ABSTRACT: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) utilizes the technology of multileaf collimators to deliver highly modulated and complex radiation treatment. Dosimetric verification of the IMRT treatment requires the verification of the delivered dose distribution. Two dimensional ion chamber or diode arrays are gaining popularity as a dosimeter of choice due to their real time feedback compared to film dosimetry. This paper describes the characterization of a novel 2D diode array, which has been named the "magic plate" (MP). It was designed to function as a 2D transmission detector as well as a planar detector for dose distribution measurements in a solid water phantom for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment delivery.
The prototype MP is an 11 × 11 detector array based on thin (50 μm) epitaxial diode technology mounted on a 0.6 mm thick Kapton substrate using a proprietary "drop-in" technology developed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong. A full characterization of the detector was performed, including radiation damage study, dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with CC13 ion chamber and build up characteristics with a parallel plane ion chamber measurements, dose linearity, energy response and angular response.
Postirradiated magic plate diodes showed a reproducibility of 2.1%. The MP dose per pulse response decreased at higher dose rates while at lower dose rates the MP appears to be dose rate independent. The depth dose measurement of the MP agrees with ion chamber depth dose measurements to within 0.7% while dose linearity was excellent. MP showed angular response dependency due to the anisotropy of the silicon diode with the maximum variation in angular response of 10.8% at gantry angle 180°. Angular dependence was within 3.5% for the gantry angles ± 75°. The field size dependence of the MP at isocenter agrees with ion chamber measurement to within 1.1%. In the beam perturbation study, the surface dose increased by 12.1% for a 30 × 30 cm(2) field size at the source to detector distance (SDD) of 80 cm whilst the transmission for the MP was 99%.
The radiation response of the magic plate was successfully characterized. The array of epitaxial silicon based detectors with "drop-in" packaging showed properties suitable to be used as a simplified multipurpose and nonperturbing 2D radiation detector for radiation therapy dosimetric verification.
Medical Physics 05/2012; 39(5):2544-58. · 2.83 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Helical tomotherapy is a complex delivery technique, integrating CT image guidance and intensity modulated radiotherapy in a single system. The integration of the CT detector ring on the gantry not only allows patient position verification but is also often used to perform various QA procedures. This convenience lacks the rigor of a machine-independent QA process.
In this article, a Si strip detector, known as the Dose Magnifying Glass (DMG), was used to perform machine-independent QA measurements of the multileaf collimator alignment, leaf open time threshold, and leaf fluence output factor (LFOF).
The DMG measurements showed good agreements with EDR2 film for the MLC alignment test while the CT detector agrees well with DMG measurements for leaf open time threshold and LFOF measurements. The leaf open time threshold was found to be approximately 20 ms. The LFOF measured with the DMG agreed within error with the CT detector measured LFOF.
The DMG with its 0.2 mm spatial resolution coupled to TERA ASIC allowed real-time high temporal resolution measurements of the tomotherapy leaf movement. In conclusion, DMG was shown to be a suitable tool for machine-independent QA of a tomotherapy unit.
Medical Physics 04/2011; 38(4):2256-64. · 2.83 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Stereotactic radiosurgery/therapy (SRS/SRT) is the use of radiation ablation in place of conventional surgical excision to remove or create fibrous tissue in small target volumes. The target of the SRT/SRS treatment is often located in close proximity to critical organs, hence the requirement of high geometric precision including a tight margin on the planning target volume and a sharp dose fall off. One of the major problems with quality assurance (QA) of SRT/SRS is the availability of suitable detectors with the required spatial resolution. The authors present a novel detector that they refer to as the dose magnifying glass (DMG), which has a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm) and is capable of meeting the stringent requirements of QA and dosimetry in SRS/SRT therapy.
The DMG is an array of 128 phosphor implanted n+ strips on a p-type Si wafer. The sensitive area defined by a single n+ strip is 20 x 2000 microm2. The Si wafer is 375 microm thick. It is mounted on a 0.12 mm thick Kapton substrate. The authors studied the dose per pulse (dpp) and angular response of the detector in a custom-made SRS phantom. The DMG was used to determine the centers of rotation and positioning errors for the linear accelerator's gantry, couch, and collimator rotations. They also used the DMG to measure the profiles and the total scatter factor (S(cp)) of the SRS cones. Comparisons were made with the EBT2 film and standard S(cp) values. The DMG was also used for dosimetric verification of a typical SRS treatment with various noncoplanar fields and arc treatments when applied to the phantom.
The dose per pulse dependency of the DMG was found to be < 5% for a dpp change of 7.5 times. The angular response of the detector was investigated in the azimuthal and polar directions. The maximum polar angular response was 13.8% at the gantry angle of 320 degrees, which may be partly due to the phantom geometry. The maximum azimuthal angular response was 15.3% at gantry angles of 90 degrees and 270 degrees. The angular response at the gantry angle of 180 degrees was 6.3%. A correction function was derived to correct for the angular dependence of the detector, which takes into account the contribution of the azimuthal and polar angular response at different treatment couch positions. The maximum positioning errors due to collimator, gantry, and couch rotation were 0.2 +/- 0.1, 0.4 +/- 0.1, and 0.4 +/- 0.2 mm, respectively. The SRS cone S(cp) agrees very well with the standard data with an average difference of 1.2 +/- 1.1%. Comparison of the relative intensity profiles of the DMG and EBT2 measurements for a simulated SRS treatment shows a maximum difference of 2.5%.
The DMG was investigated for dose per pulse and angular dependency. Its application to SRS/SRT delivery verification was demonstrated. The DMG with its high spatial resolution and real time capability allows measurement of dose profiles for cone applicators down to 5 mm in diameter, both accurately and rapidly as required in typical SRS/SRT deliveries.
Medical Physics 03/2011; 38(3):1226-38. · 2.83 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 microm) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery.
A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan.
The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1.1% +/- 1.8% and 1.0% +/- 1.6%, respectively. They demonstrated the high temporal resolution capability of the detector readout system, which will allow one to investigate the temporal dose pattern of IMRT and volumetric modulated are therapy (VMAT) deliveries.
The CMRP silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass interfaced to a TERA ASIC DAQ system has high spatial and temporal resolution. It is a novel and valuable tool for QA in IMRT dose delivery and for VMAT dose delivery.
Medical Physics 02/2010; 37(2):427-39. · 2.83 Impact Factor