[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the mechanisms of repair and regeneration of the kidney after injury is of great interest because there are currently no therapies that promote repair, and kidneys frequently do not repair adequately. We studied the capacity of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to promote kidney repair and regeneration using an established ischemia/reperfusion injury model in mice, with particular focus on the microvasculature.
Human HSPCs administered systemically 24 hours after kidney injury were selectively recruited to injured kidneys of immunodeficient mice (Jackson Labs, Bar Harbor, Me) and localized prominently in and around vasculature. This recruitment was associated with enhanced repair of the kidney microvasculature, tubule epithelial cells, enhanced functional recovery, and increased survival. HSPCs recruited to kidney expressed markers consistent with circulating endothelial progenitors and synthesized high levels of proangiogenic cytokines, which promoted proliferation of both endothelial and epithelial cells. Although purified HSPCs acquired endothelial progenitor markers once recruited to the kidney, engraftment of human endothelial cells in the mouse capillary walls was an extremely rare event, indicating that human stem cell mediated renal repair is by paracrine mechanisms rather than replacement of vasculature.
These studies advance human HSPCs as a promising therapeutic strategy for promoting renal repair after injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages are required for tissue homeostasis through their role in regulation of the immune response and the resolution of injury. Here we show, using the kidney as a model, that the Wnt pathway ligand Wnt7b is produced by macrophages to stimulate repair and regeneration. When macrophages are inducibly ablated from the injured kidney, the canonical Wnt pathway response in kidney epithelial cells is reduced. Furthermore, when Wnt7b is somatically deleted in macrophages, repair of injury is greatly diminished. Finally, injection of the Wnt pathway regulator Dkk2 enhances the repair process and suggests a therapeutic option. Because Wnt7b is known to stimulate epithelial responses during kidney development, these findings suggest that macrophages are able to rapidly invade an injured tissue and reestablish a developmental program that is beneficial for repair and regeneration.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2010; 107(9):4194-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor