Are you John Fielden?

Claim your profile

Publications (8)37.88 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four new dipolar cations have been synthesized, containing ferrocenyl electron donor groups and diquaternized 2,2′-bipyridyl (diquat) acceptors. To our knowledge, these are the first organometallic diquat derivatives to be reported and have been characterized as their PF6– salts by using various techniques including 1H NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry. UV–vis spectra show multiple intramolecular charge-transfer bands, and three reversible redox processes are observed for each compound. Molecular quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses have been determined by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering at 1064 nm and Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic studies on the intense π → π* intraligand and d → π* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands. The most active compounds have estimated, Stark-derived β0 values approaching that of the chromophore in the technologically important material (E)-4′-(dimethylamino)-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate. Single-crystal X-ray structures have been obtained for three of the salts, with one adopting the orthorhombic space group Aba2 and having potential for bulk NLO behavior due to its polar structure. Attempted crystallizations of the remaining chromophore revealed that it undergoes an unusual intermolecular formal Michael cycloaddition between an activated methyl group and a double bond, forming a dimeric species. This diastereomeric cyclic complex has also been characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction.
    Organometallics. 10/2011; 30(21).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Six new dicationic 2D nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores with pyrazinyl-pyridinium electron acceptors have been synthesized by nucleophilic substitutions of 2,6-dichloropyrazine with pyridyl derivatives. These compounds have been characterized as their PF(6)(-) salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Large red shifts in the intense, π → π* intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transitions on replacing -OMe with -NMe(2) substituents arise from the stronger π-electron donor ability of the latter. Each compound shows a number of redox processes which are largely irreversible. Single crystal X-ray structures have been determined for five salts, including two nitrates, all of which adopt centrosymmetric packing arrangements. Molecular first hyperpolarizabilities β have been determined by using femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering at 880 and 800 nm, and depolarization studies show that the NLO responses of the symmetric species are strongly 2D, with dominant "off-diagonal" β(zyy) components. Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic measurements on the ICT bands afford estimated static first hyperpolarizabilities β(0). The directly and indirectly derived β values are large, and the Stark-derived β(0) response for one of the new salts is several times greater than that determined for (E)-4'-(dimethylamino)-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium hexafluorophosphate. These Stark spectroscopic studies also permit quantitative comparisons with related 2D, binuclear Ru(II) ammine complex salts.
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry 11/2010; 75(24):8550-63. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A large series of complexes has been synthesized with two chelating, Schiff base azobenzene derivatives connected linearly by coordination to a central nickel(II) or palladium(II) ion. These compounds have the general formulas M(II)(OC(6)H(3)-2-CHNR-4-N═NC(6)H(4)-4-CO(2)Et)(2) [M = Ni; R = n-Bu (3c), n-C(6)H(13) (3d), n-C(8)H(17) (3e), n-C(12)H(25) (3f), Ph (3g), OH (3h), C(6)H(4)-4-CO(2)Et (3i). M = Pd; R = i-Pr (4a), t-Bu (4b), n-Bu (4c), n-C(6)H(13) (4d), n-C(8)H(17) (4e), n-C(12)H(25) (4f), Ph (4g)], M(II)[OC(6)H(3)-2-CHN(n-C(8)H(17))-4-N═NC(6)H(4)-4-CO(2)(n-C(8)H(17))](2) [M = Ni (9), Pd (10)], M(II)[OC(6)H(3)-2-CHN(n-C(8)H(17))-4-N═NC(6)H(4)-4-C(6)H(4)-4-O(n-C(7)H(15))](2) [M = Ni (14), Pd (15)], and M(II)[OC(6)H(3)-2-CHN(CMe(2))-4-N═NC(6)H(4)-4-CO(2)Et](2) [M = Ni (17), Pd (18); the CMe(2) groups are connected]. These compounds have been characterized by using various physical techniques including (1)H NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Single-crystal X-ray structures have been obtained for two pro-ligands and five complexes (3e, 4e, 14, 15, and 17). The latter always show a strictly square planar arrangement about the metal center, except for the Ni(II) complex of a salen-like ligand (17). In solution, broadened (1)H NMR signals indicate distortions from square planar geometry for the bis-chelate Ni(II) complexes. Electronic absorption spectroscopy and ZINDO_S (Zerner's intermediate neglect of differential overlap) and TD-DFT (time-dependent density functional theory) calculations show that the lowest energy transition has metal-to-ligand charge-transfer character. The λ(max) of this band lies in the range of 409-434 nm in dichloromethane, and replacing Ni(II) with Pd(II) causes small blue-shifts. Dichroic ratios measured in various liquid crystal hosts show complexation-induced increases with Ni(II), but using Pd(II) has a detrimental effect.
    Inorganic Chemistry 10/2010; 49(20):9136-50. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Six new nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores with pyrazinyl-pyridinium electron acceptors have been synthesized by complexing a known pro-ligand with electron donating {Ru(II)(NH(3))(5)}(2+) or trans-{Ru(II)(NH(3))(4)(py)}(2+) (py = pyridine) centers. These cationic complexes have been characterized as their PF(6)(-) salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The visible d → π* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorptions gain intensity on increasing the number of Ru(II) centers from one to two, but remain at constant energy. One or two Ru(III/II) redox processes are observed which are reversible, quasi-reversible, or irreversible, while all of the ligand-based reductions are irreversible. Molecular first hyperpolarizabilities β have been determined by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) at 1064 nm, and depolarization studies show that the NLO responses of the symmetric species are strongly two-dimensional (2D) in character, with dominant "off-diagonal" β(zyy) components. Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic measurements on the MLCT bands also allow the indirect determination of estimated static first hyperpolarizabilities β(0). Both the HRS and the Stark-derived β(0) values increase on moving from mono- to bimetallic complexes, and substantial enhancements in NLO response are achieved when compared with one-dimensional (1D) and 2D monometallic Ru(II) ammine complexes reported previously.
    Inorganic Chemistry 10/2010; 49(22):10718-26. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of chromophoric salts has been prepared in which 4-(diphenylamino)phenyl (Dpap) electron donor groups are connected to electron-accepting diquaternized 2,2'-bipyridyl (diquat) units. The main aim is to combine large quadratic and cubic nonlinear optical (NLO) effects in potentially redox-switchable molecules with 2D structures. The chromophores have been characterized as their PF(6)(-) salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The visible absorption spectra are dominated by intense π → π* intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) bands, and all of the compounds show two reversible or quasireversible diquat-based reductions and partially reversible Dpap oxidations. Single crystal X-ray structures have been obtained for one salt and for the precursor compound (E)-4-(diphenylamino)cinnamaldehyde, both of which adopt centrosymmetric space groups. First hyperpolarizabilities β have been measured by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) with a 800 nm laser, and Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopy of the ICT bands affords estimated static first hyperpolarizabilities β(0). The directly and indirectly derived β values are large and generally increased substantially for the bis-Dpap derivatives when compared with their monosubstituted analogues. Polarized HRS studies show that the NLO responses of the disubstituted species are dominated by "off-diagonal" β(zyy) components. Lengthening the diquaternizing alkyl unit lowers the electron-acceptor strength and therefore increases the ICT energies and decreases the E(1/2) values for diquat reduction. However, compensating increases in the ICT intensity prevent significant decreases in the Stark-based β(0) responses. Cubic NLO properties have been measured by using the Z-scan technique over a wavelength range of 520-1600 nm, revealing relatively high two-photon absorption cross-sections of up to 730 GM at 620 nm for one of the disubstituted chromophores.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 10/2010; 114(45):12028-41. · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this article, we present a detailed study of structure-activity relationships in diquaternized 2,2'-bipyridyl (diquat) derivatives. Sixteen new chromophores have been synthesized, with variations in the amino electron donor substituents, pi-conjugated bridge, and alkyl diquaternizing unit. Our aim is to combine very large, two-dimensional (2D) quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses with reversible redox chemistry. The chromophores have been characterized as their PF(6)(-) salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Their visible absorption spectra are dominated by intense pi --> pi* intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) bands, and all show two reversible diquat-based reductions. First hyperpolarizabilities beta have been measured by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering with an 800 nm laser, and Stark spectroscopy of the ICT bands affords estimated static first hyperpolarizabilities beta(0). The directly and indirectly derived beta values are large and increase with the extent of pi-conjugation and electron donor strength. Extending the quaternizing alkyl linkage always increases the ICT energy and decreases the E(1/2) values for diquat reduction, but a compensating increase in the ICT intensity prevents significant decreases in Stark-based beta(0) responses. Nine single-crystal X-ray structures have also been obtained. Time-dependent density functional theory clarifies the molecular electronic/optical properties, and finite field calculations agree with polarized HRS data in that the NLO responses of the disubstituted species are dominated by 'off-diagonal' beta(zyy) components. The most significant findings of these studies are: (i) beta(0) values as much as 6 times that of the chromophore in the technologically important material (E)-4'-(dimethylamino)-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate; (ii) reversible electrochemistry that offers potential for redox-switching of optical properties over multiple states; (iii) strongly 2D NLO responses that may be exploited for novel practical applications; (iv) a new polar material, suitable for bulk NLO behavior.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2010; 132(30):10498-512. · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The research towards more efficient organic molecules for second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) applications has resulted in substantial improvements of the molecular nonlinear polarizabilities. Different strategies for increasing NLO responses at the molecular level in ionic chromophores are reviewed. However, only a small subset of the highly efficient non-centrosymmetric molecules also forms non-centrosymmetric crystals at the bulk level. Examples of success in achieving polar crystals of molecular salts are presented. Such crystals with a high number density of aligned dipolar chromophores are promising materials for efficient second-order NLO applications, such as terahertz generation via difference frequency mixing.
    Proc SPIE 08/2010;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe a series of nine new complex salts in which electron-rich Ru(II) or Fe(II) centers are connected via pi-conjugated bridges to six electron-accepting N-methyl-/N-arylpyridinium groups. This work builds upon our previous preliminary studies (Coe , B. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13399-13410; J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 472-478), with the aims of achieving greatly enhanced NLO properties and also combining large quadratic and cubic effects in potentially redox-switchable molecules. Characterization has involved various techniques, including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The complexes display intense, visible d --> pi* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands, and their pi --> pi* intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) absorptions in the near-UV region show molar extinction coefficients as high as ca. 3.5 x 10(5) M(-1) cm(-1). Molecular quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses beta have been determined by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering at 800 and 1064 nm and also via Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic studies. The directly and indirectly derived beta values are very large, with the Stark-based static first hyperpolarizabilities beta(0) reaching as high as ca. 10(-27) esu, and generally increase on extending the pi-conjugation and enhancing the electron-accepting strength of the ligands. Cubic NLO properties have also been measured by using the Z-scan technique, revealing relatively high two-photon absorption cross sections of up to 2500 GM at 750 nm.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2010; 132(10):3496-513. · 10.68 Impact Factor