Devinder Mahajan

Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (42)122.38 Total impact

  • Xiaojun Chan · Wei Nan · Devinder Mahajan · Taejin Kim ·
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility of using tungsten oxide catalysts for furfuryl alcohol (FA) oligomerization reaction was investigated in the liquid phase at 100°C and ambient pressure. Five dimers (2,2′-difurylmethane, 2-(2-furylmethyl)-5-methylfuran, difurfuryl ether, 4-furfuryl-2-pentenoic acid γ-lactone, 5-fufuryl-furfuryl alcohol) and two trimers (2,5-difurfurylfuran and 2,2′-(furylmethylene)bis(5-methylfuran)) were observed in GC and GC/MS, while Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy provided the co-existence of conjugated diene and diketone molecular structures, respectively. It was observed that C9-C15 oligomers' selectivity decreased as the reaction time increased. Ether bridge and terminal alcohol are dominant FA dimers which are very similar to sulfuric acid (homogeneous catalysis) catalyzed dehydration/condensation reaction of FA.
    Catalysis Communications 12/2015; 72:11-15. DOI:10.1016/j.catcom.2015.08.027 · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • Kristine Horvat · Devinder Mahajan ·
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports a laboratory mimic study that focused on the extraction of methane (CH4) from hydrates coupled with sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) as hydrates, by taking advantage of preferential thermodynamic stability of hydrates of CO2 over CH4. Five hydrate formation-decomposition runs focused on CH4-CO2 exchange, two baselines and three with host sediments, were performed in a 200 mL high-pressure Jerguson cell fitted with two glass windows that allowed visualization of the time-resolved hydrate phenomenon. The baseline pure hydrates formed from artificial seawater (75 mL) under 6400-6600 kPa CH4 or 2800-3200 kPa CO2 (hydrate forming regime), when the bath temperature was maintained within 4-6 °C and the gas/liquid volumetric ratio was ∼1.7:1 in the water-excess systems. The data show that the induction time for hydrate appearance was largest at 96 h with CH4, while with CO2 the time shortened by a factor of four. However, when the secondary gas (CO2 or CH4) was injected into the system containing preformed hydrates, the entering gas formed the hydrate phase instantly (within minutes) and no lag was observed. In a system containing host Ottawa sand (104 g) and artificial seawater (38 mL), the induction period reduced to 24 h. In runs with multiple charges, the extent of hydrate formation reached 44% of the theoretical value in the water-excess system, whereas the value maximized at 23% in the gas-excess system. The CO2 hydrate formation in a system that already contained CH4 hydrates was facile and they remained stable, whereas CH4 hydrate formation in a system consisting of CO2 hydrates as hosts were initially stable, but CH4 gas in hydrates quickly exchanged with free CO2 gas to form more stable CO2 hydrates. In all five runs, even though the system was depressurized, left for over a week at room temperature, and flushed with nitrogen gas in between runs, hydrates exhibited the memory effect, irrespective of the gas used, a result in contradiction with that reported previously in the literature. The facile CH4-CO2 exchange observed under temperature and pressure conditions that mimic naturally occurring CH4 hydrates show promise to develop a commercial carbon sequestration system.
    Canadian Journal of Chemistry 04/2015; 93(9):150415143913002. DOI:10.1139/cjc-2014-0562 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    Prasad B. Kerkar · Kristine Horvat · Keith W. Jones · Devinder Mahajan ·
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    ABSTRACT: Commercial-scale methane (CH4) extraction from natural hydrate deposits remains a challenge due to, among other factors, a poor understanding of hydrate-host sediment interactions under low-temperature and high-pressure conditions that are conducive to their existence. We report the use of synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) to image, for the first time, time-resolved pore-scale methane CH4 hydrate growth from an aqueous solution containing 5wt% barium chloride (BaCl2) and pressurized CH4 hosted in glass beads, all contained in an aluminum cell with an effective volume of 3.5mL. Multiple two-dimensional (2-D) cross sectional images show CH4 hydrates, with 7.5 µm resolution, distributed in patches throughout the system without dependence on distance from the cell walls. The time-resolved three-dimensional (3-D) images, constructed from the 2-D slices, exhibited pore-filling hydrate formation from dissolved CH4 gas, similar to natural CH4 hydrates (sI) in the marine environment. Furthermore, the 3-D images show that the aqueous phase was the wetting phase of the glass beads, i.e., the host and the formed hydrate were separated by an aqueous layer. These results provide some fundamental understanding of the nucleation phenomenon of gas hydrate formation at the pore scale. Pore-filling CH4 hydrate growth is likely to result in a reduced bulk modulus, and thus could affect seafloor stability during the reverse phenomenon, i.e, dissociation of natural hydrate deposits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 11/2014; 15(12). DOI:10.1002/2014GC005373 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • W. Nan · C. R. Krishna · T-J. Kim · L. J. Wang · D. Mahajan ·
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    ABSTRACT: Upgrading of fast pyrolysis oils produced from swtichgrass was carried out using 5 wt % Ru and 5 wt % Rh on a carbon support as catalysts slurried in a polyethylene glycol solvent in a 300 mL Parr batch reactor in the presence of hydrogen. A hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction was evaluated in the temperature range of 200-280 °C under hydrogen pressure of 300-1000 psig. The raw pyrolysis oil and the upgraded products were characterized by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques to establish the effectiveness of the hydrogenation process. With Ru/C at 280 °C and 1000 psig, the GC/MS data showed the absence of acetic acid and the principal liquid product slate included alcohols, hydrocarbons, cyclic compounds, and phenolics at a relative concentration of 5.2, 21.2, 3.8, and 35.7%, respectively.
    Energy & Fuels 07/2014; 28(7):4588-4595. DOI:10.1021/ef500826k · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Prasad B. Kerkar · Kristine Horvat · Devinder Mahajan · Keith W. Jones ·
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    ABSTRACT: Methane hydrate formation and dissociation kinetics were investigated in seawater-saturated consolidated Ottawa sand-pack under sub-seafloor conditions to study the influence of effective pressure on formation and dissociation kinetics. To simulate a sub-seafloor environment, the pore-pressure was varied relative to confining pressure in successive experiments. Hydrate formation was achieved by methane charging followed by sediment cooling. The formation of hydrates was delayed with increasing degree of consolidation. Hydrate dissociation by step-wise depressurization was instantaneous, emanating preferentially from the interior of the sand-pack. Pressure drops during dissociation and in situ temperature controlled the degree of endothermic cooling within sediments. In a closed system, the post-depressurization dissociation was succeeded by thermally induced dissociation and pressure-temperature conditions followed theoretical methane-seawater equilibrium conditions and exhibited excess pore pressure governed by the pore diameter. These post-depressurization equilibrium values for the methane hydrates in seawater saturated consolidated sand-pack were used to estimate the enthalpy of dissociation of 55.83 +/- 1.41 kJ/mol. These values were found to be lower than those reported in earlier literature for bulk hydrates from seawater (58.84 kJ/mol) and pure water (62.61 kJ/mol) due to excess pore pressure generated within confined sediment system under investigation. However, these observations could be significant in the case of hydrate dissociation in a subseafloor environment where dissociation due to depressurization could result in an instantaneous methane release followed by slow thermally induced dissociation. The excess pore pressure generated during hydrate dissociation could be higher within fine-grained sediments with faults and barriers present in subseafloor settings which could cause shifting in geological layers.
    Energies 12/2013; 6(12):6225-6241. DOI:10.3390/en6126225 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    Tsung-Ming Yeh · Zhe Wang · Devinder Mahajan · Benjamin S Hsiao · Benjamin Chu ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, pristine multilayered graphene oxide (GO) was coated by established methods onto a thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) mat to form a high flux membrane for ethanol dehydration. The thickness of the GO layer was controlled from 90 to 300 nm by taking advantage of the self-assembly behavior of GO sheets. The low transfer barrier of the TFNC mat provides a distinct advantage due to its large bulk porosity (80%) with fully interconnected pore structures. Ethanol dehydration experiments showed that a 93 nm thick GO membrane had a permeate flux of 2.2 (kg m À2 h À1) and a separation factor of 308 with a feed solution containing 80 wt% ethanol and 20% water at 70 C, making the GO–TFNC system superior to commercial polymeric membranes. For example, the permeate flux of GO– TFNC is twice as high as that of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based commercial membrane. The morphology of the GO–TFNC membrane and the mechanism of water transport in the GO layer were also elucidated using SEM, TEM and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) techniques.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 08/2013; 1(41):12998-13003. DOI:10.1039/c3ta12480k · 7.44 Impact Factor
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    Kristine Horvat · Prasad Kerkar · Keith Jones · Devinder Mahajan ·
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    ABSTRACT: Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the form of its hydrates in natural methane (CH4) hydrate reservoirs, via CO2/CH4 exchange, is an attractive pathway that also yields valuable CH4 gas as product. In this paper, we describe a macroscale experiment to form CO2 and CH4-CO2 hydrates, under seafloor-mimic conditions, in a vessel fitted with glass windows that provides visualization of hydrates throughout formation and dissociation processes. Time resolved pressure and temperature data as well as images of hydrates are presented. Quantitative gas conversions with pure CO2, calculated from gas chromatographic measurements yielded values that range from 23 - 59% that correspond to the extent of formed hydrates. In CH4-rich CH4-CO2 mixed gas systems, CH4 hydrates were found to form preferentially.
