A. Martini

University of Florence, Florens, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (16)3.16 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany), to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter) for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield) and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield); followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield) and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield). Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe). The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha).
    ITALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY. 01/2014; 9:38-43.
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    ABSTRACT: The haematic pattern of Maremmana cattle of Grosseto area was studied, to investigate the causes of the often found low reproductive efficiency. The provided data are related to some haematic parameters measured in different seasons in Maremmana cattle fed three different diets: Standard diet (pasture + hay in critical periods): diet A; standard diet integrated with mineral salts: diet B; standard diet + mineral salts + concentrated mixed feed): diet C. The season influenced all parameters, while no difference was found among diets. Among the mineral elements, phosphorous showed values always above norm.
    Italian Journal of Animal Science. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI), were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A), and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B). We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker) of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A) than in diet (B) (71,6% vs 67,3%). In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability) could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.
    Italian Journal of Animal Science. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Farm structure is one of the principle components that influence profit, sustainability and survival of a herd, especially in endangered breeds. The sustainability of these herds is based on the capability to take advantage of specific niches of the market, of specific label or organic certification or “designation of geographical indications or origin for agricultural products”.
    Italian Journal of Animal Science. 01/2010;
  • Veterinary Research Communications 09/2005; 29 Suppl 2:77-82. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of season of birth on the development of the preantral follicular population in Massese lambs. The ovaries of 30 lambs (15–30 days old) were collected at a local slaughterhouse from May to June (M–J) (n = 15) and from October to November (O–N) (n = 15). The research was conducted in Tuscany (Italy), a region characterized by a Mediterranean climate, with a nutritional and photoperiodic peak in the spring (March–June) and a decrease during summer–autumn (August–November). The lamb ovaries were submitted to quantitative and qualitative hystological analyses. Results in the M–J group showed an increase of primary follicles (P < 0.05), and a lower number of primordial populations, compared to the O–N (P < 0.05) group. In the O–N group, qualitative analysis showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in follicle size, oocyte size and number of granulosa cells, in the primary and secondary follicle classes, when compared to the M–J group. It was concluded that the autumn season of birth negatively affected the preantral follicular population in Massese lambs.
    Small Ruminant Research - SMALL RUMINANT RES. 01/2005; 57(2):277-280.
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    ABSTRACT: Two hundred Ross 508 chickens were allotted to 5 dietary treatments: avilamycin, butyric triglyceride, butyric caprylic and capric triglyceride, butyric glyceride plus free caprylic and capric acids and a control. The birds were challenged with coccidia and Clostridium perfrigens at day 21, when the glyceride and acidic supplementation ceased. Triglycerides had the same growth promoting effect as the antibiotic, lasting two more weeks after the suspension. It is concluded that the glycerides of short chain fatty acids may replace avilamycin and that the treatment may be stopped two weeks before slaughter.
    01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: The preantral follicles are the major source of oocytes and its utilization has been investigated as an important tool to store large numbers of female gametes for further utilization in reproductive programs. The aim of the present study was to perform quantitative and qualitative analyses of the efficacy of a mechanical method for isolating of preantral follicles from the ovaries of fetuses and from nonpregnant and pregnant ewes, using as reference the population of preantral follicles in situ. In the isolation method the ovaries were cut into fragments in the tissue chopper. Then, the suspension was filtered through nylon mesh filters. The number of isolated follicles per ovary was 1655, 4735 and 4770, respectively, for the fetus, nonpregnant ewe and pregnant ewe. The number of in situ preantral follicles per ovary was 32961, 16627 and 17794, respectively, for the fetus, nonpregnant ewe and pregnant ewe. The follicle recovery rate (number of isolated preantral follicles/number of in situ preantral follicles x 100) was higher in adult ewes (26 and 28%, respectively, for nonpregnant and pregnant ewes) than in fetuses (5%). Histological analysis showed that very few preantral follicles (less than 0.26% in situ and 0.46% after the isolation procedure) were degenerated. In conclusion, this study showed that a mechanical method could be used effectively to isolate a large number of intact ovine preantral follicles. In the future, with improvements in culture systems, the isolation of a great number of oocytes enclosed in preantral follicles will make a valuable contribution to the rare breeds and endangered species, agricultural efficiency and basic research in folliculogenesis.
    Theriogenology 05/2000; 53(6):1251-62. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-seven male lambs were fed nine complete diets based on 40% concentrate and either wheat straw (S), lucerne hay (H), maize gluten feed (G) or their associations. The growth performances and the comparative slaughter technique of lambs were used as the means to study the possible associative effect between S, H and G. The response surface analysis (RSA) model was used to statistically analyse all the growth and slaughter data.As was expected, the presence of S in the place of H in the ration had a depressing effect on the dry matter intake (P < 0.05), but not on the digestibility of nutrients. Growth rates, feed conversions and protein utilization were consequently worsened (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the presence of G resulted in improving all the lambs' performances but dry matter intakes. Particularly remarkable was the association between S and G. When S was present in the ration up to about 12% of the whole diet together with G, all the animals' performance parameters were as good as when S was not present. In fact S could replace up to around 20% of G with no undesirable effect. The same could not be observed when H was associated with G, probably because the lucerne hay was already adequately balanced between energy and nitrogen and its nutritive value could not be significantly exploited by the association with a protein feed as was the case with S. The association of H with S showed a generally negative effect without the presence of G, whereas the digestibility of both energy and crude protein was improved (P < 0.05).As a conclusion, it is observed that the statistical model represented by the RSA adopted in this work was a very useful and precise means to study the associative effects between ingredients of complete diets. This kind of approach deserves further work to be validated.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology. 01/1997;
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    ABSTRACT: Sixty-nine Chianina young bulls were fed two unifeed diets to ad libitum intake (an H diet, 0.94 UFV/kg DM, and an L diet, 0.76 UFV/kg DM) beginning from six months of age, and were serially slaughtered at two-month intervals from 8 to 24 months of age. A further eight calves were slaughtered at six months as an initial reference. At slaughter, the weight of the organs, body parts and anatomical cuts was recorded. Statistical analysis used the allometric equation, and variations in the growth coefficient were tested by the log-log relationship of the second or third degree. On average, the testicle, visceral fat, carcass and hide grew faster than the whole body, while the other body components exhibited growth coefficients that were less than unity. Generally thoracic organs presented a higher coefficient than abdominal organs. Carcass and heart exhibited self-accelerating growth. The hide, the head, some digestive organs and the testicle had an intense growth rate during the initial phase but decreased their growth impetus later as BW increased. Diet influenced the instantaneous relative growth rate of the stomachs, hide, tongue and testicle which appeared sensitive to functional demand, or to evolution over time, and which showed a higher proportion in L than H diet bulls at an average EBW. A caudo-cranial and disto-proximal gradient of growth was detected in anatomical cuts and no variation in the allometric coefficient was found in the carcass regions. The H diet determined a slower relative growth rate of the hindlimb but a faster growth rate of cavity fat and of the abdominal wall.
    Livestock Production Science 01/1996; 46(3):181-190.
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    ABSTRACT: Sixty-nine Chianina young bulls were fed two unifeed diets to ad libitum intake from six months of age (H and L diet, 0.94 and 0.76 UFV/kg DM respectively), and were serially slaughtered at nine two-month intervals from 8 to 24 months of age. A further eight calves were slaughtered at six months as an initial reference. Sides were anatomically dissected into total muscle (TSM), fat (TSF), bone (TSB) and other tissues (TSOT). Statistical analysis used the allometric equation, and variation in the growth coefficients was tested by the log-log relationship of the second or third degree. Overall, relative to cold side weight (CSW), TSM and TSOT were nearly in isauxesis (b = 0.97 and 1.05 respectively), TSF had late development (b = 1.55) and TSB was in bradiauxesis (b = 0.79). The allometric coefficient of TSM was lower (0.95 versus 0.99) and that of TSF was higher (1.68 versus 1.41), in H diet bulls than in L diet bulls. In relation to TSB weight, the allometric coefficient of TSM (for H and L bulls) and of TSF (only for H bulls) varied along the developmental range and the TSM growth rate did not differ between diets. The average growth coefficient of TSM and TSF relative to TSB peaked at about 18 months. The multiple relationships of the average daily gain of tissues relative to BW and to daily weight gain (DWG) showed that lean gain varied linearly with BW and DWG, while fat and bone gain were sensitive to an interaction between BW and DWG.
    Livestock Production Science 01/1996; 46(3):191-201.
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of morphological traits and muscle chemical composition during growth was analysed by allometric or normal regression (on body weight or total length or total lipid) utilizing a preliminary series of data obtained from mirror carps ranging from 39 to 2776 g body weight. The fish came from earthen ponds fed with warm water (refluent from a thermal power station) at about 10 °C above natural temperature. As regards allometric coefficients of components on body weight, gills (0.70) and filleting remnants (0.85) were the earliest growing while viscera (1.18) and skin (1.11) were the latest. Isoauxesis resulted for fins, excluding pelvic fins that were later growing (1.08). As regards relative growth of lengths and thicknesses on total body length, head length (0.82) was the earliest and abdomen (1.15) and trunk lengths (1.12) were the latest growing; all body thicknesses showed tachyauxesis, particularly on the hind-portions. As regards the chemical composition of muscle, cholesterol (mg/100 g) and the C20:4 and C22:6 percentages showed a linear decreasing trend with increasing body weight, while the opposite resulted for C18:1, SFA and MUFA content. Lipid, C16, C16:1, C20:5 and n − 3 PUFA content presented a decreasing trend followed by an increase, while C18:2 and n − 6 PUFA content showed the opposite behaviour. Intramuscular lipid content influenced the chemical composition of muscle: as lipid content increased, C18:1 also increased, while C18:2 and n − 3 PUFA decreased; C14, C16:1 and MUFA showed an increasing trend followed by a decreasing phase, while C16, C18, C20:4, C22:6, SFA and n − 6 PUFA showed the opposite.
    Aquaculture. 01/1995; 129(1):323-327.
  • Small Ruminant Research - SMALL RUMINANT RES. 01/1991; 6:39-47.
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY - Three feeding trials with growing lambs were carried out in order to evaluate the protein value of some common protein feeds in the supplementation of wheat straw in complete pelleted diets. The protein feeds were: soya bean meal (SBM), sunflower cake (SFC), coconut cake (CNC), brewers yeast (BY), meat meal (MM), fish meal (FM), blood meal (BM) and a commercial product based on blood meal integrated with lysine and methionine and protected with calcium soaps to escape the rumen. The results confirm that wheat straw is a potentially good source of energy, provided it is associated with a slowly degradable protein source. SBM was the best feed of plant origin and comparable with feeds of animal origin. SFC was the worst feed in this respect. When a fraction of the protein of SBM is replaced by a protected protein, the crude protein level of the diet can be lowered from 16-1 8% down to 13% on the DM basis. The statistical "response surface analysis" was a unique tool to show the best combinations between ingredients.