[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim. Maternal to child transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a continuous source of new HIV infection and one of the most common complications of pregnancy in some developing countries. This study was aimed at investigating the seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Sera of 3,410 pregnant women were tested for the presence of HIV antibodies using rapid test algorithm method between January 2008 and June 2009. Results. A total of 176 (5.2%) were sero-positive to HIV. Infection was recorded in all age groups but there was no statistical significance between age group and infection (P = 0.076). History of sexually transmitted disease, high social economic status and being literate were risk factors for acquiring HIV infection.Conclusion. The prevalence rate recorded in this study suggests that HIV screening of pregnant women should be an on-going exercise. This measure will help minimized mother to child transmission of the disease.