    Energies 12/2012; 5(12):2248-2262. DOI:10.3390/en5072248 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Tsung-Ming Yeh · Liu Yang · Xiao Wang · Devinder Mahajan · Benjamin S. Hsiao · Benjamin Chu ·
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    ABSTRACT: Ethanol derived from the fermentation process (e.g., from corn) is widely used as a blend to improve the air quality and to decrease the demand for gasoline. During the production process, ethanol dehydration is usually carried out by azeotropic distillation, which consumes about twice amount of energy than the “pervaporation” method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an energy-efficient nanofibrous composite pervaporation membrane system for production of dehydrated ethanol. The nanofibrous membrane system consists of a cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol hydrophilic barrier layer, an buffer layer based on ultra-fine cellulose nanofibers (diameter about 5 nm), and an electrospun nanofibrous scaffold layer with high porosity (e.g., 80%) and fully interconnected pore structures. The performance between the conventional pervaporation membranes and nanofibrous composite membranes was compared under the same pervaporation conditions.
    Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 07/2012; 4(4). DOI:10.1063/1.4739760 · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • Saurabh Patel · David Tonjes · Devinder Mahajan ·
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    ABSTRACT: Biogas is the product of anaerobic digestion of waste, whether occurring spontaneously in landfills or under controlled conditions in digesters. Biogas is viewed as an important energy source in current efforts to reduce the use of fossil fuels and dependency on imported resources. Several studies on the assessment of biogas potential have been made at regional, national, and global scales. However, because it is not economically feasible to transport biogas feedstock over long distances, it is more appropriate to consider local waste sources for their potential to produce biogas. An assessment of the biogas potential on Long Island, based on the review of local landfills, wastewater treatment plants, solid waste generation and management, and agricultural waste, found that 234 × 106 m3 of methane (CH4) from biogas might be harvestable, although substantial barriers for complete exploitation exist. This number is equivalent to 2.52 TW-h of electricity, approximately 12% of fossil fuel power generation on Long Island. This work can serve as a template for other areas to rapidly create or approximate biogas potentials, especially for suburban U.S. locations that are not usually thought of as sources of renewable energy
    Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 08/2011; 3(4). DOI:10.1063/1.3614443 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the nucleation process of methane hydrate on the molecular scale. A stationary planar interface separating methane gas and liquid water was studied by using in situ neutron reflectivity. We found that the angstrom-scale surface roughening is triggered as soon as the water phase contacts methane gas under the hydrate forming conditions. In addition, it was found that the microscopic surface structure remains unchanged until a macroscopic hydrate film is developed at the interface. We therefore postulate that the angstrom-scale surface roughening is attributed to the formation of microscopic hydrate "embryos" in a "dynamic equilibrium" manner.
    Langmuir 03/2010; 26(7):4627-30. DOI:10.1021/la1004853 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The visualization of time-resolved three-dimensional growth of tetrahydrofuran hydrates with glass spheres of uniform size as porous media using synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography is presented. The images of hydrate patches, formed from excess tetrahydrofuran in aqueous solution, show random nucleation and growth concomitant with grain movement but independent of container-wall effect. Away from grain surfaces, hydrate surface curvature was convex showing that liquid, not hydrate, was the wetting phase, similar to ice growth in porous media. The extension of the observed behavior to methane hydrates could have implications in understanding their role in seafloor stability and climate change.
