ABSTRACT: This paper reports on an entomological survey performed over the period 2006-2008 in Central Spain (mainly in the Madrid province) where canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is endemic. The study area was selected on the grounds of its wide altitude range, which determines both broad climate and vegetation ranges that could affect sand fly distributions. This area was surveyed from NE to SW across its mountain range (Sistema Central) and plateau area using sticky traps mainly on embankments. In 2006 and 2007, 123 sites were sampled (9557 sand flies captured) to establish possible relations between environmental or meteorological factors and vector densities (Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi). The factors correlated with higher vector densities were: a sample site between villages or at the edge of a village, the lack of a paved road, a rural habitat, an east or south-facing wall or wall sheltered from the wind, the presence of livestock or birds, a holm-oak wood vegetation, a lower summer mean temperature and lower annual mean precipitation. This study was followed by a seasonal survey conducted at 16 selected sites (14,353 sand flies) sampled them monthly from May to November 2008. P. perniciosus showed a diphasic seasonal trend with two abundance peaks in July and September whereas P. ariasi showed a monophasic trend with one peak in August. Comparing with data from studies performed in 1991 in the same area, vector densities are significantly higher. A possible explanation for this is that the vectors (mainly P. ariasi) are moving towards higher altitudes perhaps because of global change. This increasing trend could have an impact on CanL and its geographical distribution.
Acta tropica 02/2010; 115(1-2):95-102. · 2.22 Impact Factor