[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathological damage inflicted by virulent AIV strains is often caused by inducing a positive feedback loop of cytokines in immune cells that cause excessive inflammation. Previous research has shown that a G protein-coupled receptor, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), plays a crucial role in the development of excessive inflammation in influenza virus infection (Cell 146:861--862, 2011; Cell 146:980--991, 2011). BALB/c mice are common laboratory animals used in research of influenza virus; however the effects of influenza infections on expression patterns of S1PR1 in mice are unknown.
We investigated the expression patterns of S1PR1 in normal BALB/c mice and those infected by two distinct H9N2 AIV strains, one (A/chicken/Guangdong/V/2008,V) highly pathogenic, and the other (A/chicken/Guangdong/Ts/2004,Ts), non-pathogenic in mice, using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect S1PR1 mRNA and protein, respectively.
S1PR1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues examined, and significant differences were seen in mRNA expression between infected Ts, V and control mice in detected tissues, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. S1PR1 protein was expressed in the cytoplasm and also demonstrated quantitative changes in expression in the various tissues between mice infected with the two strains of AIV.
Our results provided the first look at differences in S1PR1 expression patterns in BALB/c mice infected by non-pathogenic and highly pathogenic H9N2 influenza viruses. This information will not only be helpful in designing experiments to better understand the role of S1PR1 in virus-host interactions but also in developing novel anti-influenza agents to minimize the mortality and morbidity associated with highly virulent strains in avian and human populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cases of human infections with H5N1 avian influenza viruses have been reported all over the world with the reason of direct contact with sick or diseased poultry, which suggests the direct contact with poultry may be one of the major risk factors for human infection. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we estimated the seroprevalence of antibodies against avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in veterinarians with exposure to avians. STUDY DESIGN: From May 21, 2011 through April 22, 2012, 406 veterinarians exposure to poultry in Guangdong province were interviewed a questionnaire. A serum specimen was collected from participants to test for H5N1 antibodies by HI and NT assay. RESULTS: None of the 406 sera from occupationally exposed veterinarians was positive according to the HI test and the NT test with the H5N1 AIV. CONCLUSION: Our seroepidemiologic survey suggests that the risk of avian-to-human transmission of the H5N1 AIV is very low based on the samples that we tested. However, prevention regarding the risk of H5N1 AIV transmission is essential and should be recommended as public health measures.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 01/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Please cite this paper as: He et al. (2012) Amaryllidaceae alkaloids inhibit nuclear-to-cytoplasmic export of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12035. Background Few drugs are currently licensed to treat influenza A infection, and new therapies are needed, especially for highly pathogenic strains. Traditional medicinal plants, such as Lycoris radiata, are a potential source of new antiviral agents. Objective To test 15 Amaryllidaceae alkaloids isolated from the bulbs of L. radiata in vitro for antiviral activities against influenza virus type A, A/Chicken/GuangDong/178/2004 (H5N1, 178). Methods Antiviral activities of the compounds were tested in time-of-addition assays, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays, neuraminidase (NA) activity assays, and viral entry inhibition assays using H5N1-HIV pseudoviruses. Effects of the compounds on localization and activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) were determined by immunofluorescence and an RNP minigenome assay, respectively. Results Among the alkaloids, lycorine (AA1), hippeastrine (AA2), hemanthamine (AA3) and 11-hydroxy vittatine (AA4) exhibited antiviral activities, with EC(90) values of 0·52, 82·07, 4·15, and 13·45 μm, respectively. These compounds did not affect the function of the outer membrane proteins or the viral entry process and viral RNP activity. As AA1 and AA3 exhibited stronger antiviral activities, they were further analyzed. Intracellular nucleoprotein (NP) localization showed that AA1 and AA3 inhibited the RNP complex in the nucleus at an early stage of a single-round and multi-round of replication. Conclusion Four Amaryllidaceae alkaloids were first determined that could exert anti-influenza activities after virus entry into cells. Furthermore, AA1 and AA3 could inhibit nuclear-to-cytoplasmic export of the RNP complex of virus replication. Thus, these compounds may be developed further as anti-influenza drug candidates.
