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ABSTRACT: We sought to describe the characteristics and clinical management of 71 critically ill pregnant women with pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1 [2009 H1N1]). This was a retrospective case series from April 23, 2009, through March 18, 2010, of pregnant women with 2009 H1N1 in intensive care units in California. Among 71 critically ill pregnant women with 2009 H1N1, rapid decline in clinical status was noted with a median duration of 1 day from hospital admission to intensive care unit admission. Adverse events were common, and included sepsis (n = 26), hematologic disorder (n = 17), and pneumothorax (n = 15). Of 42 women requiring invasive ventilation, 15 (36%) died. In total, 23 women required rescue therapies for severe gas exchange abnormalities. Adverse events were significantly associated with survival (P = .0003). Women who received early antiviral treatment were significantly more likely to survive (relative risk, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.75). Critically ill pregnant women with 2009 H1N1 declined rapidly and developed frequent adverse events including death.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 06/2011; 204(6 Suppl 1):S21-30. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2011.02.038 · 4.70 Impact Factor
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2010; 303(17):1688-1690. · 35.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine 2009 H1N1 influenza illness severity and the effect of antiviral treatment on the severity of illness among pregnant women.
We abstracted medical records from hospitalized pregnant (n=62) and nonpregnant (n=74) women with laboratory-confirmed 2009 H1N1 influenza in New York City, May through June 2009. We compared characteristics of pregnant and nonpregnant women and of severe and moderate influenza illness among pregnant women, with severe defined as illness resulting in intensive care admission or death.
The 2009 H1N1 hospitalization rate was significantly higher among pregnant than nonpregnant women (55.3 compared with 7.7 per 100,000 population). Eight pregnant (including two deaths) and 16 nonpregnant (including four deaths) cases were severe. Pregnant women represented 6.4% of hospitalized cases and 4.3% of deaths caused by 2009 H1N1 influenza. Only 1 in 30 (3.3%) pregnant women who received oseltamivir treatment within 2 days of symptom onset had severe illness compared with 3 of 14 (21.4%) and four of nine (44.4%) pregnant women who started treatment 3-4 days and 5 days or more after symptom onset, respectively (P=.002 for trend). Severe and moderate 2009 H1N1 influenza illness occurred in all pregnancy trimesters, but most women (54.8%) were in the third trimester. Twenty-two women delivered during their influenza hospitalization, and severe neonatal outcomes (neonatal intensive care unit admission or death) occurred among five of six (83.3%) women with severe illness compared with 2 of 16 (12.5%) women with moderate illness (P=.004).
Our findings highlight the potential for severe illness and adverse neonatal outcomes among pregnant 2009 H1N1 influenza-infected women and suggest the benefit of early oseltamivir treatment.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2010; 115(4):717-26. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d57947 · 5.18 Impact Factor