Publications (2)5.23 Total impact
Article: Transport and modeling of estrogenic hormones in a dairy farm effluent through undisturbed soil lysimeters.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), in surface waters has been associated with physiological dysfunction in a number of aquatic organisms. One source of surface and groundwater contamination with E1 and E2 is the land application of animal wastes. The processes involved in the transport of these hormones in the soil, when applied with animal wastes, are still unclear. Therefore, a field-transport experiment was carried out, where a dairy farm effluent spiked with E1 and E2 was applied on large (50 cm diameter and 70 cm depth) undisturbed soil lysimeters. The concentrations of E1 and E2 in the leachate were monitored over a 3-month period, during which irrigation was applied. The experimental data suggest that E1 and E2 were transported through preferential/macropore flow pathways. The data from the experiment also show that E1 and E2 are leached earlier than the inert tracer (bromide). This observation can be explained either by the presence of antecedent concentrations in the soil or by an enhanced transport of E1 and E2 through the soil. A state-space mixing-cell model was further developed in order to describe the transport of E1 and E2 by three transport processes in parallel. The inverse modeling of the leaching data did not support the hypothesis that antecedent concentrations of estrogens could be responsible for the observed breakthrough curves but confirmed that estrogens were transported mainly via preferential/macropore flow and also via an enhanced transport. The parameter values that characterized this enhanced transport strongly suggest that this enhanced transport is mediated by colloids. For the first time, the simultaneous transport of E1 and E2 was modeled under transient conditions, taking into account the advection-dispersion, preferential/macropore flow, and colloidal-enhanced transport processes as well as E1 and E2 dissipation in the soil. These findings have major implications in terms of management practices to decrease E1 and E2 transport and water contamination.Environmental Science and Technology 02/2010; 44(7):2341-7. · 5.23 Impact Factor
Article: A Study of the fate and transport of estrogenic hormones in dairy effluent applied to pasture soils[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The disposal of waste from agricultural activities has been recognised as a source of environmental contamination by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The New Zealand dairy industry produces a large volume of dairy farm effluent, which contains EDCs in the form of estrogens. Most of this dairy farm effluent is applied onto the land for disposal. Groundwater and soil contamination by estrogens following waste application on the land have been reported overseas, but our understanding of the processes and factors governing the fate of estrogens in the soil is poor. Therefore the main goal of the present study was to better understand the fate and transport of estrogens, in particular 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) in soil. In order to quantify E1 and E2 in drainage water and soil samples, chemical analysis by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) was carried out. This included sample extraction, sample clean-up through silica gel and gel permeation chromatography, and sample extract derivatisation prior to analysis. In order to develop a reliable method to extract estrogens from soil, research was conducted to optimise E1 and E2 extraction conditions by adjusting the number of sonication and shaking events, as well as the volume and type of solvent. Among five solvents and solvent mixtures tested, the best recovery on spiked and aged soil was obtained using an isopropanol/water (1:1) mix. A microcosm experiment was carried out to determine the dissipation rates of E2 and E1, at 8°C and at field capacity, in the Templeton soil sampled at two different depths (5-10 cm and 30-35 cm). The dissipation rates decreased with time and half-life values of 0.6-0.8 d for E1 and 0.3-0.4 d for E2 were found for the two depths studied. A field transport experiment was also carried out in winter, over three months, by applying dairy farm effluent spiked with estrogens onto undisturbed Templeton soil lysimeters (50 cm in diameter and 70 cm deep). The hormones were applied in dairy farm effluent at 120 mg m⁻² for E2 and 137 mg m⁻² for E1. The results of the transport experiment showed that in the presence of preferential/macropore flow pathways 0.3-0.7% of E2 and 8-13% of E1 was recovered in the leachate at the bottom of the lysimeters after 3 months, and 1-7% of the recovered E2 and 3-54% of the recovered E1 was leached within 2 days of application. These results suggest that leaching of estrogens via preferential/macropore flow pathways is the greatest concern for groundwater contamination. In the absence of preferential/macropore flow pathways, a significant amount (> 99.94%) of both hormones dissipated in the top 70 cm of soil, due to sorption and rapid biodegradation. Surprisingly, in all cases, estrogen breakthrough occurred before that of an inert tracer (bromide). This could not be explained by the advection-dispersion transport of estrogens, nor by their presence as antecedent concentrations in the soil. It was therefore suggested that colloidal enhanced transport of estrogens was responsible for the earlier breakthrough of estrogens and caused the leaching of a fraction of the applied estrogens to a soil depth of 70 cm. A two-phase model, adapted from a state-space mixing cell model, was built to describe the observed estrogen transport processes under transient flow. The model takes into account 3 transport processes namely, advection-dispersion, preferential/macropore flow and colloidal enhanced transport. This model was able to successfully describe the estrogen transport observed from the lysimeters.