Brenda R S Temple

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Teheran, Tehrān, Iran

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Publications (51)337.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The G12/13 class of heterotrimeric G proteins, comprised of the α subunits Gα12 and Gα13, regulates multiple aspects of cellular behavior including proliferation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Although guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the monomeric G protein Rho (RhoGEFs) are well-characterized as effectors of this G protein class, a variety of other downstream targets have been reported. To identify Gα12 determinants that mediate specific protein interactions, we utilized a structural and evolutionary comparison between the G12/13, Gs, Gi, and Gq classes to identify "class-distinctive" residues in Gα12 and Gα13. Mutation of these residues in Gα12 to their deduced ancestral forms revealed a subset necessary for activation of serum response element (SRE)-mediated transcription, a G12/13-stimulated pathway implicated in cell proliferative signaling. Unexpectedly, this subset of Gα12 mutants showed impaired binding to heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) while retaining binding to RhoGEFs. Corresponding mutants of Gα13 exhibited robust SRE activation, suggesting a Gα12-specific mechanism, and inhibition of Hsp90 by geldanamycin or siRNA-mediated lowering of Hsp90 levels resulted in greater down-regulation of Gα12 than Gα13 signaling in SRE activation experiments. Furthermore, the Drosophila G12/13 homolog Concertina was unable to signal to SRE in mammalian cells, and Gα12:Concertina chimeras revealed Gα12-specific determinants of SRE activation within the Switch regions and a C-terminal region. These findings identify Gα12 determinants of SRE activation, implicate Gα12:Hsp90 interaction in this signaling mechanism, and illuminate structural features that arose during evolution of Gα12 and Gα13 to allow bifurcated mechanisms of signaling to a common cell proliferative pathway.
    Molecular pharmacology 01/2014; · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and lipolytic release of lipid second messengers. As fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Herein, we demonstrate yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP), is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation wherein Sfh3, and select other LD proteins, redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data report Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism, and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and phosphoinositide) biology that are invisible to contemporary haploid-centric cell biological, proteomic and functional genomics approaches.
    Molecular biology of the cell 01/2014; · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) integrate diverse territories of intracellular lipid metabolism with stimulated phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate production and are discriminating portals for interrogating phosphoinositide signaling. Yet, neither Sec14-like PITPs nor PITPs in general have been exploited as targets for chemical inhibition for such purposes. Herein, we validate what is to our knowledge the first small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of the yeast PITP Sec14. These SMIs are nitrophenyl(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methanones (NPPMs) and are effective inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. We further establish that Sec14 is the sole essential NPPM target in yeast and that NPPMs exhibit exquisite targeting specificities for Sec14 (relative to related Sec14-like PITPs), propose a mechanism for how NPPMs exert their inhibitory effects and demonstrate that NPPMs exhibit exquisite pathway selectivity in inhibiting phosphoinositide signaling in cells. These data deliver proof of concept that PITP-directed SMIs offer new and generally applicable avenues for intervening with phosphoinositide signaling pathways with selectivities superior to those afforded by contemporary lipid kinase-directed strategies.
    Nature Chemical Biology 11/2013; · 12.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways are vital components of physiology, and many are amenable to pharmacologic manipulation. Here, we identify functional heterotrimeric G-protein subunits in Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis. The E. histolytica Gα subunit EhGα1 exhibits conventional nucleotide cycling properties and is seen to interact with EhGβγ dimers and a candidate effector, EhRGS-RhoGEF, in typical, nucleotide-state-selective fashions. In contrast, a crystal structure of EhGα1 highlights unique features and classification outside of conventional mammalian Gα subfamilies. E. histolytica trophozoites overexpressing wildtype EhGα1 in an inducible manner exhibit an enhanced ability to kill host cells that may be wholly or partially due to enhanced host cell attachment. EhGα1-overexpressing trophozoites also display enhanced transmigration across a Matrigel barrier, an effect that may result from altered baseline migration. Inducible expression of a dominant negative EhGα1 variant engenders the converse phenotypes. Transcriptomic studies reveal that modulation of pathogenesis-related trophozoite behaviors by perturbed heterotrimeric G-protein expression includes transcriptional regulation of virulence factors and altered trafficking of cysteine proteases. Collectively, our studies suggest that E. histolytica possesses a divergent heterotrimeric G-protein signaling axis that modulates key aspects of cellular processes related to the pathogenesis of this infectious organism.
    PLoS Pathogens 11/2012; 8(11):e1003040. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (CP) and oxaliplatin (OX), platinum-based drugs used widely in chemotherapy, form adducts on intrastrand guanines (5'GG) in genomic DNA. DNA damage recognition proteins, transcription factors, mismatch repair proteins, and DNA polymerases discriminate between CP- and OX-GG DNA adducts, which could partly account for differences in the efficacy, toxicity, and mutagenicity of CP and OX. In addition, differential recognition of CP- and OX-GG adducts is highly dependent on the sequence context of the Pt-GG adduct. In particular, DNA binding protein domain HMGB1a binds to CP-GG DNA adducts with up to 53-fold greater affinity than to OX-GG adducts in the TGGA sequence context but shows much smaller differences in binding in the AGGC or TGGT sequence contexts. Here, simulations of the HMGB1a-Pt-DNA complex in the three sequence contexts revealed a higher number of interface contacts for the CP-DNA complex in the TGGA sequence context than in the OX-DNA complex. However, the number of interface contacts was similar in the TGGT and AGGC sequence contexts. The higher number of interface contacts in the CP-TGGA sequence context corresponded to a larger roll of the Pt-GG base pair step. Furthermore, geometric analysis of stacking of phenylalanine 37 in HMGB1a (Phe37) with the platinated guanines revealed more favorable stacking modes correlated with a larger roll of the Pt-GG base pair step in the TGGA sequence context. These data are consistent with our previous molecular dynamics simulations showing that the CP-TGGA complex was able to sample larger roll angles than the OX-TGGA complex or either CP- or OX-DNA complexes in the AGGC or TGGT sequences. We infer that the high binding affinity of HMGB1a for CP-TGGA is due to the greater flexibility of CP-TGGA compared to OX-TGGA and other Pt-DNA adducts. This increased flexibility is reflected in the ability of CP-TGGA to sample larger roll angles, which allows for a higher number of interface contacts between the Pt-DNA adduct and HMGB1a.
    Biochemistry 09/2012; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    Jonathan D Lenz, Brenda R S Temple, Virginia L Miller
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    ABSTRACT: Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Both species have numerous type Va autotransporters, most of which appear to be highly conserved. In Y. pestis CO92, the autotransporter genes yapK and yapJ share a high level of sequence identity. By comparing yapK and yapJ to three homologous genes in Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 (YPTB0365, YPTB3285, and YPTB3286), we show that yapK is conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis, while yapJ is unique to Y. pestis. All of these autotransporters exhibit >96% identity in the C terminus of the protein and identities ranging from 58 to 72% in their N termini. By extending this analysis to include homologous sequences from numerous Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains, we determined that these autotransporters cluster into a YapK (YPTB3285) class and a YapJ (YPTB3286) class. The YPTB3286-like gene of most Y. pestis strains appears to be inactivated, perhaps in favor of maintaining yapJ. Since autotransporters are important for virulence in many bacterial pathogens, including Y. pestis, any change in autotransporter content should be considered for its impact on virulence. Using established mouse models of Y. pestis infection, we demonstrated that despite the high level of sequence identity, yapK is distinct from yapJ in its contribution to disseminated Y. pestis infection. In addition, a mutant lacking both of these genes exhibits an additive attenuation, suggesting nonredundant roles for yapJ and yapK in systemic Y. pestis infection. However, the deletion of the homologous genes in Y. pseudotuberculosis does not seem to impact the virulence of this organism in orogastric or systemic infection models.
    Infection and immunity 07/2012; 80(10):3693-705. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteins with similar crystal structures can have dissimilar rates of substrate binding and catalysis. Here we used molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical analysis to determine the role of intradomain and interdomain motions in conferring distinct activation rates to two Gα proteins, Gα(i1) and GPA1. Despite high structural similarity, GPA1 can activate itself without a receptor, whereas Gα(i1) cannot. We found that motions in these proteins vary greatly in type and frequency. Whereas motion is greatest in the Ras domain of Gα(i1), it is greatest in helices αA and αB from the helical domain of GPA1. Using protein chimeras, we show that helix αA from GPA1 is sufficient to confer rapid activation to Gα(i1). Gα(i1) has less intradomain motion than GPA1 and instead displays interdomain displacement resembling that observed in a receptor-heterotrimer crystal complex. Thus, structurally similar proteins can have distinct atomic motions that confer distinct activation mechanisms.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2012; 109(19):7275-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insertion of an aspartate residue at position 345a in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2), which lowers the rate of penicillin acylation by ~6-fold, is commonly observed in penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Here, we show that insertions of other amino acids also lower the penicillin acylation rate of PBP 2, but none supported growth of N. gonorrhoeae, indicating loss of essential transpeptidase activity. The Asp345a mutation likely acts by altering the interaction between its adjacent residue, Asp346, in the β2a-β2d hairpin loop and Ser363, the middle residue of the SXN active site motif. Because the adjacent aspartate creates ambiguity in the position of the insertion, we also examined if insertions at position 346a could confer decreased susceptibility to penicillin. However, only aspartate insertions were identified, indicating that only an Asp-Asp couple can confer resistance and retain transpeptidase function. The importance of the Asp346-Ser363 interaction was assessed by mutation of each residue to Ala. Although both mutants lowered the acylation rate of penicillin G by 5-fold, neither could support growth of N. gonorrhoeae, again indicating loss of transpeptidase function. Interaction between a residue in the equivalent of the β2a-β2d hairpin loop and the middle residue of the SXN motif is observed in crystal structures of other Class B PBPs, and its importance is also supported by multisequence alignments. Overall, these results suggest that this conserved interaction can be manipulated (e.g., by insertion) to lower the acylation rate by β-lactam antibiotics and increase resistance, but only if essential transpeptidase activity is preserved.
    Biochemistry 03/2012; 51(13):2775-84. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plants recognize microbes via specific pattern recognition receptors that are activated by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), resulting in MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Successful pathogens bypass MTI in genetically diverse hosts via deployment of effectors (virulence factors) that inhibit MTI responses, leading to pathogen proliferation. Plant pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas syringae utilize a type III secretion system to deliver effectors into cells. These effectors can contribute to pathogen virulence or elicit disease resistance, depending upon the host plant genotype. In disease resistant genotypes, intracellular immune receptors, typically belonging to the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat family of proteins, perceive bacterial effector(s) and initiate downstream defense responses (effector triggered immunity) that include the hypersensitive response, and transcriptional re-programming leading to various cellular outputs that collectively halt pathogen growth. Nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensors can be indirectly activated via perturbation of a host protein acting as an effector target. AvrRpm1 is a P. syringae type III effector. Upon secretion into the host cell, AvrRpm1 is acylated by host enzymes and directed to the plasma membrane, where it contributes to virulence. This is correlated with phosphorylation of Arabidopsis RIN4 in vivo. RIN4 is a negative regulator of MAMP-triggered immunity, and its modification in the presence of four diverse type III effectors, including AvrRpm1, likely enhances this RIN4 regulatory function. The RPM1 nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensor perceives RIN4 perturbation in disease resistant plants, leading to a successful immune response. Here, demonstrate that AvrRpm1 has a fold homologous to the catalytic domain of poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase. Site-directed mutagenesis of each residue in the putative catalytic triad, His63-Tyr122-Asp185 of AvrRpm1, results in loss of both AvrRpm1-dependent virulence and AvrRpm1-mediated activation of RPM1, but, surprisingly, causes a gain of function: the ability to activate the RPS2 nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensor.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42633. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are conserved from plants to mammals, but the complexity of each system varies. Arabidopsis thaliana contains one Gα, one Gβ (AGB1), and at least three Gγ subunits, allowing it to form three versions of the heterotrimer. This plant model is ideal for genetic studies because mammalian systems contain hundreds of unique heterotrimers. The activation of these complexes promotes interactions between both the Gα subunit and the Gβγ dimer with enzymes and scaffolds to propagate signaling to the cytoplasm. However, although effectors of Gα and Gβ are known in mammals, no Gβ effectors were previously known in plants. Toward identifying AGB1 effectors, we genetically screened for dominant mutations that suppress Gβ-null mutant (agb1-2) phenotypes. We found that overexpression of acireductone dioxygenase 1 (ARD1) suppresses the 2-day-old etiolated phenotype of agb1-2. ARD1 is homologous to prokaryotic and eukaryotic ARD proteins; one function of ARDs is to operate in the methionine salvage pathway. We show here that ARD1 is an active metalloenzyme, and AGB1 and ARD1 both control embryonic hypocotyl length by modulating cell division; they also may contribute to the production of ethylene, a product of the methionine salvage pathway. ARD1 physically interacts with AGB1, and ARD enzymatic activity is stimulated by AGB1 in vitro. The binding interface on AGB1 was deduced using a comparative evolutionary approach and tested using recombinant AGB1 mutants. A possible mechanism for AGB1 activation of ARD1 activity was tested using directed mutations in a loop near the substrate-binding site.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(34):30107-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Components of the heterotrimeric G protein complex are conserved from plants to mammals, but the complexity of each system varies. Arabidopsis thaliana contains one Gα, one Gβ (AGB1), and at least three Gγ subunits, allowing it to form three versions of the heterotrimer. This plant model is ideal for genetic studies because mammalian systems can contain thousands of unique heterotrimers. The activation of these complexes promotes interactions between both the Gα subunit and the Gβγ dimer with enzymes and scaffolds to propagate signaling to the cytoplasm. However, while effectors of Gα and Gβ are known in mammals, no Gβ effectors were previously known in plants. Toward identifying AGB1 effectors, we used a genetic screen for dominant mutations that suppress Gβ-null mutant (agb1-2) phenotypes. We found that overexpression of aci-reductone dioxygenase 1 (ARD1) suppresses the two-day-old, etiolated phenotype of agb1-2. ARD1 is homologous to prokaryotic and eukaryotic ARD proteins; one function of ARDs is to operate in the methionine salvage pathway. ARD1 is an active metalloenzyme, and AGB1 and ARD1 both control embryonic hypocotyl length by modulating cell division; they also may contribute to the production of ethylene, a product of the methionine salvage pathway. ARD1 physically interacts with AGB1, and ARD enzymatic activity is stimulated by AGB1 in vitro. The binding interface on AGB1 was deduced using a comparative evolutionary approach and tested using recombinant AGB1 mutants. A possible mechanism for AGB1 activation of ARD1 activity was tested using directed mutations in a loop near the substrate binding site.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SmgGDS is an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that promotes both cell proliferation and migration and is up-regulated in several types of cancer. SmgGDS has been previously shown to activate a wide variety of small GTPases, including the Ras family members Rap1a, Rap1b, and K-Ras, as well as the Rho family members Cdc42, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA, and RhoB. In contrast, here we show that SmgGDS exclusively activates RhoA and RhoC among a large panel of purified GTPases. Consistent with the well known properties of GEFs, this activation is catalytic, and SmgGDS preferentially binds to nucleotide-depleted RhoA relative to either GDP- or GTPγS-bound forms. However, mutational analyses indicate that SmgGDS utilizes a distinct exchange mechanism compared with canonical GEFs and in contrast to known GEFs requires RhoA to retain a polybasic region for activation. A homology model of SmgGDS highlights an electronegative surface patch and a highly conserved binding groove. Mutation of either area ablates the ability of SmgGDS to activate RhoA. Finally, the in vitro specificity of SmgGDS for RhoA and RhoC is retained in cells. Together, these results indicate that SmgGDS is a bona fide GEF that specifically activates RhoA and RhoC through a unique mechanism not used by other Rho family exchange factors.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2011; 286(14):12141-12148. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has long been known that animal heterotrimeric Gαβγ proteins are activated by cell-surface receptors that promote GTP binding to the Gα subunit and dissociation of the heterotrimer. In contrast, the Gα protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGPA1) can activate itself without a receptor or other exchange factor. It is unknown how AtGPA1 is regulated by Gβγ and the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) protein AtRGS1, which is comprised of an RGS domain fused to a receptor-like domain. To better understand the cycle of G protein activation and inactivation in plants, we purified and reconstituted AtGPA1, full-length AtRGS1, and two putative Gβγ dimers. We show that the Arabidopsis Gα protein binds to its cognate Gβγ dimer directly and in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Although animal Gβγ dimers inhibit GTP binding to the Gα subunit, AtGPA1 retains fast activation in the presence of its cognate Gβγ dimer. We show further that the full-length AtRGS1 protein accelerates GTP hydrolysis and thereby counteracts the fast nucleotide exchange rate of AtGPA1. Finally, we show that AtGPA1 is less stable in complex with GDP than in complex with GTP or the Gβγ dimer. Molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical studies reveal that altered stability is likely due to increased dynamic motion in the N-terminal α-helix and Switch II of AtGPA1. Thus, despite profound differences in the mechanisms of activation, the Arabidopsis G protein is readily inactivated by its cognate RGS protein and forms a stable, GDP-bound, heterotrimeric complex similar to that found in animals.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(15):13143-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in the last several years have enhanced mechanistic understanding of Nef-induced CD4 and MHCI downregulation and have suggested a new paradigm for analyzing Nef function. In both of these cases, Nef acts by forming ternary complexes with significant contributions to stability imparted by non-canonical interactions. The mutational analyses and binding assays that have led to these conclusions are discussed. The recent progress has been dependent on conservative mutations and multi-protein binding assays. The poorly understood Nef functions of p21 activated protein kinase (PAK2) activation, enhancement of virion infectivity, and inhibition of immunoglobulin class switching are also likely to involve ternary complexes and non-canonical interactions. Hence, investigation of these latter Nef functions should benefit from a similar approach. Six historically used alanine substitutions for determining structure-function relationships of Nef are discussed. These are M20A, E62A/E63A/E64A/E65A (AAAA), P72A/P75A (AXXA), R106A, L164A/L165A, and D174A/D175A. Investigations of less-disruptive mutations in place of AAAA and AXXA have led to different interpretations of mechanism. Two recent examples of this alternate approach, F191I for studying PAK2 activation and D123E for the critical residue D123 are discussed. The implications of the new findings and the resulting new paradigm for Nef structure-function are discussed with respect to creating a map of Nef functions on the protein surface. We report the results of a PPI-Pred analysis for protein-protein interfaces. There are three predicted patches produced by the analysis which describe regions consistent with the currently known mutational analyses of Nef function.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 02/2011; 6(2):230-46. · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SmgGDS is an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that promotes both cell proliferation and migration and is up-regulated in several types of cancer. SmgGDS has been previously shown to activate a wide variety of small GTPases, including the Ras family members Rap1a, Rap1b, and K-Ras, as well as the Rho family members Cdc42, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA, and RhoB. In contrast, here we show that SmgGDS exclusively activates RhoA and RhoC among a large panel of purified GTPases. Consistent with the well known properties of GEFs, this activation is catalytic, and SmgGDS preferentially binds to nucleotide-depleted RhoA relative to either GDP- or GTPγS-bound forms. However, mutational analyses indicate that SmgGDS utilizes a distinct exchange mechanism compared with canonical GEFs and in contrast to known GEFs requires RhoA to retain a polybasic region for activation. A homology model of SmgGDS highlights an electronegative surface patch and a highly conserved binding groove. Mutation of either area ablates the ability of SmgGDS to activate RhoA. Finally, the in vitro specificity of SmgGDS for RhoA and RhoC is retained in cells. Together, these results indicate that SmgGDS is a bona fide GEF that specifically activates RhoA and RhoC through a unique mechanism not used by other Rho family exchange factors.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(14):12141-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In animals, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) signaling is initiated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which activate G protein α subunits; however, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana lacks canonical GPCRs, and its G protein α subunit (AtGPA1) is self-activating. To investigate how AtGPA1 becomes activated, we determined its crystal structure. AtGPA1 is structurally similar to animal G protein α subunits, but our crystallographic and biophysical studies revealed that it had distinct properties. Notably, the helical domain of AtGPA1 displayed pronounced intrinsic disorder and a tendency to disengage from the Ras domain of the protein. Domain substitution experiments showed that the helical domain of AtGPA1 was necessary for self-activation and sufficient to confer self-activation to an animal G protein α subunit. These findings reveal the structural basis for a mechanism for G protein activation in Arabidopsis that is distinct from the well-established mechanism found in animals.
    Science Signaling 01/2011; 4(159):ra8. · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rotavirus inner capsid particle, known as the "double-layered particle" (DLP), is the "payload" delivered into a cell in the process of viral infection. Its inner and outer protein layers, composed of viral protein (VP) 2 and VP6, respectively, package the 11 segments of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of the viral genome, as well as about the same number of polymerase molecules (VP1) and capping-enzyme molecules (VP3). We have determined the crystal structure of the bovine rotavirus DLP. There is one full particle (outer diameter approximately 700 A) in the asymmetric unit of the P2(1)2(1)2(1) unit cell of dimensions a=740 A, b=1198 A, and c=1345 A. A three-dimensional reconstruction from electron cryomicroscopy was used as a molecular replacement model for initial phase determination to about 18.5 A resolution, and the 60-fold redundancy of icosahedral particle symmetry allowed phases to be extended stepwise to the limiting resolution of the data (3.8 A). The structure of a VP6 trimer (determined previously by others) fits the outer layer density with very little adjustment. The T=13 triangulation number of that layer implies that there are four and one-third VP6 trimers per icosahedral asymmetric unit. The inner layer has 120 copies of VP2 and thus 2 copies per icosahedral asymmetric unit, designated VP2A and VP2B. Residues 101-880 fold into a relatively thin principal domain, comma-like in outline, shaped such that only rather modest distortions (concentrated at two "subdomain" boundaries) allow VP2A and VP2B to form a uniform layer with essentially no gaps at the subunit boundaries, except for a modest pore along the 5-fold axis. The VP2 principal domain resembles those of the corresponding shells and homologous proteins in other dsRNA viruses: lambda1 in orthoreoviruses and VP3 in orbiviruses. Residues 1-80 of VP2A and VP2B fold together with four other such pairs into a "5-fold hub" that projects into the DLP interior along the 5-fold axis; residues 81-100 link the 10 polypeptide chains emerging from a 5-fold hub to the N-termini of their corresponding principal domains, clustered into a decameric assembly unit. The 5-fold hub appears to have several distinct functions. One function is to recruit a copy of VP1 (or of a VP1-VP3 complex), potentially along with a segment of plus-strand RNA, as a decamer of VP2 assembles. The second function is to serve as a shaft around which can coil a segment of dsRNA. The third function is to guide nascent mRNA, synthesized in the DLP interior by VP1 and 5'-capped by the action of VP3, out through a 5-fold exit channel. We propose a model for rotavirus particle assembly, based on known requirements for virion formation, together with the structure of the DLP and that of VP1, determined earlier.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2010; 397(2):587-99. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    Brenda R S Temple, Corbin D Jones, Alan M Jones
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    ABSTRACT: Heterotrimeric G proteins act as the physical nexus between numerous receptors that respond to extracellular signals and proteins that drive the cytoplasmic response. The Gα subunit of the G protein, in particular, is highly constrained due to its many interactions with proteins that control or react to its conformational state. Various organisms contain differing sets of Gα-interacting proteins, clearly indicating that shifts in sequence and associated Gα functionality were acquired over time. These numerous interactions constrained much of Gα evolution; yet Gα has diversified, through poorly understood processes, into several functionally specialized classes, each with a unique set of interacting proteins. Applying a synthetic sequence-based approach to mammalian Gα subunits, we established a set of seventy-five evolutionarily important class-distinctive residues, sites where a single Gα class is differentiated from the three other classes. We tested the hypothesis that shifts at these sites are important for class-specific functionality. Importantly, we mapped known and well-studied class-specific functionalities from all four mammalian classes to sixteen of our class-distinctive sites, validating the hypothesis. Our results show how unique functionality can evolve through the recruitment of residues that were ancestrally functional. We also studied acquisition of functionalities by following these evolutionarily important sites in non-mammalian organisms. Our results suggest that many class-distinctive sites were established early on in eukaryotic diversification and were critical for the establishment of new Gα classes, whereas others arose in punctuated bursts throughout metazoan evolution. These Gα class-distinctive residues are rational targets for future structural and functional studies.
    PLoS Computational Biology 01/2010; 6(10):e1000962. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular abnormalities of the central nervous system predisposing blood vessels to leakage, leading to hemorrhagic stroke. Three genes, Krit1 (CCM1), OSM (CCM2), and PDCD10 (CCM3) are involved in CCM development. PDCD10 binds specifically to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and OSM. Using threading analysis and multi-template modeling, we constructed a three-dimensional model of PDCD10. PDCD10 appears to be a six-helical-bundle protein formed by two heptad-repeat-hairpin structures (alpha1-3 and alpha4-6) sharing the closest 3D homology with the bacterial phosphate transporter, PhoU. We identified a stretch of five lysines forming an amphipathic helix, a potential PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding site, in the alpha5 helix. We generated a recombinant wild-type (WT) and three PDCD10 mutants that have two (Delta2KA), three (Delta3KA), and five (Delta5KA) K to A mutations. Delta2KA and Delta3KA mutants hypothetically lack binding residues to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 at the beginning and the end of predicted helix, while Delta5KA completely lacks all predicted binding residues. The WT, Delta2KA, and Delta3KA mutants maintain their binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Only the Delta5KA abolishes binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Both Delta5KA and WT show similar secondary and tertiary structures; however, Delta5KA does not bind to OSM. When WT and Delta5KA are co-expressed with membrane-bound constitutively-active PI3 kinase (p110-CAAX), the majority of the WT is co-localized with p110-CAAX at the plasma membrane where PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is presumably abundant. In contrast, the Delta5KA remains in the cytoplasm and is not present in the plasma membrane. Combining computational modeling and biological data, we propose that the CCM protein complex functions in the PI3K signaling pathway through the interaction between PDCD10 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(7):e11740. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 pathogenic factor, Nef, is a multifunctional protein present in the cytosol and on membranes of infected cells. It has been proposed that a spatial and temporal regulation of the conformation of Nef sequentially matches Nef's multiple functions to the process of virion production. Further, it has been suggested that dimerization is required for multiple Nef activities. A dimerization interface has been proposed based on intermolecular contacts between Nefs within hexagonal Nef/FynSH3 crystals. The proposed dimerization interface consists of the hydrophobic B-helix and flanking salt bridges between R105 and D123. Here, we test whether Nef self-association is mediated by this interface and address the overall significance of oligomerization. By co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that HIV-1Nef exists as monomers and oligomers with about half of the Nef protomers oligomerized. Nef oligomers were found to be present in the cytosol and on membranes. Removal of the myristate did not enhance the oligomerization of soluble Nef. Also, SIVNef oligomerizes despite lacking a dimerization interface functionally homologous to that proposed for HIV-1Nef. Moreover, HIV-1Nef and SIVNef form hetero-oligomers demonstrating the existence of homologous oligomerization interfaces that are distinct from that previously proposed (R105-D123). Intracellular cross-linking by formaldehyde confirmed that SF2Nef dimers are present in intact cells, but surprisingly self-association was dependent on R105, but not D123. SIV(MAC239)Nef can be cross-linked at its only cysteine, C55, and SF2Nef is also cross-linked, but at C206 instead of C55, suggesting that Nefs exhibit multiple dimeric structures. ClusPro dimerization analysis of HIV-1Nef homodimers and HIV-1Nef/SIVNef heterodimers identified a new potential dimerization interface, including a dibasic motif at R105-R106 and a six amino acid hydrophobic surface. We have demonstrated significant levels of intracellular Nef oligomers by immunoprecipitation from cellular extracts. However, our results are contrary to the identification of salt bridges between R105 and D123 as necessary for self-association. Importantly, binding between HIV-1Nef and SIVNef demonstrates evolutionary conservation and therefore significant function(s) for oligomerization. Based on modeling studies of Nef self-association, we propose a new dimerization interface. Finally, our findings support a stochastic model of Nef function with a dispersed intracellular distribution of Nef oligomers.
    Retrovirology 01/2010; 7:77. · 5.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
337.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2012
    • Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 2003–2009
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      • • Department of Biology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2006
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Botany
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada