[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adaptive immune responses may be vital in the overall efficacy of oncolytic viruses in human malignancies. However, immune responses to oncolytic adenoviruses are poorly understood because these viruses lack activity in murine cells, which precludes evaluation in immunocompetent murine cancer models. We have evaluated human adenovirus activity in murine cells. We show that a panel of murine carcinoma cells, including CMT64, MOVCAR7, and MOSEC/ID8, can readily be infected with human adenovirus. These cells also support viral gene transcription, messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, and genome replication. However, there is a profound failure of adenovirus protein synthesis, especially late structural proteins, both in vitro and in vivo, with reduced loading of late mRNA onto ribosomes. Our data also show that in trans expression of the nonstructural late protein L4-100K increases both the amount of viral mRNA on ribosomes and the synthesis of late proteins, accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eIF2α and improved anticancer efficacy. These results suggest that murine models that support human adenovirus replication could be generated, thus allowing evaluation of human adenoviruses in immunocompetent mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic adenoviruses replicate selectively within and lyse malignant cells. As such, they are being developed as anticancer therapeutics. However, the sensitivity of ovarian cancers to adenovirus cytotoxicity varies greatly, even in cells of similar infectivity. Using both the adenovirus E1A-CR2 deletion mutant dl922-947 and WT adenovirus serotype 5 in a panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines that cover a 3-log range of sensitivity, we observed profound overreplication of genomic DNA only in highly sensitive cell lines. This was associated with the presence of extensive genomic DNA damage. Inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related checkpoint kinase 1 (ATR-Chk1), but not ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), promoted genomic DNA damage and overreplication in resistant and partially sensitive cells. This was accompanied by increased adenovirus cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. We also demonstrated that Cdc25A was upregulated in highly sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines after adenovirus infection and was stabilized after loss of Chk1 activity. Knockdown of Cdc25A inhibited virus-induced DNA damage in highly sensitive cells and blocked the effects of Chk1 inhibition in resistant cells. Finally, inhibition of Chk1 decreased homologous recombination repair of virus-induced genomic DNA double-strand breaks. Thus, virus-induced host cell DNA damage signaling and repair are key determinants of oncolytic adenoviral activity, and promoting unscheduled DNA synthesis and/or impeding homologous recombination repair could potentiate the effects of oncolytic adenoviruses in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2011; 121(4):1283-97. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncolytic adenoviruses show promise as a cancer treatment. However, they generate acute inflammatory responses with production of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We investigated whether inhibition of TNF-α augments efficacy of the E1A CR2-deleted adenovirus dl922-947 in ovarian cancer. dl922-947 induced transcription of TNF-α and its downstream signaling targets interleukin-6 and -8 (IL-6 and IL-8) in ovarian cancer cells. In vitro, RNAi-mediated knockdown of TNF-α reduced production of multiple inflammatory cytokines after infection and increased ovarian cancer cell sensitivity to virus cytotoxicity, as did treatment with the anti-TNF-α antibody infliximab. In vivo, stable knockdown of TNF-α in IGROV-1 xenografts increased the anticancer activity of dl922-947. In addition, inhibition of TNF-α using monoclonal antibodies also improved dl922-947 efficacy. This increased efficacy resulted from suppression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 and -2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2) transcription in malignant cells and a consequent increase in caspase-mediated apoptosis. These findings suggest that TNF-α acts as a survival factor in adenovirus-infected cells. Combining TNF-α inhibition with oncolytic adenoviruses could improve antitumor activity in clinical trials.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of major depression in twins and families have shown moderate to high heritability, but extensive molecular studies have failed to identify susceptibility genes convincingly. To detect genetic variants contributing to major depression, the authors performed a genome-wide association study using 1,636 cases of depression ascertained in the U.K. and 1,594 comparison subjects screened negative for psychiatric disorders.
Cases were collected from 1) a case-control study of recurrent depression (the Depression Case Control [DeCC] study; N=1346), 2) an affected sibling pair linkage study of recurrent depression (probands from the Depression Network [DeNT] study; N=332), and 3) a pharmacogenetic study (the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression [GENDEP] study; N=88). Depression cases and comparison subjects were genotyped at Centre National de Génotypage on the Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChip. After applying stringent quality control criteria for missing genotypes, departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and low minor allele frequency, the authors tested for association to depression using logistic regression, correcting for population ancestry.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BICC1 achieved suggestive evidence for association, which strengthened after imputation of ungenotyped markers, and in analysis of female depression cases. A meta-analysis of U.K. data with previously published results from studies in Munich and Lausanne showed some evidence for association near neuroligin 1 (NLGN1) on chromosome 3, but did not support findings at BICC1.
This study identifies several signals for association worthy of further investigation but, as in previous genome-wide studies, suggests that individual gene contributions to depression are likely to have only minor effects, and very large pooled analyses will be required to identify them.
American Journal of Psychiatry 08/2010; 167(8):949-57. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants underlying the considerable individual differences in response to antidepressant treatment. The authors performed a genome-wide association analysis of improvement of depression severity with two antidepressant drugs.
High-quality Illumina Human610-quad chip genotyping data were available for 706 unrelated participants of European ancestry treated for major depression with escitalopram (N=394) or nortriptyline (N=312) over a 12-week period in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project, a partially randomized open-label pharmacogenetic trial.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in two intergenic regions containing copy number variants on chromosomes 1 and 10 were associated with the outcome of treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline at suggestive levels of significance and with a high posterior likelihood of true association. Drug-specific analyses revealed a genome-wide significant association between marker rs2500535 in the uronyl 2-sulphotransferase gene and response to nortriptyline. Response to escitalopram was best predicted by a marker in the interleukin-11 (IL11) gene. A set of 72 a priori-selected candidate genes did not show pharmacogenetic associations above a chance level, but an association with response to escitalopram was detected in the interleukin-6 gene, which is a close homologue of IL11.
While limited statistical power means that a number of true associations may have been missed, these results suggest that efficacy of antidepressants may be predicted by genetic markers other than traditional candidates. Genome-wide studies, if properly replicated, may thus be important steps in the elucidation of the genetic basis of pharmacological response.
American Journal of Psychiatry 04/2010; 167(5):555-64. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 replicates selectively within and lyses cells with a dysregulated Rb pathway, a finding seen in > 90% human cancers. dl922-947 is more potent than wild type adenovirus and the E1B-deletion mutant dl1520 (Onyx-015). We wished to determine which host cell factors influence cytotoxicity. SV40 large T-transformed MRC5-VA cells are 3-logs more sensitive to dl922-947 than isogenic parental MRC5 cells, confirming that an abnormal G1/S checkpoint increases viral efficacy. The sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to dl922-947 varied widely: IC50 values ranged from 51 (SKOV3ip1) to 0.03 pfu/cell (TOV21G). Cells sensitive to dl922-947 had higher S phase populations and supported earlier E1A expression. Cytotoxicity correlated poorly with both infectivity and replication, but well with expression of p21 by microarray and western blot analyses. Matched p21+/+ and -/- Hct116 cells confirmed that p21 influences dl922-947 activity in vitro and in vivo. siRNA-mediated p21 knockdown in sensitive TOV21G cells decreases E1A expression and viral cytotoxicity, whilst expression of p21 in resistant A2780CP cells increases virus activity in vitro and in intraperitoneal xenografts. These results highlight that host cell factors beyond simple infectivity can influence the efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses. p21 expression may be an important biomarker of response in clinical trials.
Molecular Cancer 01/2010; 9:175. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background We report an attempt to extend the previously successful approach of combining SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) microarrays and DNA pooling (SNP-MaP) employing high-density microarrays. Whereas earlier studies employed a range of Affymetrix SNP microarrays comprising from 10 K to 500 K SNPs, this most recent investigation used the 6.0 chip which displays 906,600 SNP probes and 946,000 probes for the interrogation of CNVs (copy number variations). The genotyping assay using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array is highly demanding on sample quality due to the small feature size, low redundancy, and lack of mismatch probes. Findings In the first study published so far using this microarray on pooled DNA, we found that pooled cheek swab DNA could not accurately predict real allele frequencies of the samples that comprised the pools. In contrast, the allele frequency estimates using blood DNA pools were reasonable, although inferior compared to those obtained with previously employed Affymetrix microarrays. However, it might be possible to improve performance by developing improved analysis methods. Conclusions Despite the decreasing costs of genome-wide individual genotyping, the pooling approach may have applications in very large-scale case-control association studies. In such cases, our study suggests that high-quality DNA preparations and lower density platforms should be preferred.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex trait with enormous public health significance. As part of the Genetic Association Information Network initiative of the US Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 435 291 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1738 MDD cases and 1802 controls selected to be at low liability for MDD. Of the top 200, 11 signals localized to a 167 kb region overlapping the gene piccolo (PCLO, whose protein product localizes to the cytomatrix of the presynaptic active zone and is important in monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain) with P-values of 7.7 x 10(-7) for rs2715148 and 1.2 x 10(-6) for rs2522833. We undertook replication of SNPs in this region in five independent samples (6079 MDD independent cases and 5893 controls) but no SNP exceeded the replication significance threshold when all replication samples were analyzed together. However, there was heterogeneity in the replication samples, and secondary analysis of the original sample with the sample of greatest similarity yielded P=6.4 x 10(-8) for the nonsynonymous SNP rs2522833 that gives rise to a serine to alanine substitution near a C2 calcium-binding domain of the PCLO protein. With the integrated replication effort, we present a specific hypothesis for further studies.