[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy on the development of subclinical atherosclerosis is incompletely understood.
To compare intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery between HIV-infected subjects receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens and subjects not receiving these regimens and to compare differences in the IMT of the carotid artery between HIV-infected subjects and HIV-uninfected subjects.
A prospective matched cohort study in university-based outpatient clinics. Groups of three individuals (triads) matched on the following characteristics were enrolled: age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, blood pressure and menopausal status. Group 1, HIV-infected subjects with continuous use of protease inhibitor (PI) therapy for > or = 2 years; group 2, HIV-infected subjects without prior PI use; and group 3: HIV-uninfected. Ultrasonographers at six sites sent standardized ultrasound images to a central reading site for carotid IMT measurements. Carotid IMT was compared within the HIV-infected groups (1 and 2) and between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups in a matched analysis.
One hundred and thirty-four individuals were enrolled in 45 triads. The median IMT in groups 1, 2 and 3 was 0.690, 0.712 and 0.698 mm, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in IMT between groups 1 and 2, or in the combined HIV groups compared with the HIV uninfected group. Significant predictors of carotid IMT in a multivariate model included high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the interaction of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, age and body mass index.
We found no association between PI inhibitor exposure or HIV infection and carotid IMT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia is a prevalent condition that affects patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. These preliminary recommendations summarize the current understanding in this area and propose guidelines for management. Existing guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia in the general population formed the general basis for our recommendations. Data on the prevalence and treatment of dyslipidemia of HIV-infected patients, implications of treatment-related dyslipidemia in other chronically ill populations, and pharmacokinetic profiles for the available hypolipidemic agents in non-HIV populations were considered. Although the implications of dyslipidemia in this population are not fully known, the frequency, type, and magnitude of lipid alterations in HIV-infected people are expected to result in increased cardiovascular morbidity. We propose that these patients undergo evaluation and treatment on the basis of existing guidelines for dyslipidemia, with the caveat that avoidance of interactions with antiretroviral agents is paramount.