[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been associated with zoonotic exanthemic outbreaks affecting bovids and human beings, with significant public health and economic impacts. Rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed to detect and epidemiologically monitor antibodies to VACV. The current study describes the development of an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) for detection of total VACV antibodies in bovine serum. The assay was validated by comparison with a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Kappa index of agreement, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the IPMA were -1.008, 100%, 96%, and 98%, respectively, when compared with PRNT on 148 field bovine sera. Repeatability tests on 32 field-positive serum samples revealed that intraclass coefficient correlation was 0.86. In experimentally infected cattle, VACV antibodies were detectable by IPMA 4 days postinfection, which was more than 2 weeks earlier than with the PRNT, indicating that IPMA could be a more sensitive test than the latter. In 4 naturally VACV-diseased cows monitored for 13 months, IPMA could detect VACV antibodies up to 13 months, a longer time than PRNT. The IPMA is simpler to produce and perform when compared with PRNT and is time saving and suitable for large-scale surveys of VACV infection in bovine.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 03/2012; 24(2):355-8. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Occupational exanthematic diseases represent an important cause of public health impact and economical losses. Among the viral exanthematic diseases, two caused by poxviruses are noteworthy: the bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV); and the milker's nodule, in which the agent is the Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV). Both agents are zoonotic and have been associated with several cases of bovine infection. In Brazilian rural areas BV has been highly prevalent, particularly in milk herds. Farmers, milkers and their close contacts developed lesions on the hands, forearms, legs and face accompanied by several systemic symptoms. Although VACV and PCPV present with similar epidemiological and transmission patterns, no VACV and PCPV co-infection cases have to date been described.
To describe the first case of zoonotic VACV and PCVP co-infection, based on serological and molecular methods.
In this work we report a case of a Brazilian rural worker who presented with a large severely ulcerated-pustule skin lesion, associated with fever, headache, malaise, myalgia and axillary, inguinal and cervical limphadenopathy. The worker declared occupational contact with cattle that had notable injuries on their teats. Human and bovine clinical samples were collected and submitted to serological and molecular tests. PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of VACV DNA and PCPV DNA in the patient's lesion. Serological tests indicated anti-VACV neutralizing antibodies and molecular assays showed the presence of VACV and PCPV DNA in the patient sera. VACV and PCPV also were detected in dairy cattle.
Together, these results indicate a case of zoonotic VACV/PCPV co-infection. Epidemiological surveillance and appropriate medical treatment are essential for the control of both diseases, especially in the most severe cases, as described in the present study.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 03/2010; 48(1):69-72. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes exanthemous lesions in dairy cattle and humans, has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. Currently, no data are available about the safety of milk produced in VACV-affected areas. In this study, 47 milk samples were collected during bovine vaccinia outbreaks and submitted to viral isolation, DNA detection, and nucleotide sequencing of the conserved tk gene. The appearance of characteristic white pocks on the chorioallantoic membranes of chicken eggs, in association with viral cytopathic effects in chicken embryo fibroblasts and phylogenetic data, strongly suggest milk contamination by VACV. This is the first report of VACV detection in and isolation from milk.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 11/2009; 6(9):1141-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a versatile technique that permits the imaging of surfaces and generates topographical images from a variety of materials. Due to the fact that AFM requires minimum sample manipulation, it is a valuable tool for studying biological materials such as cells, DNA, bacteria and viruses. The aim of the present study was to standardize the AFM technique as a diagnostic tool for detection of naturally occurring orthopoxviruses. The samples analyzed were collected during natural outbreaks of Vaccinia virus (VACV) in dairy cattle in Brazil. These viruses are zoonotic infections; and therefore safe manipulation of all samples is required. The AFM technique would provide a more secure way to diagnose infection. By using the "in air" AFM technique after purification and inactivation process, relatively crude preparations of viruses were visualized rapidly. Details for efficient sample preparation and AFM imaging are described. The AFM technique provides a rapid and biosecure tool for the diagnosis of emerging orthopoxviruses and has potential as a tool for screening bioterrorism samples.
Journal of Virological Methods 06/2007; 141(2):198-204. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.