[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of 90-day mortality after Associating Liver Partition and Portal Vein Ligation for Staged Hepatectomy (ALPPS), available after stage-1, either to omit or delay stage-2.
Background data: ALPPS is a two-stage hepatectomy for patients with extensive liver tumors with predicted small liver remnants, which has been criticized for its high mortality rate. Risk factors for mortality are unknown.
Methods: Patients in the International Registry undergoing ALPPS from April 2011 to July 2014 were analyzed. Primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Liver function after stage-1 was assessed using the criteria of the International Study Group for Liver Surgery (ISGLS) after stage-1 among others. A multivariable model was used to identify independent predictors of 90-day mortality.
Results: Three hundred twenty patients registered by 55 centers worldwide were evaluated. Overall 90-day mortality was 8.8% (28/320). The predominant cause for 90-day mortality was postoperative liver failure in 75% of patients. Fourteen percent of patients developed liver failure according to ISGLS criteria already after stage-1 ALPPS. Those and patients with a model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score more than 10 before stage-2 were at significantly higher risk for 90-day mortality after stage-2 with an odds ratio (OR) 3.9 [confidence interval (CI) 1.4–10.9, P = 0.01] and OR 4.9 (CI 1.9–12.7, P = 0.006), respectively. Other factors, such as size of future liver remnant (FLR) before stage-2 and time between stages, were not predictive.
Conclusions: This analysis of the largest cohort of ALPPS patients so far identifies those patients in whom stage-2 ALPPS surgery should be delayed or even denied. These findings may help to make ALPPS safer.
Annals of Surgery 11/2015; 262(5):780–786. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000001450 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The role of liver resection for non-colorectal, non-neuroendocrine, non-sarcoma (NCNNNS) metastases is ill-defined. This study aimed to examine the oncologic outcomes of liver resection in such patients.
A retrospective analysis of liver resection for NCNNNS metastases was performed at two large centers. Liver resection was offered selectively in patients with stable disease. Oncologic outcomes were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Fifty-two patients underwent liver resection for NCNNNS metastases. Overall 5-year survival was 58%. Five-year survival was 85% for breast metastases, 66% for ocular melanoma, 83% for other melanomas, 50% for gastro-esophageal metastases, and 0% for renal cell carcinoma metastases. A contemporary colorectal liver metastasis cohort had a survival of 63% (p=0.89).
Liver resection is an effective option in the management of selected patients with NCNNNS metastases which have been deemed stable. Five-year survival rates were comparable to that of a contemporary cohort of patients with colorectal liver metastases in carefully selected patients. Further, larger studies are required to help identify potential prognostic variables and aid in decision-making in this heterogeneous population.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120569 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We read with interest the letter by Rohatgi et al. concerning our study comparing ALPPS with PVE/PVL in a population with mixed liver tumors . Our study does not focus only on colorectal liver metastases, as is suggested in the letter’s title. We studied a mixed population with different tumor etiologies. The authors main concern is the increased morbidity and mortality associated with ALPPS. They also take issues with a lack of adjustment for confounders in comparing the groups. The authors do not agree with our conclusion that rapid tumor removal in ALPPS may be advantageous, citing the argument frequently raised by the opponents of this new procedure, that failure to reach the second stage in staged procedures for cancer is just an unavoidable unmasking of the natural history of the disease . Ultimately, they disagree that there is an advantage to ALPPS at all.We acknowledge—as we do in our paper—that ALPPS is associated with a higher complication rate than conventional appro ...
World Journal of Surgery 03/2015; 39(7). DOI:10.1007/s00268-015-2964-1 · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the rare case of a ruptured choledochal cyst (CC) in a young woman presenting with a two-day history of worsening upper abdominal pain. Imaging revealed a contracted gallbladder, dilated common bile duct (CBD), and a large amount of peritoneal fluid. Percutaneous paracentesis was performed, obtaining bilious fluid. Further imaging revealed cystic dilatation of the CBD and the diagnosis of rupture CC type I was made. The patient was initially managed conservatively with percutaneous drains, IV antibiotic therapy, and sphincterotomy through an ERCP. Elective cyst resection and Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy was performed 8 weeks later. It is important to differentiate a ruptured CC from other surgical emergencies without exploratory laparotomy. Initial conservative management could be considered, followed by elective resection once inflammation, infection, and other complications have resolved, avoiding the increased risk associated with an emergency operation or two-stage laparotomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A paradigm shift toward non-operative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic trauma has occurred. With advances in percutaneous interventions, even severe liver injuries are being managed non-operatively. However, although overall mortality is decreased with NOM, liver-related morbidity remains high. This study was undertaken to explore the morbidity and mortality of blunt hepatic trauma in the era of angioembolization (AE).
A retrospective cohort of trauma patients with blunt hepatic injury who were assessed at our centre between 1999 and 2011 were identified. Logistic regression was undertaken to identify factors increasing the likelihood of operative management (OM) and mortality.
We identified 396 patients with a mean ISS of 33 (±14). Sixty-two (18 %) patients had severe liver injuries (≥AAST grade IV). OM occurred in 109 (27 %) patients. Logistic regression revealed high ISS (OR 1.07; 95 % CI 1.05-1.10), and lower systolic blood pressure on arrival (OR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.97-0.99) to be associated with OM. The overall mortality was 17 %. Older patients (OR 1.05; 95 % CI 1.03-1.07), those with high ISS (OR 1.11; 95 % CI 1.08-1.14) and those requiring OM (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 1.47-5.69) were more likely to die. Liver-related morbidities occurred in equal frequency in the OM (23 %) and AE (29 %) groups (p = 0.32). Only 3 % of those with NOM experienced morbidity.
The majority of patients with blunt hepatic trauma can be successfully managed non-operatively. Morbidity associated with NOM was low. Patients requiring AE had morbidity similar to OM.
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 02/2015; 41(1). DOI:10.1007/s00068-014-0431-6 · 0.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To investigate whether the long-term outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was adversely impacted by intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion (HIO) during hepatic resection.
1549 HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection between 1998 and 2008 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Intermittent HIO was performed in 931 patients (HIO group); of which 712 patients had a Pringle maneuver as the mechanism for occlusion (PM group), and 219 patients had selective hemi-hepatic occlusion (SO group). There were 618 patients that underwent partial hepatectomy without occlusion (occlusion-free, OF group).
The 1-, 3-, and 5- year overall survival (OS) rates were 79%, 59%, and 42% in the HIO group, and 83%, 53%, and 35% in the OF group, respectively. The corresponding recurrence free survival (RFS) rates were 68%, 39%, and 22% in the HIO group, and 74%, 41%, and 18% in the OF group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in OS or RFS (P=0.325 and P=0.416). Subgroup analysis showed patients with blood loss over 3000 mL and those requiring transfusion suffered significantly shorter OS and RFS. Blood loss over 3000 mL and blood transfusion were independent risk factors to OS and RFS.
The application of intermittent HIO (PM and SO) during hepatic resection did not adversely impact either OS or RFS in patients with HCC. Intermittent HIO is still a valuable tool in hepatic resection, because high intraoperative blood loss resulting in transfusion is associated with a reduction in both OS and RFS.
Medicine 12/2014; 93(28):e288. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000288 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The classic presentation of cystic hepatobiliary lesions is usually nonspecific and often identified incidentally. Here we describe the case of a patient presenting with acute pancreatitis resulting from a large centrally located biliary cystadenoma compressing the pancreas. Determination of the origin of the cystic lesion was difficult on imaging studies. Due to the difficult location of the lesion, a complete surgical resection was achieved with mesohepatectomy and the suspected diagnosis confirmed by pathology. The patient continues to do well 2 years post-op with no signs of recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On behalf of the ALPPS Registry Group Objectives: To assess safety and outcomes of the novel 2-stage hepatectomy, Associating Liver Partition and Portal Vein Ligation for Staged Hepatectomy (ALPPS), using an international registry. Background: ALPPS induces accelerated growth of small future liver rem-nants (FLR) to allow curative resection of liver tumors. There is concern about safety based on reports of higher morbidity and mortality. Methods: A Web-based data entry system was created with password access and data pseudoencryption (NCT01924741). All patients with com-plete 90-day data were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for severe complications and mortality and volume growth of the FLR. Results: Complete data were available for 202 patients. A total of 141 (70%) patients had colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Median starting standard-ized future liver remnants of 21% increased by 80% within a median of 7 days. Ninety-day mortality was 19/202 (9%). Severe complications including mortalities (Clavien-Dindo ≥IIIb) occurred in 27% of patients. Independent factors for severe complications were red blood cell transfusion [odds ratio (OR), 5.2), ALLPS stage I operating time greater than 300 minutes (OR, 4.4), age more than 60 years (OR, 3.8), and non-CRLM (OR, 2.7). Age, use of Pringle maneuver, and histologic changes led to less volume growth. In patients younger than 60 years with CRLM, 90-day mortality was similar to conventional 2-stage hepatectomies for CRLM. Conclusions: This is the first analysis of the ALPPS registry showing that ALPPS shows increased perioperative morbidity and mortality in older patients but better outcomes in patients with CRLM.
Annals of surgery 11/2014; 260(5). DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000947 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To assess safety and outcomes of the novel 2-stage hepatectomy, Associating Liver Partition and Portal Vein Ligation for Staged Hepatectomy (ALPPS), using an international registry. BACKGROUND ALPPS induces accelerated growth of small future liver remnants (FLR) to allow curative resection of liver tumors. There is concern about safety based on reports of higher morbidity and mortality. METHODS A Web-based data entry system was created with password access and data pseudoencryption (NCT01924741). All patients with complete 90-day data were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for severe complications and mortality and volume growth of the FLR. RESULTS Complete data were available for 202 patients. A total of 141 (70%) patients had colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Median starting standardized future liver remnants of 21% increased by 80% within a median of 7 days. Ninety-day mortality was 19/202 (9%). Severe complications including mortalities (Clavien-Dindo≥IIIb) occurred in 27% of patients. Independent factors for severe complications were red blood cell transfusion [odds ratio (OR), 5.2), ALPPS stage I operating time greater than 300 minutes (OR, 4.4), age more than 60 years (OR, 3.8), and non-CRLM (OR, 2.7). Age, use of Pringle maneuver, and histologic changes led to less volume growth. In patients younger than 60 years with CRLM, 90-day mortality was similar to conventional 2-stage hepatectomies for CRLM. CONCLUSIONS This is the first analysis of the ALPPS registry showing that ALPPS has increased perioperative morbidity and mortality in older patients but better outcomes in patients with CRLM.
Annals of surgery 11/2014; 260(5). DOI:10.5167/uzh-104291 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Meticulous selection of patients who can undergo the associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) procedure safely will be paramount to minimize the associated morbidity and mortality.
We collected data prospectively on 14 consecutive patients who underwent the ALPPS procedure for planned resection of colorectal liver metastases at London Health Sciences Centre, Canada, between April 2012 and November 2013.
The median relative increase of the standardized future liver remnant after the ALPPS procedure was 93 ± 28%. The standardized future liver remnant rate of volume increase was 35 ± 13 mL/day. Biopsies of the FLR were taken during stage 1 and 2. These biopsies showed a mean preregeneration Ki-67 index of 0% and a postregeneration index of 14 ± 3%. All 14 ALPPS patients completed the 2-stage hepatectomy. No complications occurred after ALPPS stage 1. After ALPPS stage 2, 5 patients had complications (36%), with 2 patients (14%) having a severe complication (Clavien-Dindo ≥ IIIB). Median follow-up was 9 months. Overall survival at the time of follow-up was 100%. Recurrence developed in 2 patients. One patient had recurrence in the liver and lungs 5 months after stage 2 and was offered more chemotherapy. The other patient developed recurrence in the liver remnant 9 months after stage 2 and underwent additional chemotherapy with a possible future resection of the recurrence.
Low morbidity and negligible mortality can be achieved with the ALPPS procedure, and the high rates published in previous reports can be improved with refinements in technique and patient selection. The ALPPS approach may be a valid option to enable resection in selected patients with colorectal liver metastases considered unresectable previously by standard techniques.
Surgery 10/2014; 157(2). DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2014.08.041 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Portal vein occlusion to increase the size of the future liver remnant (FLR) is well established, using portal vein ligation (PVL) or embolization (PVE) followed by resection 4-8 weeks later. Associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) combines PVL and complete parenchymal transection, followed by hepatectomy within 1-2 weeks. ALPPS has been recently introduced but remains controversial. We compare the ability of ALPPS versus PVE or PVL for complete tumor resection.
A retrospective review of all patients undergoing ALPPS or conventional staged hepatectomies using PVL or PVE at four high-volume HPB centres between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Patients with primary liver tumors and liver metastases were included. Primary endpoint was complete tumor resection. Secondary endpoints include 90-day mortality, complications, FLR increase, time to resection, and tumor recurrence.
Forty-eight patients with ALPPS were compared with 83 patients with conventional-staged hepatectomies. Eighty-three percent (40/48 patients) of ALPPS patients achieved complete resection compared with 66 % (55/83 patients) in PVE/PVL (odds ratio 3.34, p = 0.027). Ninety-day mortality in ALPPS and PVE/PVL was 15 and 6 %, respectively (p = 0.2). Extrapolated growth rate was 11 times higher in ALPPS (34.8 cc/day; interquartile range (IQR) 26-49) compared with PVE/PVL (3 cc/day; IQR2-6; p = 0.001). Tumor recurrence at 1 year was 54 versus 52 % for ALPPS and PVE/PVL, respectively (p = 0.7).
This study provides evidence that ALPPS offers a better chance of complete resection in patients with primarily unresectable liver tumors at the cost of a high mortality. The technique is promising but should currently not be used outside of studies and registries.
World Journal of Surgery 04/2014; 38(6). DOI:10.1007/s00268-014-2513-3 · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of donor-recipient gender mismatch on outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor and recipient gender discordance on graft survival.
All patients who underwent primary LT from 1994-2012 at a single-center were identified prospectively. Clinico-demographic data were collected at the time of LT and last follow-up. Gender match included both male donor to male recipient (MM) and female donor to female recipient (FF), while gender mismatch included female donor to male recipient (FM) and male donor to female recipient (MF). Survival curves for graft survival were generated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. Unadjusted and multivariate adjusted COX regression analyzing graft survival at up to 10 years post-transplant was performed.
A total of 1,042 subjects fulfilled the criteria. Graft survival in patients receiving a donor-recipient gender match was better than those receiving a gender mismatch (P = 0.047). Female-to-male transplants had the worst graft survival of all combinations (P < 0.001); this difference was maintained in multivariate regression after adjustment for recipient and donor variables (hazards ratio 2.09, P = 0.013).
Female-to-male liver transplants are associated with a statistically significant poorer graft survival as compared with other donor-recipient gender groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal initial treatment of splanchnic vein thrombosis is uncertain. Anticoagulant therapy has been shown to be associated with vessel recanalization and decreased recurrence. Furthermore, information regarding potential predictors of chronic complications is not well understood.
A retrospective cohort study involving consecutive patients diagnosed with first-episode noncirrhotic splanchnic vein thrombosis referred to the thrombosis clinic of the authors' institution between 2008 and 2011 was conducted. Demographic and clinical information was collected. The response to initial anticoagulant therapy was evaluated by determining radiographic recanalization of vessels and clinical resolution (defined as the absence of ongoing splanchnic vein thrombosis symptoms or complications requiring treatment beyond anticoagulant therapy).
Twenty-two patients were included. Anticoagulant therapy alone resulted in vessel recanalization in 41% of patients and 68% achieved clinical resolution. Two patients experienced bleeding events. Factors associated with a lack of clinical resolution included signs of portal hypertension⁄liver failure on presentation, complete vessel occlusion at diagnosis, presence of a myeloproliferative disorder or JAK2V617F tyrosine kinase mutation and the absence of a local⁄transient predisposing factor.
Anticoagulant therapy appeared to be an effective initial treatment in patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis. Clinical factors may help to identify patients who are at risk for developing complications thus requiring closer monitoring. These findings were limited by the small sample size and need to be explored in larger prospective studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (LT) using organs donated after cardiac death (DCD) is increasing due, in large part, to a shortage of organs. The outcome of using DCD organs in recipients with hepatits C virus (HCV) infection remains unclear due to the limited experience and number of publications addressing this issue.
To evaluate the clinical outcomes of DCD versus donation after brain death (DBD) in HCV-positive patients undergoing LT.
Studies comparing DCD versus DBD LT in HCV-positive patients were identified based on systematic searches of seven electronic databases and multiple sources of gray literature. Results: The search identified 58 citations, including three studies, with 324 patients meeting eligibility criteria. The use of DCD livers was associated with a significantly higher risk of primary nonfunction (RR 5.49 [95% CI 1.53 to 19.64]; P=0.009; I2=0%), while not associated with a significantly different patient survival (RR 0.89 [95% CI 0.37 to 2.11]; P=0.79; I2=51%), graft survival (RR 0.40 [95% CI 0.14 to 1.11]; P=0.08; I2=34%), rate of recurrence of severe HCV infection (RR 2.74 [95% CI 0.36 to 20.92]; P=0.33; I2=84%), retransplantation or liver disease-related death (RR 1.79 [95% CI 0.66 to 4.84]; P=0.25; I2=44%), and biliary complications.
While the literature and quality of studies assessing DCD versus DBD grafts are limited, there was significantly more primary nonfunction and a trend toward decreased graft survival, but no significant difference in biliary complications or recipient mortality rates between DCD and DBD LT in patients with HCV infection. There is insufficient literature on the topic to draw any definitive conclusions.