diseases or monoclonal gammopathy. There is a paucity of data on MPGN associated with autoimmune diseases. We reviewed the Mayo Clinic database over a 10-year period and identified 12 patients with MPGN associated with autoimmune diseases, after exclusion of systemic lupus erythematosus. The autoimmune diseases included rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjögren's syndrome, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis and Graves' disease. Nine of the 12 patients were female, and the mean age was 57.9 years. C4 levels were decreased in nine of 12 patients tested. The serum creatinine at time of renal biopsy was 2.2 ± 1.0 mg/dl and the urinary protein was 2,850 ± 3,543 mg/24 h. Three patients required dialysis at the time of renal biopsy. Renal biopsy showed an MPGN in all cases, with features of cryoglobulins in six cases; immunoglobulin (Ig)M was the dominant Ig, and both subendothelial and mesangial electron dense deposits were noted. Median follow-up was 10.9 months. Serum creatinine and proteinuria improved to 1.6 ± 0.8 mg/dl and 428 ± 677 mg/24 h, respectively, except in 3 patients with end-stage renal disease. In summary, this study describes the clinical features, renal biopsy findings, laboratory evaluation, treatment and prognosis of MPGN associated with autoimmune diseases.
Journal of nephrology 02/2014; · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) results from abnormalities in the alternative pathway of complement, and it is characterized by deposition of C3 with absent or scant Ig deposition. In many patients, C3GN progresses to ESRD. The clinical features, pathology, and outcomes of patients with C3GN receiving kidney transplantation are unknown. Between 1996 and 2010, we identified 21 patients at our institution who received a kidney transplant because of ESRD from C3GN. The median age at the time of initial diagnosis of C3GN at kidney biopsy was 20.8 years. The median time from native kidney biopsy to dialysis or transplantation was 42.3 months. Of 21 patients, 14 (66.7%) patients developed recurrent C3GN in the allograft. The median time to recurrence of disease was 28 months. Graft failure occurred in 50% of patients with recurrent C3GN, with a median time of 77 months to graft failure post-transplantation. The remaining 50% of patients had functioning grafts, with a median follow-up of 73.9 months. The majority of patients had hematuria and proteinuria at time of recurrence. Three (21%) patients were positive for monoclonal gammopathy and had a faster rate of recurrence and graft loss. Kidney biopsy at the time of recurrence showed mesangial proliferative GN in eight patients and membranoproliferative GN in six patients. All allograft kidney biopsies showed bright C3 staining (2-3+), with six biopsies also showing trace/1+ staining for IgM and/or IgG. To summarize, C3GN recurs in 66.7% of patients, and one half of the patients experience graft failure caused by recurrence.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 12/2013; · 9.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, serum soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) has been proposed as a cause of two thirds of cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). It was noted to be uniquely elevated in cases of primary FSGS, with higher levels noted in cases that recurred after transplantation. It is also suggested as a possible target and marker of therapy. METHODS: We studied serum and urine suPAR from pretransplantation banked samples from 86 well-characterized kidney transplant recipients and 10 healthy controls to determine its prognostic utility. Causes of native kidney disease were primary FSGS, diabetic nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. suPAR was measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Urinary suPAR was indexed to creatinine. RESULTS: Both serum and urine suPAR correlated with proteinuria and albuminuria. Serum suPAR was found to be elevated in all transplant candidates with advanced renal disease compared with healthy controls and could not differentiate disease diagnosis. Urine suPAR was elevated in cases of recurrent FSGS compared with all other causes of end-stage renal disease. Recurrent FSGS cases had substantially higher proteinuria compared with all other cases. However, elevated urinary suPAR showed a trend in providing additional prognostic information beyond proteinuria in the small cohort of recurrent FSGS cases. CONCLUSION: In advanced renal disease, elevated serum suPAR is not unique to FSGS cases. Urinary suPAR appears to be higher in cases of FSGS destined for recurrence and merits further evaluation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: C3 glomerulonephritis (GN) is a proliferative GN resulting from glomerular deposition of complement factors due to dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement. Dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement may occur as a result of mutations or functional inhibition of complement-regulating proteins. Functional inhibition of the complement-regulating proteins may result from a monoclonal gammopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 32 Mayo Clinic patients with C3 GN, 10 (31%) of whom had evidence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum. OUTCOMES: Clinical features, hematologic and bone marrow biopsy findings, kidney biopsy findings, kidney measures, complement pathway abnormalities, treatment, and follow-up of patients with C3 GN that was associated with a monoclonal gammopathy. RESULTS: Mean age of patients with C3 GN associated with monoclonal gammopathy was 54.5 years. Bone marrow biopsy done in 9 patients revealed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in 5 patients, small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in one patient, and no abnormal clones in the other 3 patients. Kidney biopsy showed membranoproliferative GN with bright capillary wall C3 staining in all 10 patients. Evaluation of the alternative pathway of complement showed abnormalities in 7 of 9 patients tested. No mutation in complement-regulating proteins was detected in any patient. As an index case, one patient with C3 GN and chronic lymphocytic leukemia was treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone, and one patient with C3 GN and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance was treated with dexamethasone and bortezomib. Both patients showed significant decreases in hematuria and proteinuria and stabilization of kidney function. LIMITATIONS: Studies to show evidence of direct activation of the alternative pathway by monoclonal immunoglobulin were not done. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the association of C3 GN and monoclonal gammopathy, in particular in the older population, and the importance of targeting the underlying hematologic malignancy as an approach to treating C3 GN.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 04/2013; · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney perfusion can be acutely compromised by many factors including reduced systemic blood pressure and elevated intra-abdominal pressure. We present a case of near complete absence of kidney perfusion in a 57-year-old man with heart failure and new onset ascites. The renal perfusion defect was directly detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Immediate decompression with large-volume paracentesis restored the kidney perfusion and kidney function. This case illustrates that renal ultrasonography with Doppler flow analysis in appropriate settings can serve as an important adjunct in the diagnosis and treatment of acute oligoanuric kidney failure. Timely reversal of the perfusion defect can rescue kidney function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postinfectious glomerulonephritis is a common disorder that develops following an infection. In the majority of cases, there is complete recovery of renal function within a few days to weeks following resolution of the infection. In a small percentage of patients, however, the glomerulonephritis takes longer to resolve, resulting in persistent hematuria and proteinuria, or even progression to end-stage kidney disease. In some cases of persistent hematuria and proteinuria, kidney biopsies show findings of a postinfectious glomerulonephritis even in the absence of any evidence of a preceding infection. The cause of such 'atypical' postinfectious glomerulonephritis, with or without evidence of preceding infection, is unknown. Here we show that most patients diagnosed with this 'atypical' postinfectious glomerulonephritis have an underlying defect in the regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. These defects include mutations in complement-regulating proteins and antibodies to the C3 convertase known as C3 nephritic factors. As a result, the activated alternative pathway is not brought under control even after resolution of the infection. Hence, the sequela is continual glomerular deposition of complement factors with resultant inflammation and development of an 'atypical' postinfectious glomerulonephritis.Kidney International advance online publication, 12 December 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.384.
Kidney International 12/2012; · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anion gap metabolic acidosis (AGMA) is commonly encountered in medical practice. Acetaminophen-induced AGMA is, however, not widely recognized. We report 2 cases of high anion gap metabolic acidosis secondary to 5-oxoproline accumulation resulting from acetaminophen consumption: the first case caused by acute one-time ingestion of large quantities of acetaminophen and the second case caused by chronic repeated ingestion in a patient with chronic liver disease. Recognition of this entity facilitated timely diagnosis and effective treatment. Given acetaminophen is commonly used over the counter medication, increased recognition of this adverse effect is of important clinical significance.
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 09/2012; · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) is a recently described disorder that typically results from abnormalities in the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Here, we describe the clinical features, kidney biopsy findings, AP abnormalities, glomerular proteomic profile, and follow-up in 12 cases of C3GN. This disorder equally affected all ages, both genders, and typically presented with hematuria and proteinuria. In both the short and long term, renal function remained stable in the majority of patients with native kidney disease. In two patients, C3GN recurred within 1 year of transplantation and resulted in a decline in allograft function. Kidney biopsy mainly showed a membranoproliferative pattern, although both mesangial proliferative and diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis were noted. AP abnormalities were heterogeneous, both acquired and genetic. The most common acquired abnormality was the presence of C3 nephritic factors, while the most common genetic finding was the presence of H402 and V62 alleles of Factor H. In addition to these risk factors, other abnormalities included Factor H autoantibodies and mutations in CFH, CFI, and CFHR genes. Laser dissection and mass spectrometry of glomeruli from patients with C3GN showed accumulation of AP and terminal complement complex proteins. Thus, C3GN results from diverse abnormalities of the alternative complement pathway leading to subsequent glomerular injury.
