[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The close apposition between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals in the adventitia of cerebral arteries provides morphological evidence that sympathetic nerve activation causes parasympathetic nitrergic vasodilation via a sympathetic-parasympathetic interaction mechanism. The decreased parasympathetic nerve terminals in basilar arteries (BA) of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and renovascular hypertensive rats (RHR) compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), therefore, would diminish this axo-axonal interaction-mediated neurogenic vasodilation in hypertension. Increased basilar arterial blood flow (BABF) via axo-axonal interaction during sympathetic activation was, therefore, examined in anesthetized rats by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Electrical stimulation (ES) of sympathetic nerves originating in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and topical nicotine (10-30 μM) onto BA of WKY significantly increased BABF. Both increases were inhibited by tetrodotoxin, 7-nitroindazole (neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and ICI-118,551 (β(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), but not by atenolol (β(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist). Topical norepinephrine onto BA also increased BABF, which was abolished by atenolol combined with 7-nitroindazole or ICI-118,551. Similar results were found in prehypertensive SHR. However, in adult SHR and RHR, ES of sympathetic nerves or topical nicotine caused minimum or no increase of BABF. It is concluded that excitation of sympathetic nerves to BA in WKY causes parasympathetic nitrergic vasodilation with increased BABF. This finding indicates an endowed functional neurogenic mechanism for increasing the BABF or brain stem blood flow in coping with increased local sympathetic activities in acutely stressful situations such as the "fight-or-flight response." This increased blood flow in defensive mechanism diminishes in genetic and nongenetic hypertensive rats due most likely to decreased parasympathetic nitrergic nerve terminals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)-derived relaxing factor (PVATRF) significantly regulates vascular tone. Its chemical nature remains unknown. We determined whether palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME) was the PVATRF and whether its release and/or vasorelaxing activity decreased in hypertension.
Using superfusion bioassay cascade technique, tissue bath myography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we determined PVATRF and PAME release from aortic PVAT preparations of Wistar Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The PVAT of Wistar Kyoto rats spontaneously and calcium dependently released PVATRF and PAME. Both induced aortic vasorelaxations, which were inhibited by 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium 5 and 10 mmol/L but were not affected by tetraethylammonium 1 or 3 mmol/L, glibenclamide (3 μmol/L), or iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L). Aortic vasorelaxations induced by PVATRF- and PAME-containing Krebs solutions were not affected after heating at 70°C but were equally attenuated after hexane extractions. Culture mediums of differentiated adipocytes, but not those of fibroblasts, contained significant PAME and caused aortic vasorelaxation. The PVAT of spontaneously hypertensive rats released significantly less PVATRF and PAME with an increased release of angiotensin II. In addition, PAME-induced relaxation of spontaneously hypertensive rats aortic smooth muscle diminished drastically, which was ameliorated significantly by losartan.
We found that PAME is the PVATRF, causing vasorelaxation by opening voltage-dependent K+ channels on smooth muscle cells. Diminished PAME release and its vasorelaxing activity and increased release of angiotensin II in the PVAT suggest a noble role of PVAT in pathogenesis of hypertension. The antihypertensive effect of losartan is attributed partly to its reversing diminished PAME-induced vasorelaxation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME) or methyl palmitate is the retina-derived relaxing factor (RRF).
A superfusion bioassay cascade technique was used with rat isolated retina as donor tissue and rat aortic ring as detector tissue. The superfusate was analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The biochemical and pharmacologic characteristics of RRF and PAME were compared.
The authors demonstrated that the retina on superfusion with Krebs solution spontaneously released RRF (indicated by aortic ring relaxation) and PAME (measured by GC/MS). The release of RRF and PAME was calcium dependent because the release was abolished when the retinas were superfused with calcium-free Krebs solution. Furthermore, aortic relaxations induced by RRF and PAME were not affected after heating their solutions at 70 degrees C for 1 hour, suggesting that both are heat stable. Exogenous PAME concentration dependently induced aortic relaxation with EC50 of 0.82+/-0.75 pM. The aortic relaxations induced by RRF and exogenous PAME were inhibited by 4-aminopyridine (2 mM) and tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10 mM) but were not affected by TEA at 1 mM or 3 mM, glibenclamide (3 microM), or iberiotoxin (100 nM). The vasodilator activity of Krebs solution containing RRF or exogenous PAME was greatly attenuated after hexane extraction.
RRF and PAME share similar biochemical properties and react similarly to all pharmacologic inhibitors examined. Both act primarily on the voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channel of aortic smooth muscle cells, causing aortic relaxation. These results suggest that PAME is the hydrophobic RRF.