[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a myeloid proliferation resembling acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), mostly affecting perinatal infants with Down syndrome. Although self-limiting in a majority of cases, TAM may evolve as non-self-limiting AMKL after spontaneous remission (DS-AMKL). Pathogenesis of these Down syndrome-related myeloid disorders is poorly understood, except for GATA1 mutations found in most cases. Here we report genomic profiling of 41 TAM, 49 DS-AMKL and 19 non-DS-AMKL samples, including whole-genome and/or whole-exome sequencing of 15 TAM and 14 DS-AMKL samples. TAM appears to be caused by a single GATA1 mutation and constitutive trisomy 21. Subsequent AMKL evolves from a pre-existing TAM clone through the acquisition of additional mutations, with major mutational targets including multiple cohesin components (53%), CTCF (20%), and EZH2, KANSL1 and other epigenetic regulators (45%), as well as common signaling pathways, such as the JAK family kinases, MPL, SH2B3 (LNK) and multiple RAS pathway genes (47%).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a clonal preleukemic disorder that progresses to myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) through the accumulation of genetic alterations. To investigate the mechanism of leukemogenesis in this disorder, a xenograft model of TAM was established using NOD/Shi-scid, interleukin (IL)-2R gamma(null) mice. Serial engraftment after transplantation of cells from a TAM patient who developed ML-DS a year later demonstrated their self-renewal capacity. A GATA1 mutation and no copy number alterations (CNAs) were detected in the primary patient sample by conventional genomic sequencing and CNA profiling. However, in serial transplantations, engrafted TAM-derived cells showed the emergence of divergent subclones with another GATA1 mutation and various CNAs, including a 16q deletion and 1q gain, which are clinically associated with ML-DS. Detailed genomic analysis identified minor subclones with a 16q deletion or this distinct GATA1 mutation in the primary patient sample. These results suggest that genetically heterogeneous subclones with varying leukemia-initiating potential already exist in the neonatal TAM phase, and ML-DS may develop from a pool of such minor clones through clonal selection. Our xenograft model of TAM may provide unique insight into the evolutionary process of leukemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) children have an increased incidence of transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). The majority of these cases harbor somatic mutations in the GATA1 gene, which results in the loss of full-length of GATA1, accordingly only a truncated isoform of GATA1 that lacks the N-terminal 83 amino acids (GATA1-S) remains. We found through genetic studies in 106 TAM patients that internally deleted GATA1 proteins (GATA1-IDs) lacking amino acid residues 77-119 or 74-88 (created by splicing mutations) contributed to the genesis of TAM in six patients. Analyses of GATA1-deficient embryonic megakaryocytic progenitors revealed that the GATA1 function in growth restriction was disrupted in GATA1-IDs. In contrast, GATA1-S rather promoted megakaryocyte proliferation more profoundly than that induced by GATA1-deficiency. These results indicate that the internally deleted regions play important roles in megakaryocyte proliferation and perturbation of this mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of TAM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited bone marrow disease. The condition is characterized by anemia that usually presents during infancy or early childhood and congenital malformation. Several reports show that DBA is associated with mutations in the ribosomal protein (RP) genes, RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, RPL35A, RPL5, RPL11, and RPS7. Recently, 5 and 12 patients with mutations in RPS10 and RPS26, respectively, were identified in a cohort of 117 DBA probands. Therefore, we screened the DBA patients who were negative for mutations in these DBA genes for mutations in RPS10 and RPS26. The present case report describes the identification of the first Japanese DBA patient with a novel mutation in RPS10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fifty percent of Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) patients possess mutations in genes coding for ribosomal proteins (RPs). To identify new mutations, we investigated large deletions in the RP genes RPL5, RPL11, RPL35A, RPS7, RPS10, RPS17, RPS19, RPS24, and RPS26. We developed an easy method based on quantitative-PCR in which the threshold cycle correlates to gene copy number. Using this approach, we were able to diagnose 7 of 27 Japanese patients (25.9%) possessing mutations that were not detected by sequencing. Among these large deletions, similar results were obtained with 6 of 7 patients screened with a single nucleotide polymorphism array. We found an extensive intragenic deletion in RPS19, including exons 1-3. We also found 1 proband with an RPL5 deletion, 1 patient with an RPL35A deletion, 3 with RPS17 deletions, and 1 with an RPS19 deletion. In particular, the large deletions in the RPL5 and RPS17 alleles are novel. All patients with a large deletion had a growth retardation phenotype. Our data suggest that large deletions in RP genes comprise a sizable fraction of DBA patients in Japan. In addition, our novel approach may become a useful tool for screening gene copy numbers of known DBA genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty percent to 30% of transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) observed in newborns with Down syndrome (DS) develop myeloid leukemia of DS (ML-DS). Most cases of TAM carry somatic GATA1 mutations resulting in the exclusive expression of a truncated protein (GATA1s). However, there are no reports on the expression levels of GATA1s in TAM blasts, and the risk factors for the progression to ML-DS are unidentified. To test whether the spectrum of transcripts derived from the mutant GATA1 genes affects the expression levels, we classified the mutations according to the types of transcripts, and investigated the modalities of expression by in vitro transfection experiments using GATA1 expression constructs harboring mutations. We show here that the mutations affected the amount of mutant protein. Based on our estimates of GATA1s protein expression, the mutations were classified into GATA1s high and low groups. Phenotypic analyses of 66 TAM patients with GATA1 mutations revealed that GATA1s low mutations were significantly associated with a risk of progression to ML-DS (P < .001) and lower white blood cell counts (P = .004). Our study indicates that quantitative differences in mutant protein levels have significant effects on the phenotype of TAM and warrants further investigation in a prospective study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare, clinically heterogeneous, congenital red cell aplasia: 40% of patients have congenital abnormalities. Recent studies have shown that in western countries, the disease is associated with heterozygous mutations in the ribosomal protein (RP) genes in about 50% of patients. There have been no studies to determine the incidence of these mutations in Asian patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.
We screened 49 Japanese patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (45 probands) for mutations in the six known genes associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia: RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, RPL5, RPL11, and RPL35A. RPS14 was also examined due to its implied involvement in 5q- syndrome.
Mutations in RPS19, RPL5, RPL11 and RPS17 were identified in five, four, two and one of the probands, respectively. In total, 12 (27%) of the Japanese Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients had mutations in ribosomal protein genes. No mutations were detected in RPS14, RPS24 or RPL35A. All patients with RPS19 and RPL5 mutations had physical abnormalities. Remarkably, cleft palate was seen in two patients with RPL5 mutations, and thumb anomalies were seen in six patients with an RPS19 or RPL5 mutation. In contrast, a small-for-date phenotype was seen in five patients without an RPL5 mutation.
We observed a slightly lower frequency of mutations in the ribosomal protein genes in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia compared to the frequency reported in western countries. Genotype-phenotype data suggest an association between anomalies and RPS19 mutations, and a negative association between small-for-date phenotype and RPL5 mutations.