Justin S Golub

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (31)56.25 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective and importance Preoperative chronic otitis media (COM) is a risk factor for postoperative infection after cochlear implantation (CI), but its management varies by surgeon. Our case highlights a strategy for implant preservation in a patient with a history of recurrent cochlear implant infection. Clinical presentation A 70-year-old woman with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia presented in 2005 with bilateral COM and sensorineural hearing loss meeting CI candidacy. Four months after left mastoid obliteration with abdominal fat graft and external auditory canal closure, a left CI was placed. Subsequent postauricular cellulitis resolved with oral antibiotics. A similar two-stage CI was performed on the right without complication. During the following year, numerous left-sided infections and fluid collections developed but were treated unsuccessfully with intravenous (IV) antibiotics and operative debridement. With concern for biofilm colonization, the implant was explanted and the electrode left in the cochlea. After reimplantation in 2010, infections resumed despite long-term IV antibiotics and incision and drainage. Intervention and technique In 2012, the left mastoid cavity was exteriorized and converted to standard canal wall-down anatomy. Bone pâté was placed over the electrode, followed by cadaveric acellular dermis and a split-thickness skin graft. After more than 2 years, her better-performing CI remains infection-free. Conclusion After 6 years of postoperative infections unresponsive to aggressive medical management, surgical interventions, and period of device removal, our patient's infections resolved after mastoid exteriorization and multilayered protection of the electrode. This strategy may enable implant preservation in patients with recurrent post-CI infection in an obliterated cavity.
    Cochlear implants international 05/2015; DOI:10.1179/1754762815Y.0000000010
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative headache is not uncommon after retrosigmoid vestibular schwannoma removal. Bone dust dispersed into the subarachnoid space during drilling may be responsible. If dispersion could be reduced, headache incidence might be decreased. An ultrasonic bone aspirator (UBA) containing an integrated suction at the tip may more effectively suction bone dust created during bone removal. The objective is to determine whether a UBA results in less bone dust dispersion than a standard otologic drill. Cadaveric temporal bone quantitative model. Laboratory. Temporal bone blocks were placed in a watertight enclosure. Under irrigation, bone was removed by use of either a drill or a UBA. The settings of the UBA were varied. The irrigant containing bone dust was microfiltered, and bone dust was weighed. Differences were compared across groups (n = 2-9 per group). Ablation times were also recorded (n = 3 per group). Only 3% (SD = 1.6%, n = 7) of the drilled bone mass was re-collected as bone dust with the UBA under optimized settings (power = 15%, suction = 100%, irrigation = 15 mL/min) compared with 81% (SD = 10%, n = 4) with the drill and external suction (P < .001). Increasing UBA power and reducing suction led to significantly more bone dust dispersal than with optimized settings. Varying irrigation did not have a significant effect. Bone ablation time was 1.4 times longer with the UBA at 50% power compared with the drill at maximum power. The UBA resulted in approximately 25 times less bone dust dispersion than the otologic drill at optimized settings. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 03/2015; 152(6). DOI:10.1177/0194599815573198 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative headache is an undesirable consequence of retrosigmoid vestibular schwannoma (VS) removal. An ultrasonic bone aspirator (UBA) may reduce headache by minimizing subarachnoid bone dust dispersion. The feasibility of removing internal auditory canal (IAC) bone with a UBA is unknown. This study assessed volume and duration of IAC bone removal in clinical and laboratory settings. (1) Retrospective review of radiologic data and intraoperative videos. (2) Cadaveric temporal bone model. (1) Tertiary care medical center. (2) Laboratory. We calculated the volume of IAC bone drilled during retrosigmoid VS removal using postoperative computed tomography scans. We then measured the time spent actively drilling IAC bone by analyzing operative videos. Finally, we measured bone ablation rates in a cadaveric temporal bone model using a drill and UBA. The mean ± SD volume of IAC bone removed during surgery was 0.32 ± 0.17 mL (n = 9). The time spent actively removing IAC bone with a drill was only 10.4 ± 3.5 minutes, less than a third of the total IAC opening time of 34.2 ± 13.1 minutes (n = 5). On cadaveric specimens, the UBA removed bone at 0.21 ± 0.03 or 0.35 ± 0.07 µL/s at 15% or 50% power, respectively (n = 4). This extrapolates to 15.0 ± 3.0 to 25.0 ± 3.9 minutes to remove the same 0.32 mL from surgery. The volume and duration of IAC bone removal during retrosigmoid VS surgery are small. Using a UBA at low power instead of a drill would extend the length of surgery by 5 to 15 minutes, with the theoretical potential for reducing headache. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
