Justin S Golub

Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

Are you Justin S Golub?

Claim your profile

Publications (22)46.64 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A functional vestibular prosthesis can be implanted in human such that electrical stimulation of each semicircular canal produces canal-specific eye movements while preserving vestibular and auditory function. A number of vestibular disorders could be treated with prosthetic stimulation of the vestibular end organs. We have previously demonstrated in rhesus monkeys that a vestibular neurostimulator, based on the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant, can produce canal-specific electrically evoked eye movements while preserving auditory and vestibular function. An investigational device exemption has been obtained from the FDA to study the feasibility of treating uncontrolled Ménière's disease with the device. The UW/Nucleus vestibular implant was implanted in the perilymphatic space adjacent to the three semicircular canal ampullae of a human subject with uncontrolled Ménière's disease. Preoperative and postoperative vestibular and auditory function was assessed. Electrically evoked eye movements were measured at 2 time points postoperatively. Implantation of all semicircular canals was technically feasible. Horizontal canal and auditory function were largely, but not totally, lost. Electrode stimulation in 2 of 3 canals resulted in canal-appropriate eye movements. Over time, stimulation thresholds increased. Prosthetic implantation of the semicircular canals in humans is technically feasible. Electrical stimulation resulted in canal-specific eye movements, although thresholds increased over time. Preservation of native auditory and vestibular function, previously observed in animals, was not demonstrated in a single subject with advanced Ménière's disease.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 12/2013; · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2012; 32(43):15093-105. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive and devastating infection that is usually caused by a polymicrobial infection including group A Streptococcus and anaerobes. We present a case of a newly diagnosed diabetic man who underwent transoral drainage of a Klebsiella pneumoniae paraglottic abscess, which, despite culture-directed antibiotics, progressed to cervical necrotizing fasciitis with descending mediastinitis. The patient required 12 surgical debridements and sternotomy, but survived and was discharged on hospital day 40. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis caused by a K pneumoniae infection in the United States. The significance of this unusual presentation is discussed.
    American journal of otolaryngology 07/2012; · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Compare auditory performance of Hybrid and standard cochlear implant users with psychoacoustic measures of spectral and temporal sensitivity and correlate with measures of clinical benefit. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic medical center. Hybrid cochlear implant users between 12 and 33 months after implantation. Hybrid recipients had preservation of low-frequency hearing. Administration of psychoacoustic, music perception, and speech reception in noise tests. Performance on spectral-ripple discrimination, temporal modulation detection, Schroeder-phase discrimination, Clinical Assessment of Music Perception, and speech reception in steady-state noise tests. Clinical Assessment of Music Perception pitch performance at 262 Hz was significantly better in Hybrid users compared with standard implant controls. There was a near significant difference on speech reception in steady-state noise. Surprisingly, neither Schroeder-phase discrimination at 2 frequencies nor temporal modulation detection thresholds across a range of frequencies revealed any advantage in Hybrid users. This contrasts with spectral-ripple measures that were significantly better in the Hybrid group. The spectral-ripple advantage was preserved even when using only residual hearing. These preliminary data confirm existing data demonstrating that residual low-frequency acoustic hearing is advantageous for pitch perception. Results also suggest that clinical benefits enjoyed by Hybrid recipients are due to improved spectral discrimination provided by the residual hearing. No evidence indicated that residual hearing provided temporal information beyond that provided by electric stimulation.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 12/2011; 33(2):147-53. · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The capacity of adult mammals to regenerate sensory hair cells is not well defined. To explore early steps in this process, we examined reactivation of a transiently expressed developmental gene, Atoh1, in adult mouse utricles after neomycin-induced hair cell death in culture. Using an adenoviral reporter for Atoh1 enhancer, we found that Atoh1 transcription is activated in some hair cell progenitors (supporting cells) 3 d after neomycin treatment. By 18 d after neomycin, the number of cells with Atoh1 transcriptional activity increased significantly, but few cells acquired hair cell features (i.e., accumulated ATOH1 or myosin VIIa protein or developed stereocilia). Treatment with DAPT, an inhibitor of γ-secretase, reduced notch pathway activity, enhanced Atoh1 transcriptional activity, and dramatically increased the number of Atoh1-expressing cells with hair cell features, but only in the striolar/juxtastriolar region. Similar effects were seen with TAPI-1, an inhibitor of another enzyme required for notch activity (TACE). Division of supporting cells was rare in any control or DAPT-treated utricles. This study shows that mature mammals have a natural capacity to initiate vestibular hair cell regeneration and suggests that regional notch activity is a significant inhibitor of direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells following damage.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2011; 31(43):15329-39. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The vestibular system is responsible for detecting and relaying three-dimensional spatial information to the central nervous system. It acts in an exquisitely sensitive manner to control several critical physiologic functions, including stabilizing visual images during head movement, maintenance of balance, and postural control. Unlike the five traditional senses, input from the vestibular system is not normally processed at a conscious level. In the pathologic state, however, the importance of the vestibular system becomes readily apparent.
