[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical manifestations of parainfluenza virus (PIV) infection and to characterize biochemical markers of PIV disease severity.
We reviewed the medical records of 165 children who had a nasal wash culture positive for PIV at our institution between 1998 and 2008. Nasal wash samples were assayed for 26 inflammatory mediators using Luminex bead proteomics.
A total of 153 patients, ages 2 weeks to 12 years, with single virus infection were included in our final analysis. Fifty-two patients were infected with PIV1, 19 with PIV2, 74 with PIV3, and 8 with PIV4. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) was diagnosed in 67 (44%) patients, 21 (14%) had laryngotracheobronchitis, and 49 (32%) had an upper respiratory infection other than laryngotracheobronchitis. LRTI was diagnosed in 54% of patients infected with PIV3, 35% of those infected with PIV1, 26% of those with PIV2, and 50% of those with PIV4. Compared with uninfected control patients, PIV-infected patients had higher nasal wash concentrations of interleukin-6, CX-chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8 or interleukin-8), CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha), CCL4 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta), CXCL9 (monokine induced by interferon gamma), and CCL5 (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). Patients with LRTI, moderate or severe illness, and PIV 1 or 3 (respirovirus) infection had higher nasal wash concentrations of CXCL8 when compared with patients with upper respiratory infection, mild illness, or PIV 2 and 4 (rubulavirus) infection (P < 0.05).
PIV infection causes a spectrum of illnesses associated with the expression and release of several proinflammatory mediators. Of note, elevated concentrations of CXCL8 in nasal wash samples are associated with more severe forms of PIV disease.