    Applied Physics Letters 07/2009; 95(2):024102-024102-3. DOI:10.1063/1.3120544 · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • Devinder Mahajan · C.E. Taylor · G. Ali Mansoori ·
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract
    Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 03/2007; 56(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.petrol.2006.09.006 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    Michael Eaton · Devinder Mahajan · Roger Flood ·
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrates formed from methane and water over thousands of years under both gas-lean (single phase) and gas-rich (two-phase) conditions are commonly present in marine sediments. Several factors such as dissolved minerals in seawater, mineral content, and pore size of sediments are thought to affect hydrate growth. There is much interest in exploiting this energy source, but there are many unknown aspects that need to be addressed. In order to develop or improve methane recovery methods, it is important to be able to mimic natural conditions in a laboratory and study dynamics of methane hydrates in host sediments. To date, a large data set from laboratory studies is available for pure methane hydrates for which kinetic models have been proposed but reproducible data collection in the presence of sediments has proved challenging. We describe herein a new experimental apparatus named FISH (Flexible Integrated Study of Hydrates) that has been designed to confine artificial and natural sediments in a pressure vessel and mimic oceanic conditions in order to study kinetics of methane hydrate formation/ decomposition in these sediments. The unit: 1) consists of a pressure vessel equipped with a first-of-its-kind viewport that is large enough to observe macroscopic hydrate behavior, 2) configuration allows convenient interchangeability of different volume pressure vessels, 3) can accept acoustic probes, and 4) holds multiple sensors for operation under precise pressure and temperature conditions. The unit set up, operation, and preliminary results for experiments with a pressure vessel in which the effective gas to liquid volume (Vg/Vl) ratio was 1.86, are described. The availability of accurate data on the formation/ decomposition cycle and acoustic properties of hydrates will aid in developing a much sought after economical method to extract methane from this vast resource.
    Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 03/2007; 56(1-56):101-107. DOI:10.1016/j.petrol.2005.09.006 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 56 (2007): 136-145, doi:10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.029. The hydrate–sediment interaction is an important aspect of gas hydrate studies that needs further examination. We describe here the applicability of the computed microtomography (CMT) technique that utilizes an intense X-ray synchrotron source to characterize sediment samples, two at various depths from the Blake Ridge area (a well-known hydrate-prone region) and one from Georges Bank, that once contained methane trapped as hydrates. Detailed results of the tomographic analysis performed on the deepest sample (667 m) from Blake Ridge are presented as 2-D and 3-D images which show several mineral constituents, the internal grain/pore microstructure, and, following segmentation into pore and grain space, a visualization of the connecting pathways through the pore-space of the sediment. Various parameters obtained from the analysis of the CMT data are presented for all three sediment samples. The micro-scale porosity values showed decreasing trend with increasing depth for all three samples that is consistent with the previously reported bulk porosity data. The 3-D morphology, pore-space pathways, porosity, and permeability values are also reported for all three samples. The application of CMT is now being expanded to the laboratory-formed samples of hydrate in sediments as well as field samples of methane hydrate bearing sediments. Research was supported in part by the US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 (KWJ and HF). Additional support was provided through the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Brookhaven National Laboratory to DM.
    Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 03/2007; 56(1). DOI:10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.029 · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Devinder Mahajan · Amruta Desai · Miriam Rafailovich · Min-Hui Cui · Nan-Loh Yang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Thermal treatment of a solution containing iron pentacarbonyl and styrene monomer in hexadecane resulted in a high yield (>90%) of nanoparticles of iron encapsulated in a polystyrene matrix (Fe-PST). The freshly prepared off-colored Fe in polystyrene (Fe-PST) material consisted of black particles that were attributed to zero-valent iron. On exposure to air, the black Fe particles slowly turned dark brown due to conversion into iron oxide. The observed oxidation phenomenon was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy: the freshly prepared Fe-PST was EPR silent but after exposure to air, a strong signature EPR signal for iron oxide was recorded. The infrared data confirmed changes in intensity of characteristic bands of PST in Fe-PST. The TEM image of the oxidized Fe-PST material consisted of discrete Fe particles that were distributed throughout the polymer matrix. The differential scanning calorimetric data of Fe-PST showed an enhanced glass transition temperature to 120 °C owing to the presence of Fe nanoparticles.
    Composites Part B Engineering 01/2006; 37(1):74-80. DOI:10.1016/j.compositesb.2004.12.005 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Phillip Servio · Michael W. Eaton · Devinder Mahajan · William J. Winters ·
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    ABSTRACT: The growing use of natural gas, cleanest of all available fossils fuels, is already raising concern regarding the long-term supply of this precious resource. The amount of methane in gas hydrates is much greater than all other presently known sources of methane. This paper describes some fundamental challenges, the location, magnitude, and feasibility of recovery, which must be addressed to recover methane from dispersed hydrate sources. For methane recovery, we briefly describe kinetic models of methane hydrate decomposition for temperature and pressure conditions that mimic in situ methane hydrate stability. We also propose the catalytic role of sediment impurities, if any, in inducing nucleation sites for hydrate formation. The availability of plentiful methane is important to avoid future energy crises, such as that which crippled the world economy three decades ago.
    Topics in Catalysis 02/2005; 32(3):101-104. DOI:10.1007/s11244-005-2881-x · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Hanaa Khalil · Devinder Mahajan · Mariam Rafailovich ·
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    ABSTRACT: An organo-clay complex was formed by the exchange reaction of a quaternary ammonium salt of a derivatized styrene monomer with Na+-montmorillonite clay. The binding of the derivatized styrene monomer with the montmorillonite clay was confirmed by FTIR and the diffused reflectance analysis. The increase of the d-spacing of the derivatized styrene-N+–montmorillonite clay complex to 1.47 nm, measured by X-ray diffraction, indicates that a monolayer of the monomer is adsorbed between adjacent montmorillonite layers. A molecular modeling of the monomer suggested a benzene ring tilted to the c-axis of the montmorillonite clay. The carbon content of the styrene-N+–montmorillonite clay of 11.02 % suggested a complete surface coverage of the clay by the monomer and a surface coverage of 0.74 nm2 per exchange site of the montmorillonite. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
    Polymer International 02/2005; 54(2):423 - 427. DOI:10.1002/pi.1711 · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Hanaa Khalil · Devinder Mahajan · Mariam Rafailovich ·
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    ABSTRACT: The bulk copolymerization of styrene–acrylonitrile monomers using styrene-N+–montmorillonite complex as a comonomer in the polymerization was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that part of the styrene-N+–montmorillonite complex remained non-dispersed (immiscible) and the copolymer was excluded from the interlayer of the immiscible part of the clay. The successive chemical extraction process revealed that a reasonable amount of the styrene–acrylonitrile copolymer was directly attached to the styrene-N+–montmorillonite complex and enveloped the clay. Highly exfoliated clay lamella and nanospheres (3–5 nm) were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The montmorillonite clay assume two different morphologies, immiscible and exfoliated, on the basis of the XRD and TEM data. A simple method of calculation of the ratio of the exfoliated/immiscible amounts of the clay indicated that the amount of the styrene-N+–montmorillonite complex exfoliated into separate lamella was 40 % (w/w) of the amount of the clay samples containing 2 % of the (styrene-N+–montmorillonite complex) clay. This amount of exfoliated clay decreases with the increase of the concentration of the clay. The presence of the styrene-N+–montmorillonite clay in the copolymerization reaction had a minor effect on both the copolymer composition and the molecular weight. Modification of the clay with the derivatized styrene monomer can achieve a nanocomposite using a percentage no more than 4 % (w/w) of complex in the copolymer. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
    Polymer International 02/2005; 54(2):428 - 436. DOI:10.1002/pi.1710 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: H(2) production by Petrotoga miotherma, Thermosipho africanus, Thermotoga elfii, Fervidobacterium pennavorans, and Thermotoga neapolitana was compared under microaerobic conditions. Contrary to these previously reported strains being strict anaerobes, all tested strains grew and produced H(2) in the presence of micromolar levels of O(2). T. neapolitana showed the highest H(2) production under these conditions. Microscopic counting techniques were used to determine growth curves and doubling times, which were subsequently correlated with optical density measurements. The Biolog anaerobic microtiter plate system was used to analyze the carbon source utilization spectrum of T. neapolitana and to select non-metabolized or poorly metabolized carbohydrates as physiological buffers. Itaconic acid was successfully used as a buffer to overcome pH-induced limitations of cell growth and to facilitate enhanced production of CO-free H(2).
    Biotechnology Letters 09/2004; 26(15):1223-32. DOI:10.1023/B:BILE.0000036602.75427.88 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    Devinder Mahajan · Elizabeth T Papish · Kaumudi Pandya ·
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    ABSTRACT: The decomposition kinetics of Fe(CO)5 and Mo(CO)6 induced by sonolysis in hexadecane solvent was studied as a function of temperature (303-343 K) under an inert atmosphere. The decomposition data, obtained over at least two half lives in most of the runs, yielded first-order rate constant (k) values with correlation co-efficient (R2) > 0.95. The products were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) yielded images from which the mean particle diameter (MPD) of approximately 10 nm for Fe and < 3 nm for Mo were estimated. The generation of amorphous Fe and semi-crystalline Mo particles was determined from line broadening and corresponding d-spacing values in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The XAFS/XANES data were consistent with the production of Fe(0) metal but carbided Mo (Mo2C). The one-step production of high-yield pyrophoric products demonstrated the applicability of sonolysis to effectively produce gram-quantity of zero-valent metals.
    Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 09/2004; 11(6):385-92. DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2003.10.009 · 4.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

558 Citations
122.38 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2014
    • Brookhaven National Laboratory
      • Biology Department
      New York, New York, United States
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      스토니브룩, New York, United States
  • 1976-1983
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Chemistry
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada