Alicia R Salamone

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States

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Publications (9)39.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The presence of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) 4 genotype is associated with an earlier age of onset for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and several other neurodegenerative disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ApoE genotypes on the clinical course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Eight hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients with sporadic ALS evaluated at a tertiary care center were investigated for the effect of ApoE genotype on age of onset, rate of motor disease progression, cognitive functioning, and survival in ALS. The frequencies of individual ApoE genotypes did not differ between patients with ALS and ALS-free Caucasian populations. Patients with different ApoE genotypes did not differ in the age of onset for ALS (years) (ApoE2 = 57.8 ± 13.7, ApoE3 = 57.3 ± 13.7, ApoE4 = 57.7 ± 13.2; P = 0.97), the rate of disease progression (Appel ALS score/month) (ApoE2 = 2.91 ± 2.66, ApoE3 = 2.67 ± 2.66, ApoE4 = 2.61 ± 2.47; P = 0.89), cognitive status (% cognitively impaired) (ApoE2 = 31.7, ApoE3 = 26.8, ApoE4 = 34.3, P = 0.28), or survival in years (ApoE2 = 3.79 ± 3.70, ApoE3 = 3.17 ± 2.27, ApoE4 = 3.05 ± 1.75; P = 0.85). Our results suggest that ApoE genotype does not modify clinical course of sporadic ALS, in stark contrast to the influence of ApoE genotype on the disease course of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders.
    European Journal of Neurology 09/2010; 18(4):618-24. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several metabolic derangements associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) have been associated with a better outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including hyperlipidemia and obesity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DM would have a positive effect on the motor and cognitive findings of ALS. We compared data from ALS patients with pre-morbid DM (ALS-DM; n = 175) versus without DM (ALS; n = 2196) with regard to the age of onset, rate of motor progression, survival, and neuropsychological test performance. The age of onset was later for women, Caucasians and patients with bulbar-onset ALS. However, we also found that after adjusting for gender, ethnicity and site of onset, DM was associated with a 4-year later onset of ALS (ALS = 56.3, ALS-DM = 60.3, P < 0.05). Diabetes mellitus type 2 may delay the onset of motor symptoms in ALS. These findings support other studies suggesting a relationship between the pathophysiology of ALS and metabolic derangements. Further investigations are needed to ascertain whether manipulating metabolic parameters would improve outcomes in ALS.
    European Journal of Neurology 05/2010; 17(5):733-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unknown. Different environmental and genetic factors have been postulated to contribute to CRPS. We reviewed the clinical data from a cohort of 69 patients with CRPS. Four families were identified with two or more members affected with CRPS yielding a total of nine patients. Six more patients reported the presence of pain symptoms in their family members, however; this could not be clinically confirmed. The case histories of the nine individuals with 'familial' CRPS suggested a younger age at onset and more frequent history of migraine versus the non-familial patients. A pattern of inheritance could not be ascertained. This data supports the hypothesis that CRPS can be familial and hence may have a genetic basis in some families. Larger studies will be needed to ascertain clearer patterns of inheritance and to determine whether the clinical features of 'familial' CRPS are the same as the sporadic form.
    The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 05/2010; 37(3):389-94. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated impaired cognition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but it has been difficult to identify risk factors for this impairment. An association between cognitive changes and bulbar site of onset or dysarthria has been suggested, but the findings are variable. We tested for both associations in a large cohort of ALS patients. At the time of diagnosis of sporadic ALS, all patients (n=355) in this prospective study underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. In addition, a subset of 175 patients underwent a detailed assessment of dysarthria, which was quantified using the Appel ALS Score (AALSS). ALS patients with bulbar site of onset performed significantly worse than limb onset patients on a few timed ((VSAT-time, p<0.05), (Stroop Color, p<0.05), (Stroop Word, p<0.05)) tests of frontal lobe functions, but the significance could not be replicated when motor impairment was accommodated into the tests ((VSAT-errors, p=0.73), (Stroop interference, p=0.08)). ALS patients with dysarthria performed significantly worse than non-dysarthrics on multiple timed ((BD, p<0.05), (VSAT-time, p<0.05), (Stroop Color, p<0.05), (Stroop Word, p<0.05), (Trails A, p<0.05), (Trails B, p<0.05)) neuropsychological tests, and the significance was maintained when motor impairment was accommodated into one of these tests (Stroop interference, p<0.05). Additionally, dysarthrics performed significantly worse on two untimed measures of cognition ((Similarities, p<0.05), (Rey Copy, p<0.05)). Cognitive functioning in ALS does not associate with the site of onset and has a moderate association with dysarthria.
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases 02/2010; 11(1-2):46-51. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment secondary to frontal lobe atrophy exists in 40-60% of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) cases. We aimed to determine the prevalence of frontal-lobe mediated behavioral impairment in (ALS) and to ascertain its relationship to cognitive impairment. Two-hundred and twenty five patients diagnosed with sporadic ALS were evaluated for behavioral dysfunction using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), a validated measure used to examine frontal-lobe mediated behaviors, specifically apathy, executive dysfunction and disinhibition; a total behavior score is also provided. Additionally, a subset of patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Changes in the total FrSBe scores were observed in 24.4% of the patients and 39.6% of the patients had impairment in at least one behavioral domain with symptoms of Apathy being the most common (31.1%). Cognitively impaired ALS patients had worse total (P = 0.05) and apathy scores (P < 0.01); however, behavioral dysfunction was also present in 16% of the cognitively intact patients. Half of the behaviorally intact patients exhibited cognitive impairment. Significant correlations were observed for performance on certain neuropsychological tests (Animal fluency, Block Design, Logical Memory I and Verbal Series Attention Test) and severity of behavioral dysfunction on certain FrSBe sub scores. Frontal-lobe mediated behavioral dysfunction appears to be common in ALS. Cognitively impaired ALS patients had greater behavioral dysfunction. Recognition of behavioral and cognitive dysfunction may assist health-care providers and care-givers recognize changes in decision-making capacity and treatment compliance of patients with ALS.
    European Journal of Neurology 10/2009; 17(1):103-10. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated impaired cognition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but it has been difficult to identify risk factors for this impairment. An association between cognitive changes and bulbar site of onset or dysarthria has been suggested, but the findings are variable. We tested for both associations in a large cohort of ALS patients. At the time of diagnosis of sporadic ALS, all patients (n=355) in this prospective study underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. In addition, a subset of 175 patients underwent a detailed assessment of dysarthria, which was quantified using the Appel ALS Score (AALSS). ALS patients with bulbar site of onset performed significantly worse than limb onset patients on a few timed ((VSAT-time, p<0.05), (Stroop Color, p<0.05), (Stroop Word, p<0.05)) tests of frontal lobe functions, but the significance could not be replicated when motor impairment was accommodated into the tests ((VSAT-errors, p=0.73), (Stroop interference, p=0.08)). ALS patients with dysarthria performed significantly worse than non-dysarthrics on multiple timed ((BD, p<0.05), (VSAT-time, p<0.05), (Stroop Color, p<0.05), (Stroop Word, p<0.05), (Trails A, p<0.05), (Trails B, p<0.05)) neuropsychological tests, and the significance was maintained when motor impairment was accommodated into one of these tests (Stroop interference, p<0.05). Additionally, dysarthrics performed significantly worse on two untimed measures of cognition ((Similarities, p<0.05), (Rey Copy, p<0.05)). Cognitive functioning in ALS does not associate with the site of onset and has a moderate association with dysarthria.
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 08/2009; 11(1-2):46-51. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 44-year-old African-American male was admitted to our hospital after a suicide attempt. He had depression, poor cognitive function, choreiform movements, difficulty pronouncing words, and difficulty walking. His symptoms had worsened markedly over several months. Chorea lead to genetic testing that confirmed a diagnosis of Huntington Disease (HD). A CT scan of the head showed wider ventricles than is typical of HD. The head CT and gait change suggested normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Lumbar puncture (LP) led to improved neuropsychologic test scores and walking thereby supporting the diagnosis of NPH. Surprisingly, the LP also led to an 80% improvement of chorea. There are two other reports of an association between HD and NPH. NPH should be considered in HD patients with atypical symptoms, such as the inability to walk or rapid progression, as its treatment may lead to improved cognition, gait, and chorea.
    Behavioural neurology 01/2009; 21(3):193-5. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Recent reports demonstrate cognitive impairment in patients with sporadic ALS (sALS). To test whether patients with familial ALS (fALS) have cognitive impairment and whether it is of the same type and degree as observed in sporadic ALS. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with fALS underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Cognitive impairment was categorized by 1) cluster analysis of non-timed, non-motor dependent neuropsychological tests, 2) cutoff scores, and 3) clinical impression. By cluster analysis, 23 of 37 (62%) patients with fALS and 190 of 392 (48.5%) patients with sALS had cognitive impairment (difference not significant). Similar rates of impairment were found using clinical diagnostic criteria and cutoff score analysis. Neither motor scores nor the site of symptom onset correlated with cognitive impairment. Only age differed between the affected and unaffected fALS groups. The prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in familial ALS (fALS) is similar to that of sporadic ALS. For patients with fALS, the site of symptom onset did not correlate with cognitive impairment, but age did. Future studies will determine whether cognitive impairment in fALS correlates with specific genetic mutations or polymorphisms.
    Neurology 11/2007; 69(14):1411-7. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this case report, we describe the effect of ketamine infusion in a case of severe refractory complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS I). The patient was initially diagnosed with CRPS I in her right upper extremity. Over the next 6 years, CRPS was consecutively diagnosed in her thoracic region, left upper extremity, and both lower extremities. The severity of her pain, combined with the extensive areas afflicted by CRPS, caused traumatic emotional problems for this patient. Conventional treatments, including anticonvulsants, bisphosphonates, oral steroids and opioids, topical creams, dorsal column spinal cord stimulation, spinal morphine infusion, sympathetic ganglion block, and sympathectomy, failed to provide long-term relief from pain. An N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist inhibitor, ketamine, was recently suggested to be effective at resolving intractable pain. The patient was then given several infusions of intravenous ketamine. After the third infusion, the edema, discoloration, and temperature of the affected areas normalized. The patient became completely pain-free. At one-year of follow-up, the patient reported that she has not experienced any pain since the last ketamine infusion. Treatment with intravenous ketamine appeared to be effective in completely resolving intractable pain caused by severe refractory CRPS I. Future research on this treatment is needed.
    Pain physician 11(3):339-42. · 10.72 Impact Factor