Bradford J Wood

National Cancer Institute (USA), 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (368)927.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 15% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer develop local recurrence, which is heralded by a rise in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Early detection and treatment of recurrence improves the outcome of salvage treatment. We investigated the ability of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion-guided biopsy (FGB) combined with "cognitive biopsy" to confirm local recurrence of prostate cancer after RP. In this retrospective study conducted between January 2010 and December 2014, patients with rising PSA levels after RP who had no known evidence of distant metastases underwent mpMRI including T2-weighted (T2W) imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 3 Tesla, and subsequent MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy with cognitive assistance. The detection rate of locally recurrent disease was determined. A total of 10 patients (mean age = 67y, mean PSA level = 3.44ng/ml) met the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 patients, all had positive findings suspicious for local recurrence on mpMRI per entrance criterion. The most important features on mpMRI were early enhancement on DCE MR images and hypointensity on T2W images. The average lesion diameter on mpMRI was 1.12cm (range: 0.40-2.20cm). All suspicious lesions (16/16, 100%) were positive on T2W MR images, 14 (89%) showed positive features on apparent diffusion coefficient maps of diffusion-weighted images, and 16 (100%) were positive on DCE MR images. MRI-TRUS FGBs were positive in 10/16 lesions (62.5%) and 8/10 (80%) patients. MRI-TRUS FGB with cognitive assistance is able to detect and diagnose locally recurrent lesions after RP, even at low PSA levels. This may facilitate early detection of recurrent disease and improve salvage treatment outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Urologic Oncology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.05.021 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (18)F-FDG PET/CT is used to characterize many malignancies, but is not recommended for localized prostate cancer. This study explores the value of multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) in characterizing incidental prostate (18)F-FDG uptake. Thirty-one patients who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT for reasons unrelated to prostate cancer and prostate mpMRI were eligible for this retrospective study. The mpMRI included T2-weighted (T2W), dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) sequences. Fourteen patients were excluded (n = 8 insufficient histopathology, n = 6 radical prostatectomy before PET), and final analysis included 17 patients. A nuclear medicine physician, blinded to clinicopathologic findings, identified suspicious areas and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Sector-based imaging findings were correlated with annotated histopathology from whole-mount or MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy samples. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were estimated using generalized estimating equations with logit link. Results were evaluated with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's multiple comparisons tests. The PPV of (18)F-FDG PET alone in detecting prostate cancer was 0.65. Combining (18)F-FDG PET as a base parameter with mpMRI (T2W, DCE, ADC, and MRS) increased the PPV to 0.82, 0.83, 0.83, and 0.94, respectively. All benign lesions had SUVmax < 6. Malignant lesions had higher SUVmax values that correlated with Gleason scores. There was a significant difference in SUVmax per prostate between the Gleason ≥ 4 + 5 and benign categories (p = 0.03). Focal incidental prostate (18)F-FDG uptake has low clinical utility alone, but regions of uptake may harbor high-grade prostate cancer, especially if SUVmax > 6. Using mpMRI to further evaluate incidental (18)F-FDG uptake aids the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
    Abdominal Imaging 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00261-015-0520-y · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The imaging features of unresectable hepatic malignancies in patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in combination with lyso-thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin (LTLD) were determined. A phase I dose escalation study combining RFA with LTLD was performed with peri- and post- procedural CT and MRI. Imaging features were analyzed and measured in terms of ablative zone size and surrounding penumbra size. The dynamic imaging appearance was described qualitatively immediately following the procedure and at 1-month follow-up. The control group receiving liver RFA without LTLD was compared to the study group in terms of imaging features and post-ablative zone size dynamics at follow-up. Post-treatment scans of hepatic lesions treated with RFA and LTLD have distinctive imaging characteristics when compared to those treated with RFA alone. The addition of LTLD resulted in a regular or smooth enhancing rim on T1W MRI which often correlated with increased attenuation on CT. The LTLD-treated ablation zones were stable or enlarged at follow-up four weeks later in 69 % of study subjects as opposed to conventional RFA where the ablation zone underwent involution compared to imaging acquired immediately after the procedure. The imaging features following RFA with LTLD were different from those after standard RFA and can mimic residual or recurrent tumor. Knowledge of the subtle findings between the two groups can help avoid misinterpretation and proper identification of treatment failure in this setting. Increased size of the LTLD-treated ablation zone after RFA suggests the ongoing drug-induced biological effects.
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00270-015-1186-0 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of embolic diameter on achievement of hypoxia after embolization in an animal model of liver tumors. Inoculation of VX2 tumors in the left liver lobe was performed successfully in 12 New Zealand white rabbits weighing 3.7 kg ± 0.5 (mean ± SD). Tumors were deemed eligible for oxygen measurements when the maximum transverse diameter measured 15 mm or more by ultrasound examination. Direct monitoring of oxygenation of implanted rabbit hepatic VX2 tumors was performed with a fiberoptic electrode during and after transarterial embolization of the proper hepatic artery to angiographic flow stasis with microspheres measuring 70-150 μm, 100-300 μm, or 300-500 μm in diameter. Failure to achieve tumor hypoxia as defined despite angiographic flow stasis was observed in 10 of 11 animals. Embolization microsphere size effect failed to demonstrate a significant trend on hypoxia outcome among the diameters tested, and pair-wise comparisons of different embolic diameter treatment groups showed no difference in hypoxia outcome. All microsphere diameters tested resulted in similar absolute reduction (24.3 mm Hg ± 18.3, 29.1 mm Hg ± 1.8, and 19.9 mm Hg ± 9.3, P = .66) and percentage decrease in oxygen (56.0 mm Hg ± 23.9, 56.0 mm Hg ± 6.4, and 35.8 mm Hg ± 20.6, P = .65). Pair-wise comparisons for percent tumor area occupied by embolic agents showed a significantly reduced fraction for 300-500 μm diameters compared with 70-150 μm diameters (P < .05). In the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model, three tested microsphere diameters failed to cause tumor hypoxia as measured by a fiberoptic probe sensor according to the adopted hypoxia definitions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jvir.2015.06.011 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel approaches allowing efficient, readily translatable image-guided drug delivery (IGDD) against solid tumours is needed. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop echogenic low temperature sensitive liposomes (E-LTSLs) loaded with an ultrasound (US) contrast agent (perfluoropentane, PFP), 2) determine the in vitro and in vivo stability of contrast agent encapsulation, 3) co-encapsulate and characterise doxorubicin (Dox) E-LTSL, and cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in combination with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). E-LTSLs were loaded passively with PFP and actively with Dox. PFP encapsulation in E-LTSL was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and US imageability was determined in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse tumour model. Dox release from E-LTSL in physiological buffer was quantified by fluorescence spectroscopy. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of E-LTSL in the presence of HIFU-induced mild hyperthermia (∼40-42 °C) was determined in a 3D tumour spheroid model. TEM and US confirmed that the PFP emulsion was contained within LTSLs. Phantom and animal studies showed that the E-LTSLs were echogenic. Temperature versus size increase and Dox release kinetics of E-LTSLs demonstrated no difference compared to LTSL alone. Dox release was <5% within 1 h at baseline (25 °C) and body (37 °C) temperatures, and was >99% under hyperthermia. E-LTSL plus HIFU achieved significantly greater Dox uptake in spheroids and cytotoxicity compared to body temperature. A stable US-imageable liposome co-loaded with Dox and PFP for in vivo IGDD was developed. Data suggest that HIFU can induce cellular uptake and toxicity with E-LTSLs.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1057622 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate accuracy and interobserver variability with the use of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2.0 for detection of prostate cancer at multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a biopsy-naïve patient population. Materials and Methods This retrospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients for use of their imaging and histopathologic data in future research studies. In 101 biopsy-naïve patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels who underwent multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate and subsequent transrectal ultrasonography (US)-MR imaging fusion-guided biopsy, suspicious lesions detected at multiparametric MR imaging were scored by five readers who were blinded to pathologic results by using to the newly revised PI-RADS and the scoring system developed in-house. Interobserver agreement was evaluated by using κ statistics, and the correlation of pathologic results with each of the two scoring systems was evaluated by using the Kendall τ correlation coefficient. Results Specimens of 162 lesions in 94 patients were sampled by means of transrectal US-MR imaging fusion biopsy. Results for 87 (54%) lesions were positive for prostate cancer. Kendall τ values with the PI-RADS and the in-house-developed scoring system, respectively, at T2-weighted MR imaging in the peripheral zone were 0.51 and 0.17 and in the transitional zone, 0.45 and -0.11; at diffusion-weighted MR imaging, 0.42 and 0.28; at dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR imaging, 0.23 and 0.24, and overall suspicion scores were 0.42 and 0.49. Median κ scores among all possible pairs of readers for PI-RADS and the in-house-developed scoring system, respectively, for T2-weighted MR images in the peripheral zone were 0.47 and 0.15; transitional zone, 0.37 and 0.07; diffusion-weighted MR imaging, 0.41 and 0.57; dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, 0.48 and 0.41; and overall suspicion scores, 0.46 and 0.55. Conclusion Use of the revised PI-RADS provides moderately reproducible MR imaging scores for detection of clinically relevant disease. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015142818 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic embolization of blood vessels is a minimally invasive, catheter-based procedure performed with solid or liquid emboli to treat bleeding, vascular malformations, and vascular tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) affects about half a million people per year. When unresectable, HCC is treated with embolization and local drug therapy by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). For TACE, drug eluting beads (DC Bead(®)) may be used to occlude or reduce arterial blood supply and deliver chemotherapeutics locally to the tumor. Although this treatment has been shown to be safe and to improve patient survival, the procedure lacks imaging feedback regarding the location of embolic agent and drug coverage. To address this shortcoming, herein we report the synthesis and characterization of image-able drug eluting beads (iBeads) from the commercial DC Bead(®) product. Two different radiopaque beads were synthesized. In one approach, embolic beads were conjugated with 2,3,5-triiodobenzyl alcohol in the presence of 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazol to give iBead I. iBead II was synthesized with a similar approach but instead using a trimethylenediamine spacer and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. Doxorubicin was loaded into the iBeads II using a previously reported method. Size and shape of iBeads were evaluated using an upright microscope and their conspicuity assessed using a clinical CT and micro-CT. Bland and Dox-loaded iBeads II visualized with both clinical CT and microCT. Under microCT, individual bland and Dox loaded beads had a mean attenuation of 7904 ± 804 and 11,873.96 ± 706.12 HU, respectively. These iBeads have the potential to enhance image-guided TACE procedures by providing localization of embolic-particle and drug.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 06/2015; 26(6):5530. DOI:10.1007/s10856-015-5530-3 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    Jin Tae Kwak · Sheng Xu · Bradford J. Wood
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    ABSTRACT: Local binary pattern (LBP) is a simple gray scale descriptor to characterize the local distribution of the gray levels in an image. Multi-resolution LBP and/or combinations of the LBPs have shown to be effective in texture image analysis. However, it is unclear what resolutions or combinations to choose for texture analysis. Examining all the possible cases is impractical and intractable due to the exponential growth in a feature space. This limits the accuracy and time- and space-efficiency of LBP. Here, we propose a data mining approach for LBP, which efficiently explores a high-dimensional feature space and finds a relatively smaller number of discriminative features. The features can be any combinations of LBPs. These may not be achievable with conventional approaches. Hence, our approach not only fully utilizes the capability of LBP but also maintains the low computational complexity. We incorporated three different descriptors (LBP, local contrast measure, and local directional derivative measure) with three spatial resolutions and evaluated our approach using two comprehensive texture databases. The results demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of our approach to different experimental designs and texture images.
    Expert Systems with Applications 06/2015; 42(9):4529-4539. DOI:10.1016/j.eswa.2015.01.055 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of magnetic resonance (MR) lymphographic agents have been proposed for mapping the lymph nodes draining the prostate. To investigate the feasibility of using ferumoxytol (an FDA-approved iron oxide agent) for lymph node mapping of the prostate on imaging (MRI) in a non-human primate (NHP) Macaque model. Four NHPs weighing 5-13 kg underwent injection of ferumoxytol after a needle was introduced transrectally under MRI guidance into the prostate using a commercially available intrarectal MRI biopsy guide. Ferumoxytol was administered at dosage in the range of 0.15-0.75 mg Fe/kg in a fixed injection volume of 0.2 mL. T1-weighted MRI was performed at 3 T starting immediately and extending at least 45 min post-injection. Two readers evaluated the images in consensus. The NHPs tolerated the ferumoxytol injections at all doses with no evident side effects. It was determined that the lowest dose of 0.15 mg Fe/kg produced the best outcome in terms of lymph node visualization and draining nodes were reliably visualized at this dose and volume. Thus, MRI with intraprostatic injection of ferumoxytol may be considered an effective T1 contrast agent for prospective mapping of lymph nodes draining the prostate and, thus, for attempted sentinel lymph node identification in prostate cancer. Large clinical trials to determine safety and efficacy are needed. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015 Reprints and permissions:
    Acta Radiologica 05/2015; DOI:10.1177/0284185115586023 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels adjusted by prostate and zonal volumes estimated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improve the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and differentiation between patients who harbor high-Gleason-sum PCa and those without PCa. This retrospective study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant and approved by the Institutional Review Board of participating medical institutions. T2 -weighted MR images were acquired for 61 PCa patients and 100 patients with elevated PSA but without PCa. Computer methods were used to segment prostate and zonal structures and to estimate the total prostate and central-gland (CG) volumes, which were then used to calculate CG volume fraction, PSA density, and PSA density adjusted by CG volume. These quantities were used to differentiate patients with and without PCa. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used as the figure of merit. The total prostate and CG volumes, CG volume fraction, and PSA density adjusted by the total prostate and CG volumes were statistically significantly different between patients with PCa and patients without PCa (P ≤ 0.007). AUC values for the total prostate and CG volumes, and PSA density adjusted by CG volume, were 0.68 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.66 ± 0.04, respectively, and were significantly better than that of PSA (P < 0.02), for differentiation of PCa patients from patients without PCa. The total prostate and CG volumes estimated from T2 -weighted MR images and PSA density adjusted by these volumes can improve the effectiveness of PSA for the diagnosis of PCa and differentiation of high-Gleason-sum PCa patients from patients without PCa. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/jmri.24944 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The posterior subcapsular region of the prostate is often undersampled by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy. The close proximity of these lesions to the posterior capsular wall of the prostate makes them difficult to localize while increasing the need for early detection because of their increased risk for extracapsular extension. We retrospectively evaluated the multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) features of subcapsular prostate cancers to make radiologists more aware of this condition. Between January 2010 and July 2014, all patients referred for 3T mpMRI and subsequent MR-US Fusion-guided biopsy (FgBx) and systematic 12-core sextant biopsy (SBx) under an IRB approved protocol, were reviewed, and imaging confirmed subcapsular prostate cancers were identified. Subcapsular lesions were defined as thin lesions that were just inside the prostate capsule. Matching patient demographics and clinical findings including age, PSA, PSA density, whole prostate volume, history of prostate cancer, Gleason score, and clinical management were tabulated. Of 992 eligible patients, 33 patients had subcapsular lesions in the prostate detected by mpMRI. Mean age, PSA, and prostate volume in this group were 63 years (range: 52-76 years), 8.4 ng/mL (range: 1.22-65.20), and 53 mL (range: 12-125 mL), respectively. The combination biopsy (SBx + FgBx) confirmed prostate cancer in 24 of 33 patients (72.7%) and in 9 patients the biopsy was negative. Of the 24 cancers, 19 were confirmed on both FgBx and conventional biopsy; however, 5 cancers were only detected on FgBx. In 4 of the 19 patients in which both biopsy methods were positive, the FgBx yielded a higher Gleason score. Subcapsular lesions on mpMRI are relatively infrequent but are usually malignant. Although the majority are confirmed on conventional 12-core biopsies, about 20% of these lesions require FgBx for diagnosis, and FgBx more accurately grades the lesions in another 20%. Thus, FgBx is of considerable benefit in confirming the diagnosis of subcapsular prostate cancer despite their proximity to the prostatic capsule.
    Abdominal Imaging 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00261-015-0426-8 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To correlate the highest percentage core involvement (HPCI) and corresponding tumor length (CTL), on systematic 12-core biopsy (SBx) and targeted magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound (MRI/TRUS) fusion biopsy (TBx), with total MRI prostate cancer (PCa) tumor volume (TV). Fifty patients meeting criteria for active surveillance (AS) based on outside SBx, who underwent 3.0T multiparametric prostate MRI (MP-MRI), followed by SBx and TBx during the same session at our institution were examined. PCa TV's were calculated using MP-MRI and then correlated using bivariate analysis with the HPCI and CTL, for SBx and TBx. For TBx, HPCI and CTL showed a positive correlation (R2 = 0.31, p<0.0001 and R2 = 0.37, p<0.0001 respectively) with total MRI PCa TV, whereas for SBx these parameters showed a poor correlation (R2 = 0.00006, p=0.96 and R2 = 0.0004, p=0.89 respectively). For detection of patients with clinically significant MRI derived tumor burden greater than 500 mm3, SBx was 25% sensitive, 90.9% specific (falsely elevated due to missed tumors and extremely low sensitivity) and 54% accurate in comparison to TBx, which was 53.6% sensitive, 86.4% specific and 68% accurate. HPCI and CTL on TBx positively correlates with total MRI PCa TV, whereas there was no correlation seen with SBx. TBx is superior to SBx for detecting tumor burden greater than 500 mm3. When using biopsy positive MRI derived TV's, TBx better reflects overall disease burden, improving risk stratification amongst candidates for active surveillance.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1089/end.2015.0027 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The authors propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for prostate cancer to aid in improving the accuracy, reproducibility, and standardization of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: The proposed system utilizes two MRI sequences [T2-weighted MRI and high-b-value (b = 2000 s/mm2) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] and texture features based on local binary patterns. A three-stage feature selection method is employed to provide the most discriminative features. The authors included a total of 244 patients. Training the CAD system on 108 patients (78 MR-positive prostate cancers and 105 benign MR-positive lesions), two validation studies were retrospectively performed on 136 patients (68 MR-positive prostate cancers, 111 benign MR-positive lesions, and 117 MR-negative benign lesions). Results: In distinguishing cancer from MR-positive benign lesions, an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.89] was achieved. For cancer vs MR-positive or MR-negative benign lesions, the authors obtained an AUC of 0.89 AUC (95% CI: 0.84–0.93). The performance of the CAD system was not dependent on the specific regions of the prostate, e.g., a peripheral zone or transition zone. Moreover, the CAD system outperformed other combinations of MRI sequences: T2W MRI, high-b-value DWI, and the standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map of DWI. Conclusions: The novel CAD system is able to detect the discriminative texture features for cancer detection and localization and is a promising tool for improving the quality and efficiency of prostate cancer diagnosis.
    Medical Physics 04/2015; 42(5):2368-2378. DOI:10.1118/1.4918318 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, fusion of multi-parametric MRI (mp-MRI) with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy has enabled targeted prostate biopsy with improved cancer yield. Target identification is solely based on information from mp-MRI, which is subsequently transferred to the subject coordinates through an image registration approach. mp-MRI has shown to be highly sensitive to detect higher-grade prostate cancer, but suffers from a high rate of false positives for lower-grade cancer, leading to unnecessary biopsies. This paper utilizes a machine-learning framework to further improve the sensitivity of targeted biopsy through analyzing temporal ultrasound data backscattered from the prostate tissue. Temporal ultrasound data were acquired during targeted fusion prostate biopsy from suspicious cancer foci identified in mp-MRI. Several spectral features, representing the signature of backscattered signal from the tissue, were extracted from the temporal ultrasound data. A supervised support vector machine classification model was trained to relate the features to the result of histopathology analysis of biopsy cores obtained from cancer foci. The model was used to predict the label of biopsy cores for mp-MRI-identified targets in an independent group of subjects. Training of the classier was performed on data obtained from 35 biopsy cores. A fivefold cross-validation strategy was utilized to examine the consistency of the selected features from temporal ultrasound data, where we achieved the classification accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 94 % and 0.98, respectively. Subsequently, an independent group of 25 biopsy cores was used for validation of the model, in which mp-MRI had identified suspicious cancer foci. Using the trained model, we predicted the tissue pathology using temporal ultrasound data: 16 out of 17 benign cores, as well as all three higher-grade cancer cores, were correctly identified. The results show that temporal analysis of ultrasound data is potentially an effective approach to complement mp-MRI-TRUS-guided prostate cancer biopsy, specially to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies and to reliably identify higher-grade cancers.
    International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 04/2015; 10(6). DOI:10.1007/s11548-015-1184-3 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Urology 04/2015; 193(4):e654. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.1823 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Urology 04/2015; 193(4):e180-e181. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.855 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Urology 04/2015; 193(4):e90-e91. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.322 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Urology 04/2015; 193(4):e826. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.2426 · 3.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
927.88 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2015
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Molecular Imaging Program
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      • • Urologic Oncology Branch
      • • Surgery Branch
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2001–2015
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Branch of Urologic Oncology
      • • Center for Interventional Oncology
      • • Radiology and Imaging Sciences Department
      • • Branch of Surgery
      • • Center for Clinical Research
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2014
    • Vascular and Interventional Radiology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2013
    • Philips
      Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 2008–2012
    • National Eye Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States
  • 2006
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • Wayne State University
      • School of Medicine
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • Center for Devices and Radiological Health
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2003
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1999–2002
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2002
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States