    02/2015; 76(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1546699
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    ABSTRACT: Animal experiments and limited data in humans suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organs could be used to treat loss of vestibular function. In this paper we demonstrate that canal specific two dimensionally (2D) measured eye velocities are elicited from intermittent brief 2s biphasic pulse electrical stimulation in four human subjects implanted with a vestibular prosthesis. The 2D measured direction of the slow phase eye movements changed with the canal stimulated. Increasing pulse current over a 0-400 μA range typically produced a monotonic increase in slow phase eye velocity. The responses decremented or in some cases fluctuated over time in most implanted canals, but could be partially restored by changing the return path of the stimulation current. Implantation of the device in Meniere's patients produced hearing and vestibular loss in the implanted ear. Electrical stimulation was well tolerated producing no sensation of pain, nausea, or auditory percept with stimulation that elicited robust eye movements. There were changes in slow phase eye velocity with current and over time, and changes in electrically evoked compound action potentials produced by stimulation and recorded with the implanted device. Perceived rotation in subjects was consistent with the slow phase eye movements in direction, and scaled with stimulation current in magnitude. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organ in human subjects provided controlled vestibular inputs over time, but in Meniere's patients this apparently came at the cost of hearing and vestibular function in the implanted ear. Copyright © 2013, Journal of Neurophysiology.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 02/2015; 113(10):jn.00171.2013. DOI:10.1152/jn.00171.2013 · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: "The Match" has become the accepted selection process for graduate medical education. Otomatch.com has provided an online forum for Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OHNS) Match-related questions for over a decade. Herein, we aim to delineate the type of posts on Otomatch to better understand the perspective of medical students applying for OHNS residency. Retrospective review of an OHNS Match-related online forum. Subjects were contributors to an OHNS Match-related online forum. Posts on Otomatch between December 2001 and April 2014 were reviewed. The title of each thread and number of views were recorded for quantitative analysis. Each thread was organized into 1 of 6 major categories and 1 of 18 subcategories. National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) data were utilized for comparison. We identified 1921 threads corresponding to over 2 million page views. Over 40% of threads were related to questions about specific programs, and 27% were discussions about interviews. Views, a surrogate measure for popularity, reflected different trends. The majority of individuals viewed posts on interviews (42%), program-specific questions (20%), and how to rank programs (11%). There was an increase in viewership tracked with a rise in applicant numbers based on NRMP data. Our study provides an in-depth analysis of a popular discussion forum for medical students interested in the OHNS Match process. The most viewed posts are about interview dates and questions regarding specific programs. We provide suggestions to address unmet needs for medical students and potentially improve the Match process. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 12/2014; 152(3). DOI:10.1177/0194599814561187 · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • Justin S Golub, Arun Sharma, Ravi N Samy
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    ABSTRACT: Access to the medical literature has not kept pace with the mobile revolution. We aimed to (1) gauge interest in a smartphone-optimized Web site for conveniently accessing otolaryngology literature and (2) create an easy-to-access and convenient Web site that displays otolaryngology journal abstracts in a format optimized for smartphones. A survey was sent to physicians of a major US academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery department. Demographics, literature-browsing habits, and barriers to staying updated were assessed. The response rate was 87%. Ninety-one percent of respondents used a smartphone, and 85% wished they could stay more up to date with the otolaryngology literature. Most respondents believed a convenient smartphone-optimized Web site could help them achieve this goal. A Web site was then developed in collaboration with a university creative department as a proof of concept. The site uses a simple RSS aggregator to display journal abstracts formatted for smartphone-sized screens (www.otosurg.com).
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 09/2014; DOI:10.1177/0194599814551932 · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • Justin S. Golub, Daniel I. Choo
  • Justin S Golub, Kris S Moe
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 05/2014; 150(5):906. DOI:10.1177/0194599814528213 · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • 02/2014; 75(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1370668
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    ABSTRACT: A functional vestibular prosthesis can be implanted in human such that electrical stimulation of each semicircular canal produces canal-specific eye movements while preserving vestibular and auditory function. A number of vestibular disorders could be treated with prosthetic stimulation of the vestibular end organs. We have previously demonstrated in rhesus monkeys that a vestibular neurostimulator, based on the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant, can produce canal-specific electrically evoked eye movements while preserving auditory and vestibular function. An investigational device exemption has been obtained from the FDA to study the feasibility of treating uncontrolled Ménière's disease with the device. The UW/Nucleus vestibular implant was implanted in the perilymphatic space adjacent to the three semicircular canal ampullae of a human subject with uncontrolled Ménière's disease. Preoperative and postoperative vestibular and auditory function was assessed. Electrically evoked eye movements were measured at 2 time points postoperatively. Implantation of all semicircular canals was technically feasible. Horizontal canal and auditory function were largely, but not totally, lost. Electrode stimulation in 2 of 3 canals resulted in canal-appropriate eye movements. Over time, stimulation thresholds increased. Prosthetic implantation of the semicircular canals in humans is technically feasible. Electrical stimulation resulted in canal-specific eye movements, although thresholds increased over time. Preservation of native auditory and vestibular function, previously observed in animals, was not demonstrated in a single subject with advanced Ménière's disease.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 12/2013; 35(1). DOI:10.1097/MAO.0000000000000003 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 10/2012; 32(43):15093-105. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1709-12.2012 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive and devastating infection that is usually caused by a polymicrobial infection including group A Streptococcus and anaerobes. We present a case of a newly diagnosed diabetic man who underwent transoral drainage of a Klebsiella pneumoniae paraglottic abscess, which, despite culture-directed antibiotics, progressed to cervical necrotizing fasciitis with descending mediastinitis. The patient required 12 surgical debridements and sternotomy, but survived and was discharged on hospital day 40. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis caused by a K pneumoniae infection in the United States. The significance of this unusual presentation is discussed.
    American journal of otolaryngology 07/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.amjoto.2012.05.009 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compare auditory performance of Hybrid and standard cochlear implant users with psychoacoustic measures of spectral and temporal sensitivity and correlate with measures of clinical benefit. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic medical center. Hybrid cochlear implant users between 12 and 33 months after implantation. Hybrid recipients had preservation of low-frequency hearing. Administration of psychoacoustic, music perception, and speech reception in noise tests. Performance on spectral-ripple discrimination, temporal modulation detection, Schroeder-phase discrimination, Clinical Assessment of Music Perception, and speech reception in steady-state noise tests. Clinical Assessment of Music Perception pitch performance at 262 Hz was significantly better in Hybrid users compared with standard implant controls. There was a near significant difference on speech reception in steady-state noise. Surprisingly, neither Schroeder-phase discrimination at 2 frequencies nor temporal modulation detection thresholds across a range of frequencies revealed any advantage in Hybrid users. This contrasts with spectral-ripple measures that were significantly better in the Hybrid group. The spectral-ripple advantage was preserved even when using only residual hearing. These preliminary data confirm existing data demonstrating that residual low-frequency acoustic hearing is advantageous for pitch perception. Results also suggest that clinical benefits enjoyed by Hybrid recipients are due to improved spectral discrimination provided by the residual hearing. No evidence indicated that residual hearing provided temporal information beyond that provided by electric stimulation.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 12/2011; 33(2):147-53. DOI:10.1097/MAO.0b013e318241b6d3 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The capacity of adult mammals to regenerate sensory hair cells is not well defined. To explore early steps in this process, we examined reactivation of a transiently expressed developmental gene, Atoh1, in adult mouse utricles after neomycin-induced hair cell death in culture. Using an adenoviral reporter for Atoh1 enhancer, we found that Atoh1 transcription is activated in some hair cell progenitors (supporting cells) 3 d after neomycin treatment. By 18 d after neomycin, the number of cells with Atoh1 transcriptional activity increased significantly, but few cells acquired hair cell features (i.e., accumulated ATOH1 or myosin VIIa protein or developed stereocilia). Treatment with DAPT, an inhibitor of γ-secretase, reduced notch pathway activity, enhanced Atoh1 transcriptional activity, and dramatically increased the number of Atoh1-expressing cells with hair cell features, but only in the striolar/juxtastriolar region. Similar effects were seen with TAPI-1, an inhibitor of another enzyme required for notch activity (TACE). Division of supporting cells was rare in any control or DAPT-treated utricles. This study shows that mature mammals have a natural capacity to initiate vestibular hair cell regeneration and suggests that regional notch activity is a significant inhibitor of direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells following damage.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 10/2011; 31(43):15329-39. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2057-11.2011 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vestibular system is responsible for detecting and relaying three-dimensional spatial information to the central nervous system. It acts in an exquisitely sensitive manner to control several critical physiologic functions, including stabilizing visual images during head movement, maintenance of balance, and postural control. Unlike the five traditional senses, input from the vestibular system is not normally processed at a conscious level. In the pathologic state, however, the importance of the vestibular system becomes readily apparent.
    10/2011: pages 109-133;
  • Emergency Radiology 05/2011; 18(5):445-7. DOI:10.1007/s10140-011-0960-9
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    Justin S Golub, Robert H Ossoff, Michael M Johns
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    ABSTRACT: Assess fellowship and academic/private practice career track preferences in residents of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Cross-sectional survey. A total of 1,364 U.S. otolaryngology residents were surveyed. Questions addressed demographics, work hours and sleep, fellowship preference, and career track preference (academic/private practice). Trends in fellowship and career track preference were analyzed by year of clinical otolaryngology training. Data were additionally analyzed after stratification by sex. The response rate was 50%. The desire to complete a fellowship declined from 62% (year 2) to 58% (year 5), whereas the desire to not complete a fellowship increased from 31% (year 2) to 41% (year 5). Fellowship interest increased for rhinology and head and neck surgery by training year, whereas interest declined for neurotology and facial plastics. Expectation of an academic path increased from 29% (year 2) to 38% (year 5), whereas expectation of private practice declined slightly from 59% (year 2) to 57% (year 5). Women were initially more interested in both completing a fellowship (69% women, 60% men) and academics (40% women, 27% men). At the end of training, these sex differences were eliminated or reversed (59% men, 54% women for fellowship; 39% men, 35% women for academics). Residents interested in pursuing fellowship or academics reported working 2 hr/week more than those interested in no fellowship or private practice, respectively (P < 0.01). Fellowship and career track preferences suggest trends that may be useful to residency/fellowship program directors and residents making career choices. Inequalities producing differences according to sex should be addressed.
    The Laryngoscope 04/2011; 121(4):882-7. DOI:10.1002/lary.21445 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of professional burnout among microvascular free-flap (MVFF) head and neck surgeons and to identify modifiable risk factors with the intent to reduce MVFF surgeon burnout. DESIGN A cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING A questionnaire mailed to MVFF surgeons in the United States. PARTICIPANTS A total of 60 MVFF surgeons. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES Professional burnout was quantified using the Maslach Burnout Inventory- Human Services Study questionnaire, which defines burnout as the triad of high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP), and low personal accomplishment. Additional data included demographic information and subjective assessment of professional stressors, satisfaction, self-efficacy, and support systems using Likert score scales. Potential risk factors for burnout were determined via significant association (P < .05) by Fisher exact tests and analyses of variance. RESULTS Of the 141 mailed surveys, 72 were returned, for a response rate of 51%, and 60 of the respondents were practicing MVFF surgeons. Two percent of the responding MVFF surgeons experienced high burnout (n = 1); 73%, moderate burnout (n = 44); and 25%, low burnout (n = 15). Compared with other otolaryngology academic faculty and department chairs, MVFF surgeons had similar or lower levels of burnout. On average, MVFF surgeons had low to moderate EE and DP scores. High EE was associated with excess workload, inadequate administration time, work invading family life, inability to care for personal health, poor perception of control over professional life, and frequency of irritable behavior toward loved ones (P < .001). On average, MVFF surgeons experienced high personal accomplishment. CONCLUSIONS Most MVFF surgeons experience moderate professional burnout secondary to moderate EE and DP. This may be a problem of proper balance between professional obligations and personal life goals. Most MVFF surgeons, nonetheless, experience a high level of personal accomplishment in their profession.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136(10):950-956-->
    Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 10/2010; 136(10):950-6. DOI:10.1001/archoto.2010.154 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of professional burnout among microvascular free-flap (MVFF) head and neck surgeons and to identify modifiable risk factors with the intent to reduce MVFF surgeon burnout. A cross-sectional, observational study. A questionnaire mailed to MVFF surgeons in the United States. A total of 60 MVFF surgeons. Professional burnout was quantified using the Maslach Burnout Inventory- Human Services Study questionnaire, which defines burnout as the triad of high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP), and low personal accomplishment. Additional data included demographic information and subjective assessment of professional stressors, satisfaction, self-efficacy, and support systems using Likert score scales. Potential risk factors for burnout were determined via significant association (P < .05) by Fisher exact tests and analyses of variance. Of the 141 mailed surveys, 72 were returned, for a response rate of 51%, and 60 of the respondents were practicing MVFF surgeons. Two percent of the responding MVFF surgeons experienced high burnout (n = 1); 73%, moderate burnout (n = 44); and 25%, low burnout (n = 15). Compared with other otolaryngology academic faculty and department chairs, MVFF surgeons had similar or lower levels of burnout. On average, MVFF surgeons had low to moderate EE and DP scores. High EE was associated with excess workload, inadequate administration time, work invading family life, inability to care for personal health, poor perception of control over professional life, and frequency of irritable behavior toward loved ones (P < .001). On average, MVFF surgeons experienced high personal accomplishment. Most MVFF surgeons experience moderate professional burnout secondary to moderate EE and DP. This may be a problem of proper balance between professional obligations and personal life goals. Most MVFF surgeons, nonetheless, experience a high level of personal accomplishment in their profession.
    Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 10/2010; 136(10):950-6. DOI:10.1001/archoto.2010.175 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for a slow-release system for local delivery of therapeutics to the larynx. Most therapeutic substances, such as steroids or chemotherapeutic agents that are injected into the larynx are cleared rapidly. Repeated laryngeal injection of these substances at short intervals is impractical. Injectable encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles offer a potential slow-release delivery system for biologically active substances in the larynx. Controlled animal study. PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated using a double emulsion method and were loaded with Texas Red-dextran (NPTR), hepatocyte growth factor (NPHGF), and bovine serum albumin (NPBSA). In vitro release of NPTR, NPBSA, and NPHGF was determined over approximately 2 weeks to assess potential duration of PLGA nanoparticle delivery. In vivo release of NPTR was assessed in a murine vocal fold injection model. The transcriptional effect of NPHGF on procollagen was measured in vitro to assess whether released growth factor retained functionality. In vitro release kinetics demonstrated slow release of NPTR, NPBSA, and NPHGF over 12 to 14 days. In vitro NPTR release correlated with in vivo results. In vivo presence of NPTR occurred up to 7 days compared to 1 day for Texas Red control. In addition, NPHGF ameliorated transforming growth factor-beta induced procollagen in vitro in 3T3 fibroblast cells. The results demonstrate the potential utility of nanoparticle encapsulation as an effective method for long-term delivery of specific drugs and biologically active substances to the larynx.
    The Laryngoscope 05/2010; 120(5):988-94. DOI:10.1002/lary.20856 · 2.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

328 Citations
56.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2010
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • Emory University
      • Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States