    10/2011: pages 109-133;
  • Emergency Radiology 05/2011; 18(5):445-7.
  • Source
    Justin S Golub, Robert H Ossoff, Michael M Johns
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Assess fellowship and academic/private practice career track preferences in residents of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Cross-sectional survey. A total of 1,364 U.S. otolaryngology residents were surveyed. Questions addressed demographics, work hours and sleep, fellowship preference, and career track preference (academic/private practice). Trends in fellowship and career track preference were analyzed by year of clinical otolaryngology training. Data were additionally analyzed after stratification by sex. The response rate was 50%. The desire to complete a fellowship declined from 62% (year 2) to 58% (year 5), whereas the desire to not complete a fellowship increased from 31% (year 2) to 41% (year 5). Fellowship interest increased for rhinology and head and neck surgery by training year, whereas interest declined for neurotology and facial plastics. Expectation of an academic path increased from 29% (year 2) to 38% (year 5), whereas expectation of private practice declined slightly from 59% (year 2) to 57% (year 5). Women were initially more interested in both completing a fellowship (69% women, 60% men) and academics (40% women, 27% men). At the end of training, these sex differences were eliminated or reversed (59% men, 54% women for fellowship; 39% men, 35% women for academics). Residents interested in pursuing fellowship or academics reported working 2 hr/week more than those interested in no fellowship or private practice, respectively (P < 0.01). Fellowship and career track preferences suggest trends that may be useful to residency/fellowship program directors and residents making career choices. Inequalities producing differences according to sex should be addressed.
    The Laryngoscope 04/2011; 121(4):882-7. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of professional burnout among microvascular free-flap (MVFF) head and neck surgeons and to identify modifiable risk factors with the intent to reduce MVFF surgeon burnout. DESIGN A cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING A questionnaire mailed to MVFF surgeons in the United States. PARTICIPANTS A total of 60 MVFF surgeons. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES Professional burnout was quantified using the Maslach Burnout Inventory- Human Services Study questionnaire, which defines burnout as the triad of high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP), and low personal accomplishment. Additional data included demographic information and subjective assessment of professional stressors, satisfaction, self-efficacy, and support systems using Likert score scales. Potential risk factors for burnout were determined via significant association (P < .05) by Fisher exact tests and analyses of variance. RESULTS Of the 141 mailed surveys, 72 were returned, for a response rate of 51%, and 60 of the respondents were practicing MVFF surgeons. Two percent of the responding MVFF surgeons experienced high burnout (n = 1); 73%, moderate burnout (n = 44); and 25%, low burnout (n = 15). Compared with other otolaryngology academic faculty and department chairs, MVFF surgeons had similar or lower levels of burnout. On average, MVFF surgeons had low to moderate EE and DP scores. High EE was associated with excess workload, inadequate administration time, work invading family life, inability to care for personal health, poor perception of control over professional life, and frequency of irritable behavior toward loved ones (P < .001). On average, MVFF surgeons experienced high personal accomplishment. CONCLUSIONS Most MVFF surgeons experience moderate professional burnout secondary to moderate EE and DP. This may be a problem of proper balance between professional obligations and personal life goals. Most MVFF surgeons, nonetheless, experience a high level of personal accomplishment in their profession.Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136(10):950-956-->
    Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 10/2010; 136(10):950-6. · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of professional burnout among microvascular free-flap (MVFF) head and neck surgeons and to identify modifiable risk factors with the intent to reduce MVFF surgeon burnout. A cross-sectional, observational study. A questionnaire mailed to MVFF surgeons in the United States. A total of 60 MVFF surgeons. Professional burnout was quantified using the Maslach Burnout Inventory- Human Services Study questionnaire, which defines burnout as the triad of high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP), and low personal accomplishment. Additional data included demographic information and subjective assessment of professional stressors, satisfaction, self-efficacy, and support systems using Likert score scales. Potential risk factors for burnout were determined via significant association (P < .05) by Fisher exact tests and analyses of variance. Of the 141 mailed surveys, 72 were returned, for a response rate of 51%, and 60 of the respondents were practicing MVFF surgeons. Two percent of the responding MVFF surgeons experienced high burnout (n = 1); 73%, moderate burnout (n = 44); and 25%, low burnout (n = 15). Compared with other otolaryngology academic faculty and department chairs, MVFF surgeons had similar or lower levels of burnout. On average, MVFF surgeons had low to moderate EE and DP scores. High EE was associated with excess workload, inadequate administration time, work invading family life, inability to care for personal health, poor perception of control over professional life, and frequency of irritable behavior toward loved ones (P < .001). On average, MVFF surgeons experienced high personal accomplishment. Most MVFF surgeons experience moderate professional burnout secondary to moderate EE and DP. This may be a problem of proper balance between professional obligations and personal life goals. Most MVFF surgeons, nonetheless, experience a high level of personal accomplishment in their profession.
    Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery 10/2010; 136(10):950-6. · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a need for a slow-release system for local delivery of therapeutics to the larynx. Most therapeutic substances, such as steroids or chemotherapeutic agents that are injected into the larynx are cleared rapidly. Repeated laryngeal injection of these substances at short intervals is impractical. Injectable encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles offer a potential slow-release delivery system for biologically active substances in the larynx. Controlled animal study. PLGA nanoparticles were fabricated using a double emulsion method and were loaded with Texas Red-dextran (NPTR), hepatocyte growth factor (NPHGF), and bovine serum albumin (NPBSA). In vitro release of NPTR, NPBSA, and NPHGF was determined over approximately 2 weeks to assess potential duration of PLGA nanoparticle delivery. In vivo release of NPTR was assessed in a murine vocal fold injection model. The transcriptional effect of NPHGF on procollagen was measured in vitro to assess whether released growth factor retained functionality. In vitro release kinetics demonstrated slow release of NPTR, NPBSA, and NPHGF over 12 to 14 days. In vitro NPTR release correlated with in vivo results. In vivo presence of NPTR occurred up to 7 days compared to 1 day for Texas Red control. In addition, NPHGF ameliorated transforming growth factor-beta induced procollagen in vitro in 3T3 fibroblast cells. The results demonstrate the potential utility of nanoparticle encapsulation as an effective method for long-term delivery of specific drugs and biologically active substances to the larynx.
    The Laryngoscope 05/2010; 120(5):988-94. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Technologies to increase tissue vascularity are critically important to the fields of tissue engineering and cardiovascular medicine. Currently, limited technologies exist to encourage angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in a controlled manner. In the present study, we describe an injectable controlled release system consisting of VEGF encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). The majority of VEGF was released gradually over 2-4 days from the NPs as determined by an ELISA release kinetics experiment. An in vitro aortic ring bioassay was used to verify the bioactivity of VEGF-NPs compared with empty NPs and no treatment. A mouse femoral artery ischemia model was then used to measure revascularization in VEGF-NP-treated limbs compared with limbs treated with naked VEGF and saline. 129/Sv mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and a region of the common femoral artery and vein was ligated and excised. Mice were then injected with VEGF-NPs, naked VEGF, or saline. After 4 days, three-dimensional microcomputed tomography angiography was used to quantify vessel growth and morphology. Mice that received VEGF-NP treatment showed a significant increase in total vessel volume and vessel connectivity compared with 5 microg VEGF, 2.5 microg VEGF, and saline treatment (all P < 0.001). When the yield of the fabrication process was taken into account, VEGF-NPs were over an order of magnitude more potent than naked VEGF in increasing blood vessel volume. Differences between the VEGF-NP group and all other groups were even greater when only small-sized vessels under 300 mum diameter were analyzed. In conclusion, sustained VEGF delivery via PLGA NPs shows promise for encouraging blood vessel growth in tissue engineering and cardiovascular medicine applications.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2010; 298(6):H1959-65. · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • Carissa Portone, Justin S Golub, Michael M Johns
    Ear, nose, & throat journal 09/2009; 88(9):1112. · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We compared the ability of an oropharyngeal (OP) aerosol-detecting pH probe and a standard dual pH probe in measuring laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Fifteen subjects with LPR symptoms had 24-hour simultaneous placement of the OP probe and a standard dual pH probe. Acid exposure was defined as a 10% pH decrease below baseline for the OP probe or a pH of less than 4 at the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) probe of the dual pH probe. The mean duration of acid exposure was 650 seconds (SD, 619) or 0.75% of the total time for the OP probe and 438 seconds (SD, 511) or 0.51% of the total time for the UES probe. When we excluded meals and sleep, the mean duration of acid exposure was 271 seconds (SD, 356) or 0.31% of the total time for the OP probe and 271 seconds (SD, 359) or 0.31% of the total time for the UES probe. The correlation coefficient (R) between the two probes for measurement of the duration of acid exposure was 0.50 (p < 0.05). When we excluded meals and the supine position, the R was notably higher, at 0.95 (p < 0.0001). The OP probe reliably documented LPR events when meals and sleep were eliminated and was better tolerated than the standard dual probe.
    The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology 01/2009; 118(1):1-5. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To characterize burnout in academic faculty of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. To identify associated modifiable factors to reduce burnout and improve the health of the field. Mailed survey. A cross section of US academic otolaryngologists was sampled through a mailed survey. Content included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Study (MBI-HSS) and questions assessing potential burnout predictors such as demographic information, professional stressors, satisfaction, self-efficacy, and support systems. Burnout was common among academic otolaryngologists. High burnout was observed in 4% of faculty, moderate burnout in 66%, and low burnout in 30%. Women experienced a statistically higher level of emotional exhaustion than men. In addition, associate professors were significantly more burned out than full professors and microvascular surgeons were notably more burned out than all other subspecialists. The strongest predictors of burnout were dissatisfaction with the balance between personal and professional life, low self-efficacy, inadequate research time, and inadequate administration time. A significant association was seen between high burnout and likelihood to leave academic medicine within the next 1 to 2 years. Burnout was prevalent among US academic otolaryngologists, although levels were lower than those of otolaryngology chairs and residents. Modification of risk factors, such as allowing sufficient faculty time for research and administrative activities, should be undertaken to curb the development of burnout and its deleterious sequelae.
    The Laryngoscope 10/2008; 118(11):1951-6. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dysphagia is an important problem for the elderly. While well characterized in acutely ill populations, the prevalence and quality-of-life changes associated with dysphagia remain poorly defined in the community geriatric population. This study recruited individuals 65 years and older from an independent-living facility. Two validated questionnaires were used: the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and the general health Short Form-12 survey (SF-12v2). Each participant also answered two questions: "Do you have difficulties with swallowing?" and "Do you think that swallowing difficulties are a natural part of aging?" Fifteen percent of subjects reported difficulties with swallowing. Of these, over half suffered substantial quality-of-life impairment in one or more domains of the MDADI. With respect to the second question, 23.4% of subjects believed dysphagia to be a normal part of aging, 37.4% did not. The SF-12v2 only weakly correlated with the MDADI in this population. In conclusion, there is a relatively high prevalence of dysphagia in the community-based geriatric population; significant quality-of-life impairment is a frequent finding. General health measures do not appear to be sensitive to swallowing-related quality of life. Finally, individuals may inaccurately ascribe swallowing problems to normal aging, supporting the role of community education about dysphagia in the elderly.
    Dysphagia 04/2008; 24(1):1-6. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes in voice are commonly associated with aging (presbyphonia). Age-related voice change significantly impairs elderly individuals' ability to communicate meaningfully with others and affects their quality of life. With changing age demographics in our society and increasing emphasis on quality of life, treatment of presbylaryngis is becoming more paramount. We used 9 aged and 9 young mice to validate a mouse model for the aging larynx. We stained the larynges with Alcian blue to determine the hyaluronic acid content, trichrome stain to determine the collagen content, and immunohistochemical stain for alpha smooth muscle actin to determine the myofibroblast content. Morphometric measurements were performed for muscle area, muscle thickness, and muscle fiber diameter. Statistically significant differences in the density measurements of hyaluronic acid and collagen reflected decreased hyaluronic acid and increased collagen content in the aging larynx. We found alpha smooth muscle actin-labeled myofibroblasts only in the aged larynges. No statistically significant differences were found in the morphometric measurements. Aged mice may make a practical model for the age-related changes in the vocal folds that can be used further in studies aiming to correct these changes.
    The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology 09/2007; 116(8):618-22. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To characterize resident burnout on a national scale with a large sample size and to identify associated modifiable factors to minimize burnout and improve the quality of residency education. A survey was mailed to all 1,364 U.S. residents of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery in September 2005. The main outcome measures were the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Study, demographic information, and potential burnout predictors, including stressors, satisfaction, self-efficacy, and support systems. The response rate was 50% (684/1,364). Current second-year through fifth-year residents were included for further analysis (514). Burnout was extremely common among otolaryngology residents. High burnout was seen in 10% of residents (51), moderate burnout in 76% (391), and low burnout in 14% (72). The strongest associated demographic factor was work hours (P < .001). Hours worked was predictive of emotional exhaustion, with exhaustion scores rising by 0.19 for each hour worked (P < .001). Furthermore, there was an 8% (41 resident) reported violation rate of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) 80-hour-workweek limitation. Satisfaction with the balance between personal and professional life, relationship stability, and satisfaction with career choice were negatively associated with burnout (all P < .001). Burnout is widely prevalent among U.S. otolaryngology residents and is present at greater levels than those seen in chairs or faculty of the same specialty. Work hours predict emotional exhaustion, and adherence to the ACGME 80-hour workweek may help protect against burnout and its deleterious consequences in residents of all specialties.
    Academic Medicine 06/2007; 82(6):596-601. · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 73-year-old man with a history of epiphora, discharge from the left eye, and left-sided nasal congestion underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The procedure revealed bony erosion of the majority of the lacrimal sac fossa and a large papillomatous mass filling the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct. Inverted papilloma was diagnosed via biopsy. A subsequent orbitotomy with combined endoscopic medial maxillectomy was performed to remove the mass. This case illustrates the importance of including inverted papilloma, a benign but invasive neoplasm, in the differential diagnosis of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
    Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 01/2007; 23(2):151-3. · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To characterize geriatric dysphonia, including its prevalence, quality-of-life impairment, and association with overall health status. A validated survey-based study of geriatric dysphonia. An independent living facility for geriatric individuals. The entire population of residents at the facility was offered the survey. The inclusion criterion was aged 65 and older. Two survey-based measures were used to characterize dysphonia: a direct question asking whether participants had problems with their voice and a voice-related quality-of-life (V-RQOL) measure. In addition, participants were administered the 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form survey, U.S. version 2.0, a concise survey designed to evaluate overall health status. The prevalence of dysphonia was 20%. More than 50% of patients with voice problems incurred significant quality-of-life impairment resulting from their dysphonia as measured using V-RQOL scores. The mean total V-RQOL score+/-standard deviation was 89+/-20. Finally, general health measures did not reflect V-RQOL. There is a high prevalence of voice problems in older people, with a large proportion having significantly impaired quality of life related to their dysphonia. General health measures do not reflect V-RQOL, and many individuals may wrongly attribute dysphonia to age-related change alone. Administration of validated instruments for assessing dysphonia is encouraged, because direct questions regarding voice difficulties may not be sensitive to the severity of vocal impairment.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 12/2006; 54(11):1736-9. · 3.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

180 Citations
46.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Wisconsin National Primate Research Center
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2012
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2010
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • Emory University
      • Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery
      Atlanta, GA, United States