[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After alcohol exposure through a standard Lieber and De Carli diet for 28 days, a severe atrophy in the rat uteirne horn was observed, accompanied by significant alterations in its epithelial cells. Microsomal pathway of acetaldehyde production was slightly increased. Hydroxyl radicals were detected in the cytosolic fraction, and this was attributed to participation of xanthine oxidoreductase. They were also observed in the microsomal fraction in the presence of NADPH generating system. No generation of 1-hydroxyethyl was evidenced. The t-butylhydroperoxide-induced chemiluminescence analysis of uterine horn homogenates revealed a significant increase in the chemiluminiscence emission due to ethanol exposure. In the animals repeatedly exposed to alcohol, sulfhydryl content from uterine horn proteins was decreased, but no significant changes were observed in the protein carbonyl content from the same samples. Minor but significant decreasing changes were observed in the GSH content accompanied by a tendency to decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio. A highly significant finding was the diminished activity content of glutathione peroxidase. Results suggest that acetaldehyde accumulation plus the oxidative stress may play an additional effect to the alcohol-promoted hormonal changes in the uterus reported by others after chronic exposure to alcohol.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benznidazole (Bz) exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg). We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 05/2011; 106(3):374-7. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the microsomal fraction from rat mammary tissue is able to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, a mutagenic-carcinogenic metabolite, depending on the presence of NADPH and oxygen but not inhibited by carbon monoxide or other cytochrome P450 inhibitors. The process was strongly inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a known inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxygenases. This led us to suggest that both enzymes could be involved. With the purpose of identifying natural compounds present in food with the ability to decrease the production of acetaldehyde in mammary tissue, in the present studies, several plant polyphenols having inhibitory effects on lipoxygenases and of antioxidant nature were tested as potential inhibitors of the rat mammary tissue microsomal pathway of ethanol oxidation. We included in the present screening study 32 polyphenols having ready availability and that were also tested against the rat mammary tissue cytosolic metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Several polyphenols were also able to inhibit the microsomal ethanol oxidation at concentrations as low was 10-50 μM. The results of these screening experiments suggest the potential of several plant polyphenols to prevent in vivo production and accumulation of acetaldehyde in mammary tissue.
Human & Experimental Toxicology 11/2010; 30(7):656-64. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two nitroheterocyclic drugs, nifurtimox (NFX) and benznidazole (BZ), used in the treatment of Chagas' disease have serious side effects attributed to their nitroreduction to reactive metabolites. Here, we report that these drugs reach the mammary tissue and there they could undergo in situ bioactivation. Both were detected in mammary tissue from female Sprague-Dawley rats after their intragastric administration. Only NFX was biotransformed by pure xanthine-oxidoreductase and from tissue cytosol. These activities were purine dependent and were inhibited by allopurinol. Also, only NFX was biotransformed by microsomes in the presence of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH), and was inhibited by carbon monoxide and partially by diphenyleneiodonium. NFX treatment produced significant decrease in protein sulfhydryl content after 1, 3 and 6 hours; no increases in protein carbonyl content at any time tested and significantly higher levels of lipid hydroperoxides at 3 and 6 hours; besides, ultrastructural observations after 24 hours showed significant differences in epithelial cells compared to control. These findings indicate that NFX might be more deleterious to mammary tissue than BZ and could correlate with early reports on its ability to promote rat mammary tissue toxicity.
Human & Experimental Toxicology 02/2010; 29(10):813-22. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a well-established association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. About 4% of the breast cancers in developed countries are estimated to be attributable to drinking alcohol. The mechanism of tumor promotion by alcohol remains unknown. Recent studies from our laboratory and others showed the ability of mammary tissue to bioactivate ethanol to mutagenic/carcinogenic acetaldehyde and free radicals. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an enzyme involved in those biotransformation processes. In the present study, we provide evidence of the ability of different natural polyphenols and of folic acid derivatives to inhibit the biotransformation of alcohol to acetaldehyde by rat breast cytosolic XOR. Folic acid and dihydrofolic acid, at concentrations of 10 microM, inhibited 100% and 84%, respectively, of the cytosolic acetaldehyde formation. Thirty-five polyphenols were tested in these initial experiments: ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin inhibited 79-95% at 10 microM concentrations. The remaining polyphenols were either less potent or noninhibitory of acetaldehyde formation at similar concentrations in these screening tests. Results are relevant to the known preventive effects of folic acid against alcohol-induced breast cancer and to their potential preventive actions if added to foods or alcoholic beverages.
Nutrition and Cancer 02/2004; 49(1):94-9. · 2.70 Impact Factor