Barbara M. Ryan

Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (22)151.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Mucosal healing is increasingly recognised as an important treatment goal in Crohn's disease (CD). Data from colonic disease shows improved long-term outcomes in patients achieving complete mucosal healing. Little is currently known of this with regard to ileitis which is increasingly diagnosed using capsule endoscopy (SBCE). This is the first study to prospectively assess mucosal healing and deep remission rates following 52 weeks of therapy in a cohort of symptomatic small bowel CD patients commencing immunomodulator or biologic therapy. Methods Baseline demographics, quality of life questionnaires and Harvey Bradshaw Index were collected along with C-reactive protein & calprotectin. Capsule endoscopy Crohn's disease activity (CECDAI) index was used to assess ileitis severity. All parameters were reassessed at week 52. Results at baseline & week 52 were compared using univariate analysis, p < 0.05 considered significant. Results In total, 108 capsule procedures were performed on 43 patients. Based on the CECDAI, 39 (90%) demonstrated active small bowel CD at baseline with 28 (65%) undergoing 52 week assessment. In total, 12 (42%) participants achieved complete mucosal healing and deep remission by 52 week assessment (p < 0.0001 95% CI − 0.62 to − 0.22). Despite overall impressive mucosal healing rates, patients with strictures were less likely to demonstrate a decrease in CECDAI and were more likely to have symptoms. Conclusion In patients with active small bowel CD symptomatic and biochemical response to treatment appears to be mirrored by endoscopic remission in 42% of individuals. Strictures identified prior to therapy appear to be a poor indicator for success of treatment.
    Journal of Crohn's and Colitis. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A hyper-responsive adaptive immunologic response to a variety of microbial antigens has been described in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and elevated levels of a number of antibodies have been identified in the sera of CD patients. To date, the serological profiles of an Irish CD population have not been characterized. The aim of this study is to determine the serological profile of Irish patients with CD. Second, we aim to assess the correlation, if any, between serological profile and disease phenotype within this cohort. A total of 179 consecutive adults with CD attending a specialist inflammatory bowel disease clinic at a university hospital were recruited. Blood samples were taken and sera were analysed for the expression of pANCA and Crohn's related antibodies. pANCA was present in 47/179 (26.3%), anti-OmpC antibodies were present in 49/179 (27.4%), anti-Saccharomyces cervisiae (ASCA) in 64/179 (35.75%), ASCA IgA in 56/179 (31.28%) and ASCA IgG in 37/179 (20.67%), and anti-CBir antibodies in 97/179 (54.18%). The presence of ASCA IgA (P=0.031), ASCA IgG (P=0.007) and anti-CBir antibodies (P=0.003) were all significantly associated with small bowel involvement. Anti-OmpC, ASCA IgA and anti-CBir antibodies' positivity were all associated with complicated disease behaviour, whereas ANCA positivity was associated with inflammatory disease. Our study supports previous findings of an association between serological profiles and disease behaviour and a corresponding association with increased need for surgery. In this genetically homogenous Irish CD study group, the levels of specific antibody responses to commensal gut flora are lower than reported previously in other European and American populations.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 09/2013; · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Ileal intubation is being increasingly performed at colonoscopy and has in turn lead to an increasingly recognized subgroup of patients-those with mild terminal ileal inflammation, an entity that we have coined isolated active ileitis (IAI). The aims of this study were to define the natural history of IAI and determine if IAI shares a similar genetic and serologic profile with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS:: Patients with IAI were identified from our institution's histopathology and endoscopy databases. Cases attended for repeat colonoscopy and blood were analyzed for the expression of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, anti-OmpC, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antigen (ASCA) IgA, ASCA IgG, and anti-CBir antibodies and NOD2 genotyping. Age and sex-matched healthy controls, CD, and UC cases were also recruited. RESULTS:: Sixty-three patients with IAI were recruited. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibodies between IAI cases and healthy controls for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, OmpC, ASCA IgA, or ASCA IgG. The presence of all 5 antibodies was significantly higher in the CD group than the IAI group, P < 0.05. There were 28.6% of CD cases that carried one or more NOD2 variants, compared to 26.2% of the IAI cohort and 6.1% of healthy controls. Forty-three cases underwent follow-up ileocolonoscopy. Six of 43 cases (14%) had definite CD. CONCLUSIONS:: A majority of IAI cases developed persistent symptoms and terminal ileal abnormalities; however, only 14% developed classical, histological, or radiological features of CD. Although patients with IAI have a low level of seropositivity, similar to healthy controls, they do share an excess of NOD2 mutations with CD cases.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 06/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a recently recognized oesophageal disorder characterized by a combination of clinical and endoscopic features as well as the histological finding on oesophageal biopsy of greater than 15 eosinophils per high powered field. Recent reports suggest eosinophilic oesophagitis is increasing in incidence and this increase cannot be fully explained by increased recognition of the disorder. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidence of eosinophilic oesophagitis within the catchment area of a tertiary referral hospital in southwest Dublin, Ireland. The histopathology database at the Adelaide and Meath Hospital was used to identify all oesophageal biopsies obtained between January 2000 and July 2008 reported to show evidence of oesophagitis. Biopsy samples with greater than 15 eosinophils per high powered field in at least two fields were highlighted as possible eosinophilic oesophagitis. The oesophageal biopsies of patients identified in this way were reviewed by a histopathologist with a special expertise in gastroenterology for features suggestive of eosinophilic oesophagitis. Twenty-five thousand three hundred and sixty-five upper gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed between January 2000 and July 2008. A total of 11 072 sets of oesophageal biopsies were taken and 1364 (12.3%) of these revealed evidence of oesophagitis. Only 13 (0.1%) patients had oesophageal biopsies showing greater than 15 eosinophils per high powered field. The median age of this patient group was 23 years (interquartile range 10.5-50.5 years), with 46% of patients under 18 years at the time of diagnosis. The male to female ratio was 5.5 : 1 compared with 1.1 : 1 in the oesophagitis group as a whole, (P=0.002). There was no significant association between endoscopic findings or presenting complaints and the average number of eosinophils per high powered field. The average number of biopsies taken in patients with endoscopic findings suggestive of eosinophilic oesophagitis was 3.75 compared with 1 in patients without those features, (P=0.01). Our findings suggest that eosinophilic oesophagitis is a rare disorder predominantly affecting young men.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 09/2011; 23(12):1116-21. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of the long-term safety of anti-tumour necrosis factor therapies is vital for the safe treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, a disease affecting a young cohort of patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and long-term outcome of infliximab use in clinical practice in our institution on an intention to treat basis over the 10-year period from December 1998 to 31 December 2008. All cases receiving infliximab for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease over a 10-year period were identified from hospital pharmacy records. The study was based on a single centre cohort, with an unselected patient group. A total of 271 patients were identified as receiving infliximab for either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis over the 10-year study period. In total, 2169 infusions were given to the patient cohort. Fifty adverse events led to discontinuation of infliximab therapy in 47 cases. Two patients stopped due to neurological complications. There were six malignancies diagnosed within the cohort during the study period. Four of these were diagnosed while the individual was receiving Infliximab and two occurred at an interval of 21-52 months post their final infliximab infusion. A total of five deaths (1.5%) were observed during the study period. Infliximab therapy seems to be safe and efficacious in the long term. Although the development of malignancy remains a concern, we have not seen an increased risk of serious infection within our cohort.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 07/2011; 23(7):603-6. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background  Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of osteoporosis. A number of studies have emerged in recent years indicating that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockade appears to have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in IBD patients.Aims  To provide a review of the available data regarding the effect of the currently licensed anti-TNF-α therapies on bone metabolism and BMD in IBD patients.Methods  A Medline search was performed using the search terms ‘infliximab’, ‘bone metabolism’, ‘IBD’, ‘BMD’, ‘bone markers’, ‘adalimumab’, ‘bone disease’, ‘Crohn’s disease’ and ‘ulcerative colitis’.Results  Infliximab has a beneficial effect on bone turnover markers in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients in the short term. The longest study to date comprising 24 CD patients showed an overall improvement in two bone formation markers – b-alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.022) and osteocalcin (P = 0.008) at 4 months post-treatment. Moreover, the largest study to date comprising 71 CD patients showed significant improvement in sCTx, a bone resorption marker (P = 0.04) at week-8 post-treatment. There is little data looking at the effect of anti-TNF-α therapy on bone metabolism in ulcerative colitis. Moreover, the long-term effects of anti-TNF-α therapy on bone structure and fracture risk in IBD patients are currently not known. The effect of cessation of anti-TNF-α therapy on bone metabolism is also unknown.Conclusion  Properly controlled long-term trials are needed to fully evaluate the impact of TNF blockade on bone mineral density.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 05/2011; 33(12):1261 - 1272. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal polyps are usually asymptomatic and are found opportunistically. Individuals with adenomata are at increased risk for cancer and therefore guidelines exist for surveillance of these lesions including those of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). Deviation from these guidelines is common and increases the workload of endoscopy. We examined those individuals waiting for endoscopy for polyp surveillance to see whether strict adherence to BSG guidelines could facilitate opportunities for screening. A total of 413 patients with earlier colonic polyps were examined, of whom 50 patients were excluded based on having alternative indications for surveillance, 179 (49.3%) were appropriately scheduled for surveillance and 184 patients (55.9%) were scheduled incorrectly. Seventy-nine patients (30%) could have been discharged; of these, 59 had hyperplastic polyps. Of the remaining 105 inappropriate triages under surveillance at the wrong interval, seven patients were scheduled for too infrequent surveillance and 98 were too frequent. A total of 284 patients with adenomatous polyps were under surveillance of whom 11 patients (3.8%) were in the high-risk category and all were appropriately scheduled, and 75 patients (26.4%) were in the intermediate-risk category, of whom 48 were appropriately scheduled, 20 were incorrectly triaged as high risk and seven were triaged as low risk. A total of 198 (69.7%) patients were in the low-risk category, 117 of these were correctly triaged, 15 were incorrectly triaged as high risk and 66 were classified as intermediate risk. Over a five-year period, 318 unnecessary colonoscopies are being performed. On the basis of the data obtained from a population-based colorectal screening programme using immunohistochemical-faecal occult blood testing in our department another 1516 patients could be screened annually without requiring any additional endoscopy resources, if strict adherence to guidelines was assured.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 10/2010; 20(1):40-5. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    Gut 07/2010; 59(7):1004-5; author reply 1005. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates have fallen considerably in recent years. Antibiotic resistance is thought to be rising. To examine the levels of resistance to metronidazole (MTZ) and clarithromycin (CLA) in H. pylori, isolates were taken in a reference centre in Ireland from 2007 to 2008 and were compared to a similar cohort from a study in 1997. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by E-test. Frequencies of spontaneous metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance were measured on an agar plate containing the antibiotics at concentrations of 2x and 4x minimum inhibition concentration values. Clinical data were obtained from charts, laboratory and endoscopy reports. Two hundred and twenty-two patients were analyzed, 98 were females. Colonies amenable to culture were grown in 219 patients. Thirty-seven had prior attempts at eradication therapy (all with amoxicillin-CLA-proton pump inhibitor. A total of 31.5% of the patients had strains resistant to MTZ and 13.2% of the patients were noted to have strains resistant to CLA. About 8.6% of the patients had strains resistant to both the agents. CLA resistance was 9.3% in those who had no prior eradication therapy compared with 32.4% of those who had. CLA resistance increased from 3.9%, among treatment-naive patients in 1997, to 9.3% in our study. MTZ resistance was 29.1% in the treatment-naive population. In 1997, MTZ resistance in the treatment-naive cohort was 27.1%. MTZ resistance was more likely to occur in females (35.4 vs. 28.5%) than in males. This study shows that resistance to CLA among Irish patients infected with H. pylori has increased since 1997. The future of treatment may well lie in the widespread use of sensitivity testing before the treatment. This would promote an accurate treatment.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 03/2010; 22(9):1123-7. · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Video capsule endoscopy is an invaluable tool for examining the small bowel. It is non-invasive and generally well tolerated, however its role in the assessment of the severity and extent of small bowel Crohn's disease has not, to date, been adequately evaluated. All capsule endoscopies performed over a two year period in a tertiary referral centre in subjects with known or suspected Crohn's disease were reviewed. Twenty-six capsule endoscopy studies in total were included. These were performed in 15 cases of known Crohn's disease, 5 cases of suspected Crohn's disease, 3 cases of endoscopically diagnosed non-specific terminal ileal inflammation and finally 3 post colectomy cases of indeterminant being considered for IPAA formation. Ten patients known to have small bowel Crohn's disease were prospectively recruited; of 3 with normal small bowel follow through or CT exams, one had an abnormal capsule endoscopy. The other 7 patients had small bowel follow through or abdominal CT scans consistent with small bowel Crohn's disease; additional mucosal abnormalities were detected by capsule endoscopy in 6 cases with capsule retention in the stomach in one. Of 5 with colonic Crohn's disease normal small bowel imaging corresponded with normal capsule endoscopy in all but one. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made in 2 out of 5 cases of suspected Crohn's disease on the basis of the capsule endoscopy findings. Three patients with non-specific acute terminal ileal inflammation at ileocolonoscopy were confirmed to have ongoing inflammation. The capsule was retained in four subjects beyond 24 h. Capsule endoscopy more accurately determines the severity and extent of the Crohn's disease in the small bowel than traditional imaging modalities.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 12/2009; 3(4):282-6. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a series of inflammatory genes were associated with the development of the most common pathologies thought to precede gastric cancer development namely; Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. A total of 250 patients were genotyped for 11 SNPs in the IL-1B, IL-1RN, TNF, TLR4 and IL-10 genes. The study population comprised H. pylori uninfected ('normal') control patients (n=96), H. pylori-positive gastritis (n=91) and intestinal metaplasia patients (n=63). Genotyping was performed using Taqman allelic discrimination assays. Odds ratios for gastric disease groups were adjusted for potential confounding factors. No differences were identified in frequency of carriage, or homozygosity, for any of the 'risk' alleles investigated across the patient groups. No evidence was found to suggest an association with increased risk of developing either chronic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia with SNPs in the IL-1B, IL-1RN, TNF, TLR4 and IL-10 genes or haplotypes tested. This study found no evidence of an association with increased risk of developing either chronic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia with the SNPs or haplotypes tested.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 04/2009; 21(6):630-5. · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - GASTROINTEST ENDOSCOP. 01/2009; 69(5).
  • Gastroenterology 01/2009; 136(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2009; 136(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 07/2008; 20(6):588-9. · 1.92 Impact Factor