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 11/2012; · 1.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution and prevalence of H3 subtype influenza viruses in avian and mammalian hosts constitutes a potential threat to both human and avian health. We report a complete genome sequence of a novel reassortant H3N2 avian influenza virus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HA and NA showed the highest sequence homologies with those of A/white-backed munia/Hong Kong/4519/2009 (H3N2). However, the internal genes had the highest sequence homologies with those of H6 and H7 subtypes. The data provide further evidence of the existence of a natural reassortant H3N2 strain in southern China.
Journal of Virology 09/2012; 86(17):9553-4. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While repeated infection of humans and enhanced replication and transmission in mice has attracted more attention to it, the pathogenesis of H9N2 virus was less known in mice. PB(2) residue 627 as the virulent determinant of H5N1 virus is associated with systemic infection and impaired TCR activation, but the impact of this position in H9N2 virus on the host immune response has not been evaluated. In this study, we quantified the cellular immune response to infection in the mouse lung and demonstrate that V(K627) and rTs(E627K) infection caused a significant reduction in the numbers of T cells and inflammatory cells (Macrophage, Neutrophils, Dendritic cells) compared to mice infected with rV(K627E) and Ts(E627). Further, we discovered (i) a high level of thymocyte apoptosis resulted in impaired T cell development, which led to the reduced amount of mature T cells into lung, and (ii) the reduced inflammatory cells entering into lung was attributed to the diminished levels in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Thereafter, we recognized that higher GCs level in plasma induced by V(K627) and rTs(E627K) infection was associated with the increased apoptosis in thymus and the reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines levels in lung. These data demonstrated that V(K627) and rTs(E627K) infection contributing to higher GCs level would decrease the magnitude of antiviral response in lung, which may be offered as a novel mechanism of enhanced pathogenicity for H9N2 AIV.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38233. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Except severe pulmonary disease caused by influenza virus infection, an impaired immune system is also a clinic characteristic. However, the mechanism(s) of influenza virus infection-induced depletion of B cells was unknown. Here, we compared the effect of two variant virulence H9N2 virus infections on mouse B cells. Our study found that the infection with highly pathogenic virus (V) of led to depletion of spleen B cells and bone marrow (BM) early B cells, compared to lowly pathogenic virus (Ts). Moreover, high apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in spleen and BM were detected, suggesting important factors for the reduction of B cells in both organs. Further, this effect was not caused by virus replication in spleen and BM. Compared to Ts virus infection, V virus resulted in higher glucocorticoids (GCs) and lower leptin level in plasma. Intraperitoneal GCs receptor antagonist RU486 injection was sufficient to prevent the loss of spleen B cell and BM pro- and immature B cells, but similar result was not observed in leptin-treated mice. Depletion of spleen B cells and BM pro-B cells was also reversed by chemical sympathectomy mediated by the norepinephrine (NE) analog 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), but the treatment didn't affect the GCs level. This study demonstrated that depletion of B cells induced by H9N2 AIV was dependent on HPA axis and sympathetic response.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e51029. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have shown expanded host range and can infect mammals, such as humans and swine. To date the mechanisms of mammalian adaptation and interspecies transmission of H9N2 AIVs remain poorly understood. To explore the molecular basis determining mammalian adaptation of H9N2 AIVs, we compared two avian field H9N2 isolates in a mouse model: one (A/chicken/Guangdong/TS/2004, TS) is nonpathogenic, another one (A/chicken/Guangdong/V/2008, V) is lethal with efficient replication in mouse brains. In order to determine the basis of the differences in pathogenicity and brain tropism between these two viruses, recombinants with a single gene from the TS (or V) virus in the background of the V (or TS) virus were generated using reverse genetics and evaluated in a mouse model. The results showed that the PB2 gene is the major factor determining the virulence in the mouse model although other genes also have variable impacts on virus replication and pathogenicity. Further studies using PB2 chimeric viruses and mutated viruses with a single amino acid substitution at position 627 [glutamic acid (E) to lysine, (K)] in PB2 revealed that PB2 627K is critical for pathogenicity and viral replication of H9N2 viruses in mouse brains. All together, these results indicate that the PB2 gene and especially position 627 determine virus replication and pathogenicity in mice. This study provides insights into the molecular basis of mammalian adaptation and interspecies transmission of H9N2 AIVs.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e40118. · 3.73 Impact Factor