[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impairment of swallowing function is a common multidimensional symptom complex seen in 50-75% of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Although there are a number of validated swallowing-specific questionnaires, much of their focus is on the evaluation of swallowing-related quality of life (QOL) rather than swallowing as a specific function. The aim of this study was to validate the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) as a swallowing-specific instrument in HNC patients. Fifty-four consecutive patients in follow-up for oral and oropharyngeal cancer completed the SSQ and MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI). Thirty-one patients completed both questionnaires again four weeks later to address test-retest reliability. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively. Construct validity (including group validity) and criterion validity were determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney U-test. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, group validity and criterion validity of the SSQ was found to be significant (P<0.01). We were able to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SSQ in HNC patients. The SSQ is a precise, reliable and valid tool for assessing swallow in this patient group.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secondary tumours of small intestine account for 10% of all small bowel cancers. The most common sites of primary tumour metastasizing to small bowel are uterus, cervix, colon, lung, breast and melanoma. The majority of these metastatic tumours come from adenocarcinoma primaries; squamous cell carcinoma constitutes a very small proportion of all metastatic small intestinal lesions. Metastasis to small bowel by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare and carries an unfavourable prognosis. Owing to the limited number of published studies, its characteristic features, clinical presentation and outcomes are poorly described. This work aims at specifying these characteristics by reviewing, compiling, analysing and reporting all published cases in the published literature on small bowel metastasis secondary to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review article on the small intestinal metastasis from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.