Kidney International 06/2012; 82(4):465-73. · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. In animal models, polycystic kidneys are susceptible to acute kidney injury (AKI). We examined the occurrence of AKI in a cohort of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and non-ADPKD patients with acute pneumonia. Design. All ADPKD patients admitted to Mayo Clinic Rochester for pneumonia from January 1990 to April 2010 were examined. Sixty-three patients had lobar infiltration and consolidation on chest X-ray. After excluding patients on dialysis, with organ transplantation, and on chronic immunosuppression, 24 remaining ADPKD patients were enrolled. Twenty-three of the 24 were matched with 92 (1 : 4 ratio) non-ADPKD pneumonia patients based on their baseline eGFR. AKI was defined as serum creatinine elevation ≥0.3 mg/dL. Results. Sixteen of the 23 ADPKD patients (69.6%) and 36 of the 92 (39.1%) non-ADPKD patients developed AKI, P = 0.008. In both groups, those who developed AKI had a lower baseline eGFR (41.1 ± 5.00 versus 58.7 ± 11.8 in ADPKD and 40.2 ± 3.65 versus 51.8 ± 2.24 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the non-ADPKD group), more intensive care unit admissions, and longer hospital stays. AKI was associated with a reduced survival in both groups. Conclusions. Patients with ADPKD admitted for acute pneumonia had more frequent episodes of AKI than non-ADPKD patients with comparable kidney function.
International journal of nephrology. 01/2011; 2011:617904.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gabapentin is frequently used as an analgesic in patients with chronic kidney disease. Although gabapentin is well known for its favorable pharmacokinetics, it is exclusively eliminated renally, and patients with chronic kidney disease are at risk for toxicity. Existing literature on such risk is lacking.
We examined the Mayo Clinic Rochester database from 1998 to 2007 in patients with serum gabapentin measurements and known medical outcomes. A total of 729 patients were stratified according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate: group I, 126 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration greater than 90 mL/min/1.72 mm(2) [corrected] ; group II, 594 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration less than 90 mL/min/1.72 mm(2) [corrected] without dialysis; group III, 9 individuals with chronic dialysis.
Patients in groups II and III had higher serum gabapentin levels (8.39+/-0.32 microL/mL and 58.8+/-10.22 microL/mL, respectively) than in group I (5.52+/-0.32 microL/mL, P<.01). Toxicity occurred exclusively in groups II (5.56%) and III (77.8%); toxic manifestations were more severe in group III than in group II. Elderly individuals with multiple comorbidities were overrepresented in those with toxic manifestations. Gabapentin toxicity was suspected initially in only 41.5% of symptomatic cases.
Gabapentin toxicity in patients with chronic kidney disease is underrecognized. Patients with chronic kidney disease often receive inappropriately high gabapentin dosage for their kidney function, occasioning overt toxicity; advanced age and comorbidity predispose these patients for toxicity. Heightened awareness of such preventable risk, amid the chronic kidney disease epidemic, would be cost-effective and improve healthcare quality.
The American journal of medicine 04/2010; 123(4):367-73. · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis characterized by subendothelial and mesangial deposition of immune complexes. Autoimmune diseases and chronic infections, such as hepatitis C, are commonly recognized causes of MPGN; however, monoclonal gammopathy is a less widely recognized cause of MPGN.
We reviewed all renal biopsies of MPGN in Mayo Clinic patients during a 6-year period to determine the association of monoclonal gammopathy with MPGN. Results were correlated with electrophoresis studies and bone marrow biopsies to clarify the relationship between MPGN and gammopathies.
Of 126 patients with MPGN, 20 did not have workup for hepatitis B or C. Of the remaining 106 patients, 25 (23.5%) were positive for hepatitis B or C. Of the 81 hepatitis-negative patients, 13 were not evaluated for gammopathies. Of the remaining 68 patients, 28 (41.1%) had serum and/or urine electrophoresis studies positive for monoclonal gammopathy. Serum immunofixation electrophoresis was the most sensitive method for diagnosing monoclonal gammopathy. Renal biopsy showed a membranoproliferative pattern of injury; immunofluorescence microscopy was often instrumental in diagnosing the underlying gammopathy. On the basis of the bone marrow biopsy, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance was the most common entity associated with MPGN. Other, less common causes included multiple myeloma, low-grade B cell lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Monoclonal gammopathy is an important and common cause of MPGN; therefore, all patients with a diagnosis of MPGN should be evaluated for an underlying monoclonal gammopathy.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2010; 5(5):770-82. · 5.07 Impact Factor