[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Diabetes mellitus is responsible for 70% of non‐traumatic lower limb amputations and 85% of these are precipitated by ulcers. Objective ‐ epidemiological characterization and revision of the outcome of patients observed in a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic of diabetic foot.
Matherials and methods
A retrospective observational study with review of the first consultation of the multidisciplinary outpatient clinic of diabetic foot ulcer, during one semester. Review of the clinical process and evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics, clinical investigation, diagnostic tests, and outcome (healing, major amputation, non‐healing after 1 year or death).
There were 361 first consultations during the study period, 82.3% due to ulceration (31.3% with neuropathic etiology and 68.7% with neuroischemic foot ulcers). Of the patients followed, 78% achieved complete wound healing (with or without minor amputation), 7.7% did not heal after one year of follow up, 10.1% underwent major limb amputation, and 4.2% died during the follow‐up. Patients with peripheral arterial disease were less likely to heal (70.6% vs. 89.4%, p = 0.004) and had greater risk of major amputation (15.7% vs. 1.5%, p = 0.003). Nephropathy decreases the likelihood of healing (50% vs. 82.6%, p = 0.008) and increases the risk of major amputation (29.1% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.008). Non‐ambulatory patients have a higher risk of major amputation (22.9% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.008).
Successful treatment of diabetic foot ulcers requires a multidisciplinary approach, intervening in all etiological components. Peripheral arterial disease, renal failure and non ambulatory status are factors related to poor prognosis of diabetic foot ulcers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the first signs of peripheral neuropathy is the loss of perspiration of the feet. Untill now, the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test has been considered the gold test to detect early peripheral neuropathy. Recently, the Neuropad test has become available: it is a cobalt salt plaster designed to change colour from blue to pink in contact with liquids, namely sweating. The objective of this study was to find if the Neuropad test could be considered as a test for detecting peripheral autonomic neuropathy and to compare its sensitivity and specificity to the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test. Forty diabetic patients were studied, 22 of them presented with peripheral neuropathy. The criteria used for the definition of neuropathy was based on the Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS). Under Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test, we found a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 94%, respectively, and with the Neuropad test, a specificity of 44%, but a sensitivity of 100%. Ten patients presented a sudomotor dysfunction of the feet in the absence of peripheral neuropathy (based on the NDS criteria), and were considered as false positives. We concluded that the Neuropad test is a simple, sensitive test to screen for diabetic neuropathy. Based on the false positive results, we may consider it as a reliable test detecting neuropathy in a earlier phase.