[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat kernel albumins/globulins (A/G) and gluten proteins are responsible for baker's asthma and food allergy in atopic subjects. Although no commercial genetically modified wheats are currently being grown, they are under study and the allergenicity of GM products is a major concern. In order to establish the expected and unexpected effects of genetic transformation on allergenicity and also to carry out a safety assessment of genetic transformation, two GM wheat lines (bread and pasta wheat) transformed with endogenous genes were compared to their untransformed counterparts (wt), first by an allergenomic approach, and second, using ELISA with sera from patients suffering from food allergy to wheat and baker's asthma. The 2D immunoblots performed on sera from patients suffering from food allergy and baker's asthma on the A/G fraction of the four lines (two GM and two wt) revealed comparable IgE-binding profiles. A total of 109 IgE-binding spots were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and most of the proteins identified had already been described as allergens or potential allergens. Only two IgE-binding proteins were specific to one GM line. The concentration of specific IgE against the A/G fractions of GM wheat lines and their wt genotypes differed for some sera. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The originality of our paper is to relate the transformation of wheat lines with their potential allergenicity using patient sera, such focus has never been done before in wheat and should be of interest to the researches working in this field. Another interesting point of this paper is the study of two types of allergies (respiratory and food) on two wheat genotypes and their GM which reveals that some allergens already known in respiratory allergy could be involved in children suffering from wheat food allergy. In this paper we used a classical 2D proteomic analysis and the protein identifications were performed by mass spectrometry after spot picking and in gel trypsin hydrolysis. Concerning the LC-MS/MS analyses classical software and parameters were used as described in Material and methods. We worked on wheat which is actually not fully sequenced that was a difficulty; we therefore searched against two databanks (proteins and ESTs) in order to compare the results. Moreover all proteins reported in our paper were identified with at least three unique peptides. The identified proteins were checked for their potential allergenicity. In order to have a best interpretation of protein identified in terms of potential allergens, BLAST alignments were performed by using an allergen databank (SDAP). This allows the determination of the cross-reactivity of these identified proteins with known allergens of other species and also the prediction of a potential allergenicity.
Journal of proteomics 02/2013; 80C:281-291. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant cell walls are complex structures critical for plant fitness and valuable for human nutrition as dietary fibre and for industrial uses such as biofuel production. The cell wall polysaccharides in wheat endosperm consist of two major polymers, arabinoxylans and beta-glucans, as well as other minor components. Most of these polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus but the mechanisms underlying their synthesis have yet to be fully elucidated and only a few of the enzymes involved have been characterized. To identify actors involved in the wheat endosperm cell wall formation, we used a subcellular fractionation strategy to isolate Golgi-enriched fractions from endosperm harvested during active cell wall deposition. The proteins extracted from these Golgi-enriched fractions were analysed by LC-MS/MS. We report the identification of 1135 proteins among which 64 glycosyltransferases distributed in 17 families. Their potential function in cell wall synthesis is discussed. In addition, we identified 63 glycosylhydrolases, some of which may be involved in cell wall remodeling. Several glycosyltransferases were validated by showing that when expressed as fusion proteins with a fluorescent reporter, they indeed accumulate in the Golgi apparatus. Our results provide new candidates potentially involved in cell wall biogenesis in wheat endosperm.
Journal of proteomics 11/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteomics has emerged recently as a powerful analytical method to investigate proteins. Its scope of use has considerably enlarged in the past years including in the fi eld of feed and food sciences. Through a series of studies conducted at I.N.R.A., we illustrate the interest of proteomic approaches to improve plant breeding, technological processing or nutrition studies. The objectives are to reach high-quality and healthy foods while ensuring a sustainable and competitive agriculture and a preserved environment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highlights
► We selected a monoclonal antibody which bind to similar degrees all gliadins and glutenins. ► This monoclonal antibody recognised deamidated gluten. ► This monoclonal antibody allowed the detection of rye, barley, spelt and triticale.
Journal of Cereal Science 11/2012; 56(3):760–763. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SCOPE: Several wheat proteins are responsible for food and respiratory allergies. Due to their large polymorphism, the allergenic potential of a number of them has not yet been precisely established. The aim of this work was to perform a thorough assessment of serpin (Tri a 33) allergenicity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Recombinant wheat Serpin-Z2B isoform (rSerpin-Z2B) was expressed in Escherichia coli. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism data indicated that the recombinant serpin contains slightly more β-strands than α-helix structures. IgE reactivity of sera from 103 patients with food allergy and 29 patients with Baker's asthma was evaluated using ELISA, a model of basophil activation and linear epitope mapping (Pepscan). Twenty percent of patients with food allergy to wheat and 31% of those with Baker's asthma displayed rSerpin-Z2B-specific IgE in ELISA. The protein was able to induce IgE-dependent basophil degranulation. The Pepscan experiment identified four regions involved in IgE binding to serpin. Heating the protein induced its irreversible denaturation and impaired IgE binding, revealing the predominance of conformational epitopes. CONCLUSION: This study confirms wheat serpin allergenicity and shows that recombinant serpin may be a marker of a broad spectrum of sensitization to wheat proteins.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 10/2012; · 4.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gluten proteins can be modified by deamidation to enhance their solubility and technological applications. However, severe allergic reactions have been reported after the consumption of food products containing deamidated gluten (DG) in subjects tolerant to wheat. This work aimed to characterize allergen profiles for these patients in comparison with those of patients allergic to wheat and to identify IgE-binding epitopes.
Sera were obtained from 15 patients allergic to DG and from nine patients allergic to wheat proteins (WP). IgE-binding profiles were characterized both in ELISA and in a humanized rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL) cell model. Epitopes were mapped on γ- and ω2-gliadin sequences by Pepscan, and effect of glutamine/glutamic acid substitutions was studied.
Compared to the heterogeneous pattern of allergens detected by IgE from patients allergic to WP, responses of patients allergic to DG were homogeneous. In ELISA, all the sera displayed IgE binding to deamidated γ- and ω2-gliadins and deamidated total gliadins, frequently with high concentrations. These modified proteins induced RBL degranulation with most of the sera from DG-allergic patients. A consensus epitope was found on native γ- and ω2-gliadins (QPQQPFPQ); it was repeated several times in their sequences. The substitution of two or three glutamines of this epitope into glutamic acid at positions Q3 or Q4 and Q8 (QPEEPFPE) increased its recognition the best.
Allergy to DG is a separate entity from wheat allergy. It can be evidenced by strong IgE binding to deamidated gliadins or peptides of the type QPEEPFPE.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A detailed and comprehensive understanding of seed reserve accumulation is of great importance for agriculture and crop improvement strategies. This work is part of a research programme aimed at using Brachypodium distachyon as a model plant for cereal grain development and filling. The focus was on the Bd21-3 accession, gathering morphological, cytological, and biochemical data, including protein, lipid, sugars, starch, and cell-wall analyses during grain development. This study highlighted the existence of three main developmental phases in Brachypodium caryopsis and provided an extensive description of Brachypodium grain development. In the first phase, namely morphogenesis, the embryo developed rapidly reaching its final morphology about 18 d after fertilization (DAF). Over the same period the endosperm enlarged, finally to occupy 80% of the grain volume. During the maturation phase, carbohydrates were continuously stored, mainly in the endosperm, switching from sucrose to starch accumulation. Large quantities of β-glucans accumulated in the endosperm with local variations in the deposition pattern. Interestingly, new β-glucans were found in Brachypodium compared with other cereals. Proteins (i.e. globulins and prolamins) were found in large quantities from 15 DAF onwards. These proteins were stored in two different sub-cellular structures which are also found in rice, but are unusual for the Pooideae. During the late stage of development, the grain desiccated while the dry matter remained fairly constant. Brachypodium exhibits some significant differences with domesticated cereals. Beta-glucan accumulates during grain development and this cell wall polysaccharide is the main storage carbohydrate at the expense of starch.
Journal of Experimental Botany 01/2012; 63(2):739-55. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat gluten proteins such as gliadins constitute major food allergens. Gluten can be modified industrially by deamidation which increases its solubility and enhances its use as a food ingredient. Sensitization to deamidated gluten has been reported to cause severe allergic reactions with anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the sensitization and elicitation potentials of native (NG) and deamidated (DG) gliadins. The reactivity pattern of mice IgE was also compared with that of DG-allergic patients.
The ability of DG to sensitize Balb/c mice using intra-peritoneal administration with aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, and to elicit an allergic response after a challenge, was tested in comparison with NG. Mice sensitized with DG secreted higher levels of total IgE, IL-4, gliadin-specific IgE and IgG1 than mice sensitized with NG. By contrast, mice sensitized with NG produced higher levels of gliadin-specific IgG2a and INFγ. After a challenge, histamine levels were higher in mice sensitised with DG.
DG can sensitize mice much more efficiently than NG. Moreover, this mouse model of allergy to DG revealed an IgE reactivity pattern against purified gliadins which was very similar to that of DG-allergic patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat is an important part of the daily diet of millions of people. However, this staple food is also responsible for food allergies. Ancient cultivars of wheat are gaining interest today but nothing is known about their allergenicity. Many wheat proteins have been reported as causative food allergens, including some prolamin-type gluten proteins, and salt soluble proteins of the albumin/globulin (A/G) type. The objective of this work is to obtain information about the allergenicity of the salt soluble A/G fraction of an ancient diploid cultivar compared with a standard hexaploid bread wheat cultivar using 20 sera from patients with wheat allergy. Differences in the IgE reactivity of sera towards the two genotypes were quantified by ELISA. Qualitative differences in IgE-binding proteins were searched after 1D or 2D electrophoresis. For most of the sera, the concentration in A/G specific IgE was higher for the hexaploid T. aestivum (cv Récital) than for the diploid T. monococcum (cv Engrain). The analysis of 2D spots revealed by immunoblotting leads to the identification by mass spectrometry of 39 IgE-binding proteins, some of them unknown until now as wheat allergens. Numerous allergens were identified, differences observed between Engrain and Récital will be discussed.
Journal of proteomics 04/2011; 74(8):1279-89. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methods that predict antibody epitopes could help to promote the development of diagnostic tools, vaccines or immunotherapies by affecting the epitope binding of antibodies during an immunological response to antigens. It is generally assumed that there is a direct relationship between antibody accessibility to antigens and accessible surface of proteins. Based on this assumption, prediction systems often includes solvent accessibility values calculated from the primary sequence of proteins or from their three dimensional structures as a predictive criterion. However, the current prediction systems seem weakly efficient in view of benchmark tests. We were interested in evaluating how amino acids that have been experimentally identified as epitopic elements could differ from the rest of the antigenic molecule at the level of surface exposure, hence we assessed the average accessibility of epitopes. The approach used here utilises published epitopes deduced from numerous identification techniques, including sequence scanning and structure visualisation after crystallography, and it involves many types of antigens from toxins to allergens. Our results show that epitopic residues are not distributed among any specific Relative Surface Accessibility and Protrusion Index values and that, in some cases, epitopes cover the entire antigenic sequence. These results led to the conclusion that the classification of known epitopes with respect to the experimental conditions used to identify them should be introduced before attempting to characterise epitopic areas in a generic way.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wild grass Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as an alternative model species for temperate cereals. The present paper reports on the characterization of B. distachyon grain, placing emphasis on endosperm cell walls. Brachypodium distachyon is notable for its high cell wall polysaccharide content that accounts for ∼52% (w/w) of the endosperm in comparison with 2-7% (w/w) in other cereals. Starch, the typical storage polysaccharide, is low [<10% (w/w)] in the endosperm where the main polysaccharide is (1-3) (1-4)-β-glucan [40% (w/w) of the endosperm], which in all likelihood plays a role as a storage compound. In addition to (1-3) (1-4)-β-glucan, endosperm cells contain cellulose and xylan in significant amounts. Interestingly, the ratio of ferulic acid to arabinoxylan is higher in B. distachyon grain than in other investigated cereals. Feruloylated arabinoxylan is mainly found in the middle lamella and cell junction zones of the storage endosperm, suggesting a potential role in cell-cell adhesion. The present results indicate that B. distachyon grains contain all the cell wall polysaccharides encountered in other cereal grains. Thus, due to its fully sequenced genome, its short life cycle, and the genetic tools available for mutagenesis/transformation, B. distachyon is a good model to investigate cell wall polysaccharide synthesis and function in cereal grains.
Journal of Experimental Botany 11/2010; 62(3):1001-15. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seed storage proteins are of great importance in nutrition and in industrial transformation because of their functional properties. Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as a new model plant to study temperate cereals. The protein composition of Brachypodium grain was investigated by separating the proteins on the basis of their solubility combined with a proteomic approach. Salt-soluble proteins as well as salt-insoluble proteins separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 284 and 120 spots, respectively. Proteins from the major spots were sequenced by mass spectrometry and identified by searching against a Brachypodium putative protein database. Our analysis detected globulins and prolamins but no albumins. Globulins were represented mainly by the 11S type and their solubility properties corresponded to the glutelin found in rice. An in silico search for storage proteins returned more translated genes than expressed products identified by mass spectrometry, particularly in the case of prolamin type proteins, reflecting a strong expression of globulins at the expense of prolamins. Microscopic examination of endosperm cells revealed scarce small-size starch granules surrounded by protein bodies containing 11S globulins. The presence of protein bodies containing glutelins makes B. distachyon closer to rice or oat than to wheat endosperm.
Journal of Experimental Botany 06/2010; 61(6):1771-83. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several academic software are available to help the validation and reporting of proteomics data generated by MS analyses. However, to our knowledge, none of them have been conceived to meet the particular needs generated by the study of organisms whose genomes are not sequenced. In that context, we have developed OVNIp, an open-source application which facilitates the whole process of proteomics results interpretation. One of its unique attributes is its capacity to compile multiple results (from several search engines and/or several databank searches) with a resolution of conflicting interpretations. Moreover, OVNIp enables automated exploitation of de novo sequences generated from unassigned MS/MS spectra leading to higher sequence coverage and enhancing confidence in the identified proteins. The exploitation of these additional spectra might also identify novel proteins through a MS-BLAST search, which can be easily ran from the OVNIp interface. Beyond this primary scope, OVNIp can also benefit to users who look for a simple standalone application to both visualize and confirm MS/MS result interpretations through a simple graphical interface and generate reports according to user-defined forms which may integrate the prerequisites for publication. Sources, documentation and a stable release for Windows are available at http://wwwappli.nantes.inra.fr:8180/OVNIp.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seed oil bodies (OBs) are intracellular particles storing lipids as food or biofuel reserves in oleaginous plants. Since Brassica napus OBs could be easily contaminated with protein bodies and/or myrosin cells, they must be purified step by step using floatation technique in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. An exhaustive description of the protein composition of rapeseed OBs from two double-zero varieties was achieved by a combination of proteomic and genomic tools. Genomic analysis led to the identification of sequences coding for major seed oil body proteins, including 19 oleosins, 5 steroleosins and 9 caleosins. Most of these proteins were also identified through proteomic analysis and displayed a high level of sequence conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. Two rapeseed oleosin orthologs appeared acetylated on their N-terminal alanine residue and both caleosins and steroleosins displayed a low level of phosphorylation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of drying on pasta structure, starch and protein digestibility and potential allergenicity were investigated. Pasta was dried at low (55 °C, LT), high (70 °C, HT) and very high temperature (90 °C) applied either at the beginning (VHT) or at the end of the drying profile (VHT_LM). Changes in dried and in cooked pasta structure were determined regarding protein solubility, thermal properties of starch, microscopic and rheological measurements. Changes were moderate up to 70 °C and increased at higher temperatures and especially for VHT_LM drying.VHT_LM drying tended to decrease starch digestibility and significantly decreased protein digestibility of cooked pasta by 10% probably due to the formation of highly-aggregated proteins linked by very strong covalent bonds. None of the drying profiles were found to remove the allergenic properties of pasta. IgE-reactive peptides from prolamins and albumins/globulins fractions were found in all digestion juices; VHT-LM drying increased the latter.