[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to formulate and evaluate flurbiprofen transdermal gel. A standard calibration curve was constructed to obtain a regression line equation to be used for finding out the concentration of drug in samples. Olive oil was used as penetration enhancer and was added in different concentrations to some selected formulations to see its enhancement effect on in vitro drug release profiles. The prepared gels were evaluated for several physico-chemical parameters to justify their suitability for topical use. The in vitro drug release studies were carried out by using Franz cell diffusion apparatus across both synthetic membrane and excised albino rabbit skin. In order to investigate the drug release mechanism a kinetic approach was made by employing Korsmeyer kinetic model to the in vitro drug release profiles of flurbiprofen. The flurbiprofen topical gels were successfully prepared and could be beneficial for topical use.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, turpentine oil was used for enhancing the transdermal penetration of diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA) from matrix patches prepared using carboxypolymethylene (CPM) and ethyl cellulose (EC) by solvent evaporation technique. The drug matrix film was subjected to different physical testes like moisture content, moisture uptake and flatness, in vitro release and permeation studies and ex vivo permeation studies. In vitro permeation studies were performed across artificial skin, while ex vivo across rabbit abdominal skin. The effect of increasing concentration of turpentine oil on transdermal permeation of diclofenac diethylamine was studied on Franz cell apparatus. The results obtained were encouraging showing an increase in transdermal permeation with an increase in turpentine oil.
African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 02/2012;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to formulate and evaluate topically applied ketoprofen gels and patches and to see the effect of naturally occurring almond oil as penetration enhancer on the penetration of ketoprofen through artificial membrane/rabbit skin. Prior to ketoprofen gel and patch formulation, the particle size and particle size determination of ketoprofen was analyzed by Particle size analyzer (Horiba LA300). Ketoprofen gels and patches were formulated and almond oil was added in several concentrations i.e. 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3%. The formulated gels were evaluated by several parameters like pH, spreadibility, consistency, homogeneity, skin irritation and drug content determination. In vitro drug permeation studies from transdermal gels and patches were carried out across artificial membrane and rabbit skin by using Franz Cell Apparatus (PermeGear, USA). Kinetics model was employed to the release patterns of ketoprofen from gel and patches in order to investigate the drug transport mechanism. The cumulative amount of drug penetrated from different formulations was statistically evaluated by using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Stability study was performed for various batches of ketoprofen transdermal gel. Almond oil as penetration enhancer in various concentrations significantly enhances the penetration of drug from transdermal gels and patch across synthetic membrane/rabbit skin but was most significant when used in 3% concentration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for flurbiprofen has been developed and validated practically. The chromatography was conducted using Gemini C18 column (5 μm; 4.6 mm × 250 mm, Phenomenex, California, USA). The mobile phase containing disodium hydrogen phosphate solution (30 mM) pH 7.0 and acetonitrile (50:50); and the isocratic flow rate of 1.0 ml/min were used in the current study. Detection was made at 247 nm. The calibration curve was linear (r ≥ 0.9996) over the concentration range of 5-50 μm/ml. Mean percentage (%) recovery ± % relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 97.07 ± 0.008 to 103.66 ± 0.013. Within-day and between-day precision were also in acceptable range of 98.83 ± 0.004 to 104.56 ± 0.009. In order to confirm the practical applicability of the method developed, flurbiprofen controlled release matrix tablets were subjected to the dissolution studies and the release rate was analyzed. The reported HPLC for flurbiprofen provides several advantages of simplicity, high specificity, accuracy, and very short run-cycle time. It is suggested that the method should be used for the routine quality control analysis of flurbiprofen pure drug and its dosage forms.
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 07/2011; 2(3):151-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lithium remains a mainstay in the acute and prophylactic treatment of bipolar affective disorder. It is used in the augmentation of antidepressant treatment and, less frequently, in the augmentation of antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia. It is reported to have specific anti-suicidal effects. Thus the effect of Lithium was interesting to study on the glutathione (GSH) level in vivo conditions. Ellman's method has been used to see the effect of lithium on glutathione (GSH) level in whole blood. The time dependent effect of Lithium on the chemical status of glutathione (GSH) was determined in the whole blood (Plasma and cytosolic fraction) of human. The concentration of Glutathione was drastically decreased. The decrease in the glutathione level was concentration and time of interaction dependent, probably due to oxidation of glutathione (GSH) to corresponding disulphide (GSSG). In this paper the effect of Lithium on the Thiol/GSH level was discussed in vitro, which in principal may present a model of in vivo reaction.