[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the adult kidney. Currently to our knowledge there are no biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic or predictive applications for renal cell carcinoma. miRNAs are nonprotein coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression and are potential biomarkers for cancer.
We analyzed 70 matched pairs of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and normal kidney tissues from the same patients by microarray analysis and validated our results by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also performed extensive bioinformatic analysis to explore the role and regulation of miRNAs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
We identified 166 miRNAs that were significantly dysregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, including miR-122, miR-155 and miR-210, which had the highest over expression, and miR-200c, miR-335 and miR-218, which were most down-regulated. Analysis of previously reported miRNAs dysregulated in RCC showed overall agreement in the direction of dysregulation. Extensive target prediction analysis revealed that many miRNAs were predicted to target genes involved in renal cell carcinoma pathogenesis. In renal cell carcinoma miRNA dysregulation can be attributed in part to chromosomal aberrations, co-regulation of miRNA clusters and co-expression with host genes. We also performed a preliminary analysis showing that miR-155 expression correlated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma size. This finding must be validated in a larger independent cohort.
Analysis showed that miRNAs are dysregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and may contribute to kidney cancer pathogenesis by targeting more than 1 key molecule. We identified mechanisms that may contribute to miRNA dysregulation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Dysregulated miRNAs represent potential biomarkers for kidney cancer.
The Journal of urology 09/2011; 186(3):1077-83. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.04.110 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate protein expression. Aberrant miRNA expression in cancer has been well documented; miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes, depending on the cellular context and target genes that they regulate, and are involved in tumor progression and metastasis. The potential mechanisms by which miRNAs are involved in tumor aggressiveness include migration, invasion, cell proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and apoptosis. MiRNAs are involved in various cellular pathways and an miRNA can elicit more than one biological effect in a given cell. Existing data show the potential clinical utility of miRNAs as prognostic and predictive markers for aggressive and metastatic cancers. The stability of miRNAs in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and body fluids is advantageous for biomarker discovery and validation. In addition, miRNAs can be extracted from small biopsy specimens, which is a further advantage. Finally, miRNAs are potential therapeutic agents for personalized cancer management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) have been shown to be differentially expressed in various malignancies and shown to be useful tumor markers. Previous immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis demonstrated that KLKs 5, 6, 10, and 11 have a potential prognostic significance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To further explore the significance of KLKs, we examined KLKs 1, 6, 7, and 15 in different subtypes of renal tumors. KLK1 has stronger expression in high grade compared to low grade clear cell RCC. However, KLK6 and KLK7 show strong expression in low grade in contrast to high grade clear cell RCC. Furthermore, the expression of KLK7 can distinguish between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. Oncocytoma showed diffuse, strong granular cytoplasmic staining, but chromophobe RCC showed focal weak homogeneous cytoplasmic stain. The pattern of staining of different KLKs can also be helpful in differentiating some of the subtypes of renal tumors. Our results show the potential ability of KLKs to serve as diagnostic markers and expand previous data about the prognostic significance of KLKs in kidney cancer. In addition, our study is the first to show the ability of KLK staining to distinguish various types of kidney cancers when morphology is similar.