[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) is an induced resistance response to pathogens, characterized by the translocation of a long-distance signal from induced leaves to distant tissues to prime them for increased resistance to future infection. DEFECTIVE in INDUCED RESISTANCE 1 (DIR1) has been hypothesized to chaperone a small signaling molecule to distant tissues during SAR in Arabidopsis.
DIR1 promoter:DIR1-GUS/dir1-1 lines were constructed to examine DIR1 expression. DIR1 is expressed in seedlings, flowers and ubiquitously in untreated or mock-inoculated mature leaf cells, including phloem sieve elements and companion cells. Inoculation of leaves with SAR-inducing avirulent or virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) resulted in Type III Secretion System-dependent suppression of DIR1 expression in leaf cells. Transient expression of fluorescent fusion proteins in tobacco and intercellular washing fluid experiments indicated that DIR1's ER signal sequence targets it for secretion to the cell wall. However, DIR1 expressed without a signal sequence rescued the dir1-1 SAR defect, suggesting that a cytosolic pool of DIR1 is important for the SAR response.
Although expression of DIR1 decreases during SAR induction, the protein localizes to all living cell types of the vasculature, including companion cells and sieve elements, and therefore DIR1 is well situated to participate in long-distance signaling during SAR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nematode C. briggsae serves as a useful model organism for comparative analysis of developmental and behavioral processes. The amenability of C. briggsae to genetic manipulations and the availability of its genome sequence have prompted researchers to study evolutionary changes in gene function and signaling pathways. These studies rely on the availability of forward genetic tools such as mutants and mapping markers.
We have computationally identified more than 30,000 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels) in C. briggsae strains AF16 and HK104. These include 1,363 SNPs that change restriction enzyme recognition sites (snip-SNPs) and 638 indels that range between 7 bp and 2 kb. We established bulk segregant and single animal-based PCR assay conditions and used these to test 107 polymorphisms. A total of 75 polymorphisms, consisting of 14 snip-SNPs and 61 indels, were experimentally confirmed with an overall success rate of 83%. The utility of polymorphisms in genetic studies was demonstrated by successful mapping of 12 mutations, including 5 that were localized to sub-chromosomal regions. Our mapping experiments have also revealed one case of a misassembled contig on chromosome 3.
We report a comprehensive set of polymorphisms in C. briggsae wild-type strains and demonstrate their use in mapping mutations. We also show that molecular markers can be useful tools to improve the C. briggsae genome sequence assembly. Our polymorphism resource promises to accelerate genetic and functional studies of C. briggsae genes.