[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of doctors is in a state of flux. Traditional methods of assessment have been critically examined and found inherently limited. The wholesale shift towards outcome-orientated education in the last 10 years has led to the relatively rapid development of a radically different method of assessment. This method focuses on assessing what doctors do in everyday practice rather than written or practical simulations. Known collectively as "workplace-based assessment" tools, these have been embraced in North America, whereas they have been more cautiously adopted in the UK. However, many of these assessment tools have not been rigorously studied and, moreover, few have been specifically developed for assessing radiologists. However, they are likely to be incorporated into radiology training in the near future. This paper critically analyses both the underpinning assumptions behind this method and the evidence behind existing tools, and looks at the work that is required to develop, adopt or adapt such tools for